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  1. Kant on the Highest Good and Moral Arguments.Alexander T. Englert & Andrew Chignell - forthcoming - In Anil Gomes & Andrew Stephenson (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Kant. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Kant’s accounts of the Highest Good and the moral argument for God and immortality are central features of his philosophy. But both involve lingering puzzles. In this entry, we first explore what the Highest Good is for Kant and the role it plays in a complete account of ethical life. We then focus on whether the Highest Good involves individuals only, or whether it also connects with Kant’s doctrines about the moral progress of the species. In conclusion, we look into (...)
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  2. Kant on Faith: Religious Assent and the Limits to Knowledge.Lawrence Pasternack - forthcoming - In Matthew Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Kant Handbook. Palgrave.
  3. Demoralization and Hope: A Psychological Reading of Kant’s Moral Argument.Andrew Chignell - 2023 - The Monist 106 (1):46-60.
    Kant’s “primacy of the practical” doctrine says that we can form morally justified commitments regarding what exists, even in the absence of sufficient epistemic grounds. In this paper I critically examine three different varieties of Kant’s “moral proof” that can be found in the critical works. My claim is that the third variety—the “moral-psychological argument” based in the need to sustain moral hope and avoid demoralization—has some intriguing advantages over the other two. It starts with a premise that more clearly (...)
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  4. Kant, Wood and Moral Arguments.Andrew Chignell - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (1):61-70.
    In this article I discuss the moral-coherence reading of Kant’s moral argument offered by Allen Wood in his recent book _Kant and Religion_, display some of the challenges that it faces and suggest that a moral-psychological formulation is preferable.
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  5. Faith without hope is dead: moral arguments and the theological virtues.Rory Lawrence Phillips - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (1):96-112.
    It is well-known that Kant defends a conception of God and the final end of our moral striving, called the highest good. In this article, I outline Kant's argument for why we ought to have faith in God and hope for the highest good, and argue that the Kantian argument can be extended in such a way as to show the unity of the theological virtues. This feature of the Kantian account can then have ramifications in further questions regarding the (...)
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  6. Edward Kanterian, Kant, God and Metaphysics: The Secret Thorn, London and New York: Routledge, 2018 Pp. xvii + 444 ISBN 9781138908581 (hbk) £110.00. [REVIEW]David Forman - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (3):497-504.
    This is a chronological commentary on Kant’s writings through 1769 whose aim is to reveal that the ‘secret thorn’ driving Kant’s thought through its twists and turns is the scripture-based faith of the German Protestant tradition.
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  7. Kantian Non-evidentialism and its German Antecedents: Crusius, Meier, and Basedow.Brian A. Chance - 2019 - Kantian Review 3 (24):359-384.
    This article aims to highlight the extent to which Kant’s account of belief draws on the views of his contemporaries. Situating the non-evidentialist features of Crusius’s account of belief within his broader account, I argue that they include antecedents to both Kant’s distinction between pragmatic and moral belief and his conception of a postulate of pure practical reason. While moving us closer to Kant’s arguments for the first postulate, however, both Crusius’s and Meier’s arguments for the immortality of the soul (...)
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  8. Kant, God and Metaphysics: The Secret Thorn, by Edward Kanterian. Routledge, 2017, xvii + 444 pp. ISBN 10/13: 9781138908581 hb £110; ISBN 10/13: 9780203729588 eBook £35.99. [REVIEW]Noam Hoffer - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (3):796-799.
  9. Clipping our dogmatic wings: The role of religion’s Parerga in our moral education.Pablo Muchnik - 2019 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (13):1381-1391.
    In a note introduced into the second edition of Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1794), Kant assigns a systematic role to the General Remarks at the end of each Part of his book. He calls those Remarks, “as it were, parerga to religion within the boundaries of pure reason; they do not belong within it yet border on it” (RGV 6:52). As Kant sees them, the parerga are only a “secondary occupation” that consists in removing transcendent obstacles. This (...)
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  10. The implied theodicy of Kant’s Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason : love as a response to radical evil.Matthew Rukgaber - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 85 (2):213-233.
    This article begins with a brief survey of Kant’s pre-Critical and Critical approaches to theodicy. I maintain that his theodical response of moral faith during the Critical period appears to be a dispassionate version of what Leibniz called Fatum Christianum. Moral rationality establishes the existence and goodness of God and translates into an endless and unwavering commitment to following the moral law. I then argue that Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason offers a revision of Kant’s 1791 conception of (...)
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  11. Rational Faith and the Pantheism Controversy: Kant's "Orientation" Essay and the Evolution of his Moral Argument.Brian Chance & Lawrence Pasternack - 2018 - In Daniel Dahlstrom (ed.), Kant and His German Contemporaries: Volume 2, Aesthetics, History, Politics, and Religion. Cambridge University Press.
    In this chapter we explore the importance of the Pantheism Controversy for the evolution of Kant’s so-called “Moral Argument” for the Highest Good and its postulates. After an initial discussion of the Canon of the Critique of Pure Reason, we move on to the relationship between faith and reason in the Pantheism Controversy, Kant’s response to the Controversy in his 1786 “Orientation” Essay, Thomas Wizenmann’s criticisms of that essay, and finally to the Critique of Practical Reason. We argue that while (...)
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  12. The Internality of Moral Faith in Kant’s Religion.Addison Ellis - 2018 - Kant Yearbook 10 (1):1-17.
    Wood (1970) convincingly argues that Kant’s notion of moral faith is a response to a “dialectical perplexity” or antinomy. Specifically, moral faith is a response to the threat of moral despair. In line with this suggestion, I make the case that moral faith is the resolution of a crisis about how to go on with one’s life in the face of the threat of moral despair. If this is right, then we have a potential solution to two related anxieties: (1) (...)
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  13. Practical grounds for belief: Kant and James on religion.Neil W. Williams & Joe Saunders - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (4):1269-1282.
    Both Kant and James claim to limit the role of knowledge in order to make room for faith. In this paper, we argue that despite some similarities, their attempts to do this come apart. Our main claim is that, although both Kant and James justify our adopting religious beliefs on practical grounds, James believes that we can—and should—subsequently assess such beliefs on the basis of evidence. We offer our own account of this evidence and discuss what this difference means for (...)
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  14. Kant’s Critique of Religion: Epistemic Sources of Secularism.Sorin Baiasu - 2017 - Diametros 54:7-29.
    The secular interpretation of Kant is widespread and Kant is viewed as the most prestigious founding father of liberal secularism. At the same time, however, commentators note that Kant’s position on secularism is in fact much more complex, and some go as far as to talk about an ambiguous secularism in his work. This paper defends a refined version of the secular interpretation. According to this refined version, Kant can offer a limited, political secularism on the basis of a simple (...)
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  15. Knowledge, Discipline, System, Hope: The Fate of Metaphysics in the Doctrine of Method.Andrew Chignell - 2017 - In James O'Shea (ed.), Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: A Critical Guide. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. pp. 259-279.
    In this chapter I highlight the apparent tensions between Kant’s very stringent critique of metaphysical speculation in the “Discipline of Pure Reason” chapter and his endorsement of Belief (Glaube) and hope (Hoffnung) regarding metaphysical theses in the subsequent “Canon of Pure Reason.” In the process I will examine his distinction between the theoretical and the practical bases for holding a “theoretical” conclusion (i.e. a conclusion about “what exists” rather than “what ought to be”) and argue that the position is subtle (...)
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  16. The ‘Two Experiments’ of Kant’s Religion: Dismantling the Conundrum.Lawrence Pasternack - 2017 - Kantian Review 22 (1):107-131.
    The past decade has seen a sizable increase in scholarship on Kant’s Religion. Yet, unlike the centuries of debate that inform our study of his other major works, scholarship on the Religion is still just in its infancy. As such, it is in a particularly vulnerable state where errors made now could hinder scholarship for decades to come. It is the purpose of this paper to mitigate one such danger, a danger issuing from the widely assumed view that the Religion (...)
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  17. The Highest Good in Kant’s Philosophy.Thomas Höwing (ed.) - 2016 - Boston: De Gruyter.
    The idea of a final end of human conduct – the highest good – lies at the centre of important parts of Kant’s philosophy, such as his moral theory, his philosophy of religion, his views on the historical progress of the human species, and his conception of human rationality. This collection of new essays attempts to re-evaluate the doctrine of the highest good and to determine its relevance for contemporary philosophy.
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  18. What is Kantian Gesinnung? On the Priority of Volition over Metaphysics and Psychology in Kant’s Religion.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2015 - Kantian Review 22 (2):235-264.
    Kant’s enigmatic term, “Gesinnung”, baffles many readers of Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Detailed analysis of Kant’s theory of Gesinnung, covering all 169 occurrences of cognate words in Religion, clarifies its role in his theories of both general moral decision-making and specifically religious conversion. Whereas the convention of translating “Gesinnung” as “disposition” reinforces a tendency to interpret key Kantian theories metaphysically, and Pluhar’s translation as “attitude” has psychological connotations, this study demonstrates that Kantian Gesinnung is volitional, referring to (...)
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  19. The Highest Good and Kant's Proof(s) of God's Existence.Courtney Fugate - 2014 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 31 (2).
    This paper explains a way of understanding Kant's proof of God's existence in the Critique of Practical Reason that has hitherto gone unnoticed and argues that this interpretation possesses several advantages over its rivals. By first looking at examples where Kant indicates the role that faith plays in moral life and then reconstructing the proof of the second Critique with this in view, I argue that, for Kant, we must adopt a certain conception of the highest good, and so also (...)
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  20. Kant, Religion and Politics. [REVIEW]Jonathan Head - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (1):161-165.
  21. Non-Epistemic Justification and Practical Postulation in Fichte.Steven Hoeltzel - 2014 - In Tom Rockmore & Daniel Breazeale (eds.), Fichte and Transcendental Philosophy. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 293-313.
    In this essay I argue that in order to secure some of his system’s key commitments, Fichte employs argumentation essentially patterned after the technique of practical postulation in Kant. This is a mode of reasoning that mobilizes a distinctly Kantian notion of nonepistemic justification, which itself is premised upon a broadly Kantian conception of the nature of reason. Succinctly stated, such argumentation proceeds essentially as follows. (1) By the basic nature and operations of rationality, every rational being is, as such, (...)
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  22. Kant’s Two Touchstones for Conviction.Joseph S. Trullinger - 2013 - Review of Metaphysics 67 (2):369-403.
    This paper uncovers a much-neglected ambiguity in Kant’s conception of rational religion, namely, a confusion regarding the public communicability of moral faith, which would in turn render faith and knowledge indistinguishable. The few scholars who have noticed this ambiguity pursue its epistemic dimensions, but this paper explores its ramifications for Kant’s claim that coherent moral agency requires religious faith, taking issue with Lawrence Pasternack’s recent interpretation. Once one notices Kant has two methods for distinguishing conviction from persuasion, one is better (...)
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  23. The Philosophical Significance of Kant’s Religion: “Pure Cognition of” or “Belief in” God.Pamela Sue Anderson - 2012 - Faith and Philosophy 29 (2):151-162.
    In my response-paper, I dispute the claim of Firestone and Jacobs that “Kant’s turn to transcendental analysis of the moral disposition via pure cognition is perhaps the most important new element of his philosophy of religion” (In Defense of Kant’s Religion, 233). In particular, I reject the role given—in the latter—to “pure cognition.” Instead I propose a Kantian variation on cognition which remains consistent with Kant’s moral postulate for the existence of God. I urge that we treat this postulate as (...)
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  24. Pi pan zhe xue de ding xiang biao: Kangde zhe xue zhong de dao de xin yang = The guideline of critical philosophy: a study of moral faith in Kant's philosophy.Huiyong Zhang - 2011 - Beijing Shi: Guang ming ri bao chu ban she.
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  25. Kant's Reidianism: The Role of Common Sense in Kant's Epistemology of Religious Belief.Lee Hardy - 2010 - In Benjamin Lipscomb & James Krueger (eds.), Kant's Moral Metaphysics: God, Freedom, and Immortality. De Gruyter. pp. 233.
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  26. Chris L. Firestone, Nathan Jacobs, In Defense of Kant’s Religion (Indiana Series in Philosophy of Religion): Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2008, xvi and 280 pp, $24.95. [REVIEW]Robert Gressis - 2009 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 66 (3):167-171.
  27. Three Perspectives on Abraham’s Defense Against Kant’s Charge of Immoral Conduct.Stephen R. Palmquist & Philip McPherson Rudisill - 2009 - Journal of Religion 89 (4):467–497.
    Throughout history no mere mortal has been more revered and esteemed by so many diverse people than Abraham, great patriarch of the three enduring monotheistic religions. Yet Judaism, Christianity and Islam all agree that this man attempted to kill his own, innocent son, an act so dastardly that it would normally be judged both immoral and illegal in any civil society. Surprisingly, the scriptures of these three religious faiths praise Abraham for this very act, justifying it in very different ways, (...)
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  28. The Idea of Humanity: Anthropology and Anthroponomy in Kant’s Ethics.David G. Sussman - 2001 - New York: Routledge.
    Examining the significance of Kant's account of "rational faith," this study argues that he profoundly revises his account of the human will and the moral philosophy of it in his later religious writings.
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  29. Saving Faith from Kant’s Remarkable Antimony.Phillip L. Quinn - 1990 - Faith and Philosophy 7 (4):418-433.
    This paper is a critical study of Kant’s antinomy of saving faith. In the first section, I sketch aspects of Kant’s philosophical account of sin and atonement that help explain why he finds saving faith problematic from the moral point of view. I proceed in the next section to give a detailed exposition of Kant’s remarkable antinomy and of his proposal for resolving it theoretically. In the third and final section, I argue that alternative ways of resolving the antimony both (...)
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  30. Review: van der Linden, Kantian Ethics and Socialism[REVIEW]Allen Wood - 1989 - Idealistic Studies 19 (3):271-273.
  31. Kant's rational theology.Allen W. Wood - 1978 - Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
    This book explores Kant's views on the concept of God and on the attempt to demonstrate God's existence as a means of understanding Kant's work as a whole and of achieving a proper appreciation of the contents of Kant's moral faith.
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  32. The role of faith in Kant's philosophy.Ralph Waldo Nelson - 1931
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  33. Neue Darstellung und Deutung der Lehre Kants vom Glauben.E. Sänger - 1907 - Kant Studien 12 (1-3):426-431.
    This article points out the analogies of relatioship between jugments and categories, and between categories and schemes.
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  34. Faith as Kant's Key to Justifying the Transcendental Perspective.Stephen Palmquist - unknown
    A purely rational belief is ... the signpost or compass by which the specu­la­tive thinker can orient himself in his rational excursions in the field of super­sensuous objects. But to the man of ordinary but (morally) sound reason, it can show the way for both the theore­ti­cal and the practical standpoint, in a manner entirely suitable to the end to which he is destined. This rational belief must also be made the basis of every other be­lief—indeed of every revela­tion. [Kt20:142].
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