About this topic
Summary Indian Philosophy encompasses the systems of thought and reflection that developed on the Indian subcontinent. They include philosophical systems generally classified as orthodox (astika, from the Sanskrit asti "there is") such as Nyāya ("Rule" or "Method"), Vaiśeṣika ("Particular"), Saṃkhya ("Enumeration" or "Number"), Yoga ("Union"), Mīmāṃsā ("Reflection" or "Critical Investigation") and Vedanta ("conclusion of the Veda"). They are classified as orthodox because they rely on the authority of the Vedas (an ancient collection of hymns of religio-philosophical nature). In contrast, the heterodox (nāstika) systems of thought reject the authority of the Vedas and the superiority of Brahmins in matters of philosophical reflection. Besides Buddhism, the other heterodox schools include the Jainas ("Followers of Conquerors", from the Sanskrit verb ji "to conquer"), the ascetic Ājīvikas, and the Cārvākas materialists. Given the diversity of views, theories, and doctrines espoused by philosophers on the Indian subcontinent, there is no unifying thread or single characteristic that would be common to all. Although all the orthodox systems profess some allegiance to the Vedas, they range widely in their interpretations of Vedic statements and pursue their speculative ventures unhindered by tradition (the acceptance of the Vedas is often just a convenient device for a philosopher to gain acceptance in orthodox circles). Among the key concepts of Indian Philosophy are those of karma ("action," which addresses the moral efficiency of human actions), atman ("self," which stands for the sense of an absolute or transcendental spirit or self) and its countervailing notion of anatman ("not-self") in Buddhism, mokṣa ("liberation," conceived as the highest ideal of moral and spiritual cultivation), and the similarly formed ideal of nirvāṇa ("cessation") in Buddhism. A great deal of philosophical speculation in India is concerned with establishing reliable sources of knowing (pramāṇas) such that metaphysical concerns about the nature of reality are seldom pursued in isolation from logical and epistemological concerns about the nature of knowledge and its sources. Indian philosophy is comparable in the range and scope of its metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical concerns with Western philosophy, although philosophers in India have also pursued problems that their Western counterparts never did. Examples include such matters as the source (utpatti) and apprehension (jñapti) of reliable cognitions (prāmāṇya). Likewise, there are problems central to Western philosophy (e.g., whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason) that philosophers in India did not pursue, and important distinctions (such as that between analytic and synthetic judgments) they did not make.  
Key works Refer to the subcategories
Introductions The vast and broad scope of Indian philosophy defies an easy introduction. However, a broad surveys of key concepts, figures, and areas of Indian philosophy can be found in Potter 1970.
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  1. Art and Performance in the Buddhist Visual Narratives at Bhārhut.Pia Brancaccio - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-18.
    The reliefs carved on the vedikā of the Bharhut stūpa in the Satna District of Madhya Pradesh are some of the earliest artworks extant in India to articulate the Buddha’s life stories and the essence of his teaching in a complex visual form. This article proposes that the reliefs from Bharhut depicting episodes from Śākyamuni’s life and jātakas were informed by narrative practices established in the traditions of Buddhist recitation and performance. The inscriptions engraved on the Bharhut vedikā that function (...)
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  2. Monism in Indian Philosophy: The Coherence, Complexity, and Connectivity of Reality in Śaṃkara's Arguments for Brahman.Jessica Frazier - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-17.
    Classical Indian thought contains a number of arguments for monism that reject the cogency of metaphysical pluralism's account of change, development, and causation in the world. They do this on the basis of the coherence of changes that we see in the world, the difficulty of limning absolute distinctions between individuals, and the prerequisite need for some medium explaining causal interactions. This article provides some background to Indian philosophical thought about a basic fabric of reality that grounds changing forms, containing (...)
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  3. Pratibhā, Intuition, and Practical Knowledge.Nilanjan Das - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-27.
    In Sanskrit philosophy, the closest analogue of intuition is pratibhā. Here, I will focus on the theory of pratibhā offered by the Sanskrit grammarian Bhartṛhari (fifth century CE). On this account, states of pratibhā play two distinct psychological roles. First, they serve as sources of linguistic understanding. They are the states by means of which linguistically competent agents effortlessly understand the meaning of novel sentences. Second, states of pratibhā serve as sources of practical knowledge. On the basis of such states, (...)
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  4. Killing as Orthodoxy, Exegesis as Apologetics: The Animal Sacrifice in the Manubhāṣya of Medhātithi.Liwen Liu - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (3):427-446.
    Deeply rooted in the Vedic tradition, animal sacrifice is a controversial issue associated with a larger discourse of violence and non-violence in South Asia. Most existent studies on Vedic killing focus on the polemics of ritual violence in six schools of Indian philosophy. However, insufficient attention has been paid to killing in Dharmaśāstric literature, the killing that is an indispensable element of a Vedic householder’s life. To fill in the gap, this paper analyzes the animal sacrifice in the Manubhāṣya of (...)
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  5. Bhaṭṭa Jayanta on Epistemic Complexity.Whitney Cox - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (3):387-425.
    This essay seeks to characterize one of the leading ideas in Bhaṭṭa Jayanta's Nyāyamañjarī, the fundamental role that the idea of complexity plays in its theory of knowledge. The appeal to the causally complex nature of any event of valid awareness is framed as a repudiation of the lean ontology and epistemology of the Buddhist theorists working in the tradition of Dharmakīrti; for Jayanta, this theoretical minimalism led inevitably to the inadmissible claim of the irreality of the world outside of (...)
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  6. On the function of saṁhitā in the Saṁhitā Upaniṣad.Stephanie A. Majcher - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (3):447-468.
    The Saṁhitā Upaniṣad [SU] is a little-known Vedic text that presents ‘typical’ Upaniṣadic teachings on the truth of identity alongside seemingly out-of-place descriptions of rites used to protect oneself against enemies and even against death. The difference between these contents is striking, but what it has to tell us about the SU’s main concerns is vulnerable to historical and text critical methods that rely on structure, style, and linguistic archaism to divide texts into discrete strata. What if the modern text (...)
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  7. Saṅghabhadra’s and Śubhagupta’s Defence of Atomism, Their Similarities and Differences.Yufan Mao - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (3):469-489.
    As Buddhist externalists, both Saṅghabhadra and Śubhagupta claim the existence of an external object on the basis of atomism. In this paper, I will show the interrelationship between Saṅghabhadra’s and Śubhagupta’s atomic theories. Regarding the ontological status of the aggregation of atoms, both of them agree on a Vaibhāṣika principle that the aggregation of atoms, as a real substance, can serve as an object-support of cognition. Based on this principle, their similarities can be further explicated from three aspects. Regarding epistemology, (...)
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  8. Flowers Perfume Sesame: On the Contextual Shift of Perfuming from Abhidharma to Yogācāra.Mingyuan Gao - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-23.
    In the Abhidharma texts, that flowers perfume sesame is used as a simile describing the mechanism of perfuming in the context of meditative cultivation. According to the Sarvāstivādins, the meditative perfuming requires the co-existence of the perfumer and the perfumed. In comparison, the Yogācāra-vijñānavādins employ the same simile to explain their doctrine of the perfuming of all dharmas in ālayavijñāna, which demands the bīja as the perfumed and the manifested dharmas as the perfumer to be simultaneous. My hypothesis is that (...)
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  9. The Alchemy of Suffering in the Laboratory of the World: Vedāntic Hindu Engagements with the Affliction of Animals.Akshay Gupta & Ankur Barua - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-14.
    Traditionally, the problem of evil, in its various formulations, has been one of the strongest objections against perfect being theism. In the voluminous literature on this problem, the motif of evil has usually been discussed with respect to human flourishing. In recent decades more focused attention has been paid to animal suffering and the philosophical problems that such suffering poses for perfect being theists. However, this growing body of literature, in Anglo-American philosophical milieus, is largely aimed at sketching a specifically (...)
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  10. German Nationalism and Indian Political Thought: The Influence of Ancient Indian Philosophy on the German Romantics.Alexei Pimenov - 2020 - Routledge.
    This book examines the influence of Indian socio-political thought, ideas, and culture on German Romantic nationalism. It suggests that, contrary to the traditional view that the concepts of nationalism have moved exclusively from the West to the rest of the world, in the crucial case of German nationalism, the essential intellectual underpinnings of the nationalist discourse came to the West, not from the West. The book demonstrates how the German Romantic fascination with India resulted in the adoption of Indian models (...)
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  11. Indian Philosophy: A Reader.Jonardon Ganeri - 2019 - Routledge.
    The selection of essays in this volume aims to present Indian philosophy as an autonomous intellectual tradition, with its own internal dynamics, rhythms, techniques, problematics and approaches, and to show how the richness of this tradition has a vital role in a newly emerging global and international discipline of philosophy, one in which a diversity of traditions exchange ideas and grow through their interaction with one another. This new volume is an abridgement of the four-volume set, Indian Philosophy, published by (...)
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  12. Indian Philosophy and Meditation: Perspectives on Consciousness.Rahul Banerjee & Amita Chatterjee - 2017 - Routledge.
  13. Modern Frames and Premodern Themes in Indian Philosophy: Border, Self, and the Other.A. Raghuramaraju - 2017 - Routledge India.
    This book presents a fascinating examination of modern Indian philosophical thought from the margins. It considers the subject from two perspectives - how it has been understood beyond India and how Indian thinkers have treated Western ideas in the context of Indian society. The book discusses the concepts of the self, the other and the border that underline various debates on modernity. In this framework, it proposes the notion of the other as an enabler in taking cue from the lives (...)
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  14. Indian Philosophy and the Consequences of Knowledge: Themes in Ethics, Metaphysics and Soteriology.Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad - 2007 - Routledge.
    This book presents a collection of essays, setting out both the special concern of classical Indian thought and some of its potential contributions to global philosophy. It presents some key arguments made by different schools about this special concern: the way in which attainment of knowledge of reality transforms human nature in a fundamentally liberating way. It then goes on to look in detail at two areas in contemporary global philosophy - the ethics of difference, and the metaphysics of consciousness (...)
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  15. Vedāntadeśika’s Systematization of Rāmānuja’s Self-Surrender (Prapatti): A Study Based on the Nikṣeparakṣā.Manasicha Akepiyapornchai - 2022 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 26 (1):89-112.
    This article examines the Śrīvaiṣṇava validation of the doctrine of self-surrender to the Supreme God Viṣṇu. Prapatti is mentioned by Rāmānuja, the most authoritative teacher of the tradition, as an auxiliary to the path of devotion that he teaches as a means to mokṣa. After the time of Rāmānuja, prapatti was developed as an alternative means. However, the post-Rāmānuja teachers were committed to arguing that Rāmānuja teaches prapatti as an independent means. The article focuses on Vedāntadeśika, the most influential post-Rāmānuja (...)
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  16. The Presence of the Real: Jalarāmkathā and the Experience of the Transcendent.Martin Wood - 2022 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 26 (1):113-134.
    Rarely is the presence of the Gujarati saint Jalarām Bāpā felt more immediately, and indeed collectively, by his devotees in India and throughout the diaspora than when his narrative is recited during the Jalarāmkathā. This article examines the multiexperiential nature of the Jalarāmkathā as it unfolds through various transcendental mediums, all of which center on the kathākār, a public teller of the narrative. It is framed by recent scholarly discussions regarding Robert A. Orsi’s suggestion that we need to go beyond (...)
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  17. Tracing Well-Being: The Rise of Kalyāṇ in the Hindi-Hindu Public Sphere.Michal Erlich - 2022 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 26 (1):1-35.
    The pursuit of kalyāṇ is pivotal for many Hindus. The Hindi kalyāṇ is close, yet not equivalent, to the English term “well-being.” It is a desirable, utopian, holistic state of being that facilitates a range of pursuits: worldly and extra worldly, secular and religious, mundane and soteriological, material and spiritual. In other words, kalyāṇ is the aim of their lives as Hindus. This article aims to establish the widespread everyday use of kalyāṇ in contemporary North India, despite its absence from (...)
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  18. The Subtlety of Subtales: Subaltern Voices of Sūkṣma Dharma in the Mahābhārata.Brian Black - 2022 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 26 (1):37-62.
    Many scholars have identified sūkṣma dharma as a central theme of the Mahābhārata. However, beyond recognizing it as an understanding of dharma that is elusive and ambiguous, there has been relatively little investigation into the meaning and implications of sūkṣma dharma. As this article shows, even if the central episodes of the main story leave sūkṣma dharma undefined or unclear, the Mahābhārata’s embedded narratives offer more explicit descriptions and demonstrations that can shed light on this otherwise elusive understanding of dharma. (...)
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  19. Karma and Teleology. A Problem and its Solution in Indian Philosophy. Johannes Bronkhorst.Karel Werner - 2000 - Buddhist Studies Review 17 (2):244-248.
    Karma and Teleology. A problem and its solution in Indian philosophy. Johannes Bronkhorst. The International Institute for Buddhist Studies of the International College for Advanced Studies, Tokyo 2000. iii, 142 pp. ISBN 4-906267-44-0.
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  20. Indian Philosophy. A Very Short Introduction. Sue Hamilton.Karel Werner - 2002 - Buddhist Studies Review 19 (1):70-72.
    Indian Philosophy. A Very Short Introduction. Sue Hamilton. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001. xvi, 153 pp. Pb £5.99. ISBN 0-19-285374-0.
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  21. Frozen Sandhi, Flowing Sound: Permanent Euphonic Ligatures and the Idea of Text in Classical Pali Grammars.Aleix Ruiz-Falqués - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-16.
    Pali classical grammars reflect a specific idea of what Pali Buddhist texts are. According to this traditional idea, texts are mainly conceived as sound and therefore the initial portions of every grammar deal with sound and sound ligature or sandhi. Sandhi in Pali does not work as systematically as it does in Sanskrit and therefore Pali grammarians have struggled with the optionality of many of their rules on sound ligature. Unlike modern linguists, however, they identify certain patterns of fixed or (...)
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  22. The Problem of the Stability of the Social System in Ancient Indian Philosophy.V. V. Tuzov & R. R. Mazina - 2021 - Дискурс 7 (5):45-54.
    Introduction. The purpose of the article is to show the effect of the law of correspondence as a factor of stability of the social system and the relevance of this problem for ancient Indian philosophy. The problem of the stability of society was not directly considered in ancient Indian philosophy or in modern literature, especially through the prism of the law of correspondence.Methodology and sources. The work uses content analysis, system approach, dialectics and the concept of self-organization. In addition, the (...)
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  23. Is Word-Meaning Denoted or Remembered? Śālikanātha’s Cornerstone in Defence of Anvitābhidhāna.Shishir Saxena - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (2):285-305.
    The role of memory in one’s cognition of sentential meaning is a pivotal topic in Indian philosophical debates on the nature of language. The Bhāṭṭa Mīmāṃsakas claim in their doctrine of abhihitānvaya that words denote word-meanings which in turn lead one to sentential meaning, with memory playing only a limited role in this process. The Prābhākara Mīmāṃsakas however assign memory a central role and assert that each word in a sentence denotes the connected sentential meaning. This paper is a philosophical (...)
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  24. Nothing but Gold. Complexities in Terms of Non-difference and Identity. Part 3. Permanence, Properties Plexuses and Subtleties in Mutual Exclusion. [REVIEW]Alberto Anrò - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (2):245-284.
    This paper investigates Vācaspati Miśra’s remarkably complex argumentative architecture in support of non-difference by means of a microsimulation model, the classical gold-crown case. A full range of positions, including instantaneism, transformative continuum, indeterminate common basis reference, difference and non-difference coordination, etc., is put under the scrutiny of the Vācaspati Miśra’s dialectic effort. The possibility of coexistence of multiple properties with a single referent is then formally explored. The analysis is carried out in compliance with the ‘Navya-Nyāya Formal Language’ extensional set-based (...)
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  25. Nāgārjuna’s Negation.Chris Rahlwes - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (2):307-344.
    The logical analysis of Nāgārjuna’s catuṣkoṭi has remained a heated topic for logicians in Western academia for nearly a century. At the heart of the catuṣkoṭi, the four corners’ formalization typically appears as: A, Not A, Both, and Neither. The pulse of the controversy is the repetition of negations in the catuṣkoṭi. Westerhoff argues that Nāgārjuna in the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā uses two different negations: paryudāsa and prasajya-pratiṣedha. This paper builds off Westerhoff’s account and presents some subtleties of Nāgārjuna’s use of these (...)
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  26. Indian Philosophy.Rohit Dalvi - 2007 - In Constantin Boundas (ed.), The Edinburgh Companion to Twentieth-Century Philosophies. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 645-660.
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  27. Reflections of Indian Philosophy in Deleuze's ‘Body Without Organs’.Meenu Gupta - 2018 - Deleuze and Guattari Studies 12 (1):13-28.
    As the title suggests, this paper looks at the Deleuzian concept of body without organs and compares it with Indian Philosophy. In the Indian context, the concept of moksha/nirvana comes near to it as both are practices that aim at liberation; here, ‘liberation’ is never the awaited end of the process but the process itself. The traditional western substantialism rests on things whereas Deleuze, like Indian Philosophy, celebrates ‘experience’ and the ‘incorporeal’. Thus, body without organs plays a role in individuation. (...)
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  28. The Dzokchen Apology: On the Limits of Logic, Language, & Epistemology in Early Great Perfection.Dominic Di Zinno Sur - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (1):1-46.
    This article examines the translator, Rongzom’s, scholastic philosophical defense of early Dzokchen or “Great Perfection.” As our earliest instance of religious apologia in Tibet, this examination contributes to a growing body of knowledge about the Tibetan assimilation of post-tenth century of Vajrayāna Buddhism and the indigenous response to the forces of cultural transformation shaping the late eleventh/early twelfth century Tibet. Traditional authorities and academics have identified Dzokchen as a Tibetan tradition of Buddhism that drew intense criticism at the time from (...)
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  29. On the Early Buddhist Attitude Toward Metaphysics.Qian Lin - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (1):143-162.
    Buddhist scholars in the West broadly agree with the proposition that Buddhism has a philosophical tradition, in many respects comparable to Western ones, while many claim that it also has a practical or empirical dimension that Western philosophies, especially the analytic tradition, lack. There is also a scholarly consensus that an implicit metaphysical system serves as the foundation for the doctrines and practices of early Buddhism as represented in the Pāli suttas. However, Buddhist scholarship to date has not distinguished clearly (...)
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  30. The Gotra Theory in the Madhyāntavibhāgaṭīkā.Martin Delhey - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (1):47-64.
    The Yogācāra school of Buddhism is well known for maintaining that the sentient beings are divided by nature according to five different spiritual dispositions. These five spiritual dispositions are established as a pentad and explained in one of Xuanzang’s Chinese translations, but the Indian origin of the pertinent textual passage is debated. In the introductory part of this paper, it is argued that Xuanzang’s explanations of the five spiritual dispositions in themselves are, to a great extent, in line with the (...)
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  31. The Increasing Importance of the Physical Body in Early Medieval Haṭhayoga: A Reflection on the Yogic Body in Liberation.Hagar Shalev - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (1):117-142.
    One defining feature of the Hindu religious worldviews is a belief in the impermanence of the body and its perception as a source of suffering due to a misguided attachment of the self to its corporeal manifestation. This view is expressed in several important traditions, including classical yoga, which perceives the physical body as an impediment to attaining liberation and irrelevant in the state of liberation.However, the perception of the physical body in liberation is going through ontological changes in early (...)
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  32. Fragments from the Ājīvikas.Piotr Balcerowicz - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (1):65-115.
    The paper examines available references to the Ājīvikas that are often identified by scholars, notably by Basham, as genuine quotations from Ājīvikas’ lost works. In addition, the paper analyses some additional material not previously indentifed as possible quotations relevant to Ājīvikism. Unfortunately, none of such references seem to be genuinely derived from an Ājīvika source: All of such passages or verses previously considered genuinely taken from Ājīvika literature turn out to have been composed by non-Ājīvika authors and usually derive either (...)
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  33. The Marvel of Consciousness: Existence and Manifestation in Jñānaśrīmitra’s Sākārasiddhiśāstra.Davey K. Tomlinson - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (1):163-199.
    This paper considers Jñānaśrīmitra’s defense of manifestation as the criterion of ultimate existence. In the first section, "Asatkhyāti and Adhyavasāya: making sense of manifestation as the criterion of the real", I show the way that, in response to Ratnākaraśānti’s Nirākāravāda, Jñānaśrīmitra argues for a sharp distinction between manifestation and determination in an effort to establish that the manifestation of something unreal is incoherent. The unreal, he thinks, is only ever determined; it is never manifest to consciousness, properly speaking. In the (...)
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  34. The Kinpusen Himitsuden: Text as a Kaleidoscope of Ritual Platforms.Yagi Morris - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-28.
    This article explores the narrative potency and ritual efficacy of a medieval Japanese esoteric Buddhist text in relation to the process of awakening and the construction of imperial legitimation, perceived as two interrelated objectives. Entitled the Kinpusen himitsuden, ‘The Secret Transmission of the Golden Peak’, the text was written by the Shingon monk Monkan Kōshin in 1337, soon after the outbreak of the civil war, at the stronghold of the southern court in Yoshino. The text is treated here as a (...)
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  35. Bending Minds and Winning Hearts: On the Rhetorical Uses of Complexity in Mahāyāna Sūtras.Paul Harrison - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-22.
    Mahāyāna sūtras are obviously texts in the conventional sense of the word, but how they work as texts, the purposes they serve, and the manner in which they are constructed have so far attracted comparatively little sustained theoretical attention of the sort that goes beyond specific examples. This paper addresses itself to two well-known formal features of this voluminous genre which have yet to receive the critical reflection they deserve. The first is a pervasive self-referentiality, taking various forms, some of (...)
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  36. Early Buddhist Texts: Their Composition and Transmission.Mark Allon - forthcoming - Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-34.
    This article discusses the composition and transmission of early Buddhist texts with specific reference to sutras. After briefly summarizing the main reasons why it is likely that these oral compositions were designed to be memorized and transmitted verbatim, I will discuss the main types of changes that these texts underwent in the course of their transmission and the reasons such changes occurred, then attempt to give an account of the challenge that change, particularly intentional change, posed to the oral transmission (...)
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  37. Buddhism and Effective Altruism.Calvin Baker - 2022 - In Dominic Roser, Stefan Riedener & Markus Huppenbauer (eds.), Effective Altruism and Religion: Synergies, Tension, Dialogue. Nomos. pp. 17-45.
    This article considers the contemporary effective altruism (EA) movement from a classical Indian Buddhist perspective. Following barebones introductions to EA and to Buddhism (sections one and two, respectively), section three argues that core EA efforts, such as those to improve global health, end factory farming, and safeguard the long-term future of humanity, are futile on the Buddhist worldview. For regardless of the short-term welfare improvements that effective altruists impart, Buddhism teaches that all unenlightened beings will simply be reborn upon their (...)
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  38. Asian Philosophies and the Idea of Religion: Beyond Faith and Reason.Sonia Sikka & Ashwani Kumar Peetush (eds.) - 2021 - Oxon, UK: Routledge.
    With a focus on Asian traditions, this book examines varieties of thought and self-transformative practice that do not fit neatly on one side or another of the standard Western division between philosophy and religion. -/- It contains chapters by experts on Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Hindu and Jain philosophies, as well as ancient Greek philosophy and recent contemplative and spiritual movements. The volume also problematizes the notion of a Western philosophical canon distinguished by rationality in contrast to a religious Eastern "other". (...)
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  39. Celebrating Heritage, Promoting Tourism, and Relocating Svāmī Vivekānanda: A Study of the Vivekananda Rock Memorial.Gwilym Beckerlegge - 2021 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 25 (3):165-191.
    Svāmī Vivekānanda’s relationship with his guru Śrī Rāmakṛṣṇa, and his role in the creation of the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission in the final decade of the nineteenth century, has attracted far more scholarly attention than the meanings invested in Vivekānanda after his death by devotees and admirers beyond the Math and Mission and by the various organizations that have disseminated these meanings. To redress this imbalance, this article examines the message embodied in, and projected by, the Vivekananda Rock Memorial (...)
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  40. Indian Philosophy a–Z.Christopher Bartley - 2005 - Edinburgh University Press.
    This alphabetical handbook defines and explains key concepts in classical Indian philosophy, identifies controversial issues, describes major traditions of thought, and locates influential thinkers in their intellectual and religious contexts. Extensive cross-referencing provides users with an overview of systematic doctrines and disagreements. While many entries deal with fundamentals, others explain technicalities usually overlooked in Western writings about Indian thought, making Indian Philosophy A-Z a unique resource for both beginners and specialists in the fields of Indian religions and philosophies.Features* The only (...)
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  41. Nationhood Today in the US and India.Rajmohan Gandhi - 2021 - The Acorn 21 (1):5-20.
    The drives of white nationalism in the US and Hindu nationalism in India are found to be significantly similar in aim and methods. Witnessed in two large nations that are alike too in diversity and in constitutions, the two drives violate statutory norms as also the norms of democracy and equality acknowledged by the world. Contrasting these drives with Gandhi’s vision of partnership and mutual respect among communities and races is illuminating. It may be seen, in addition, that both white (...)
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  42. Comparative Hindu and Presocratic Philosophy.Ferdinand Tablan - 2002 - Filosophia 31 (1):16-31.
    This paper aims to synthesize two equally impressive systems of thought: Indian philosophy in the East and Presocratic philosophy in the West, which are separated not only by space and time but by our prejudices. It attempts to show the universality of philosophy by exploring the parallelisms and similarities, clarifying contrasts, and highlighting the common themes that are emphasized and de-emphasized in them. The study does not intend to give a complete account of the early Greek and Hindu thoughts. The (...)
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  43. Naming the Seventh Consciousness in Yogācāra.Yan Cao - 2022 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 50 (2):201-222.
    The Yogācāra School presents the seventh consciousness as the internal mental faculty of the sixth consciousness. According to the Hīnayāna tradition, the internal faculty is called manas, so the complete compound word referring to the seventh consciousness is manovijñāna. Thus, in the Yogācāra system the seventh and sixth consciousnesses are both named manovijñāna. In order to resolve the confusion of the homonyms, one of them must be adjusted. Based on the Tibetan term, nyon yid rnam par shes pa, some scholars (...)
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  44. Intrauterine Dependent Origination: A Translation of the Indakasutta and its Commentaries.Giuliano Giustarini - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):895-912.
    The Indakasutta, its commentary, and sub-commentary describe and discuss the phases of intrauterine development. By adopting a terminology remarkably comparable to that of other Buddhist and non-Buddhist texts, they illustrate fundamental Buddhist teachings like the non-self view and the dependent arising. I here offer a translation of these three texts, preceded by an introductory outline of their contents.
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  45. The Changing Meanings of āśraya in Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakośa.Szilvia Szanyi - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):953-973.
    The term āśraya is used in manifold ways in the Abhidharmakośa and its bhāṣya. This comes from the fact that its basic meaning, indicating anything on which something else depends or rests, is quite generic. Despite the plasticity of its usage, we can find some recurring and distinct technical applications of the term in the AK, which I explore in my paper. First, I look at its usage of characterising a member of various asymmetric dependence relationships on which the arising (...)
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  46. The Nyāyabindu in Tangut Translation.Zhouyang Ma - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):779-825.
    This paper studies the Tangut translation of Dharmakīrti’s Nyāyabindu. The Tangut translation of the treatise from the Tibetan text provides opportunities for us to pursue two objectives: it is a source that allows us to probe into the history of the rise of Tibetan Buddhist scholasticism in the Tangut State; it also enables us to make sense of the Tangut Buddhist language used to translate Tibetan Buddhist doctrinal and philosophical texts. The paper argues that the Tangut translation was based on (...)
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  47. From Word Magic to Systematic Linguistic Inquiry: The Kautsa Controversy in Nirukta 1.15–16.Paolo Visigalli & Yūto Kawamura - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):931-951.
    Recorded in Nirukta 1.15–16, the controversy between Kautsa and Yāska on whether the Vedic mantras are meaningful or not represents a turning point in the traditional interpretation of the Veda. While references to this controversy are often found in literature, a systematic discussion of the whole episode has not to our knowledge been undertaken. This paper offers a detailed analysis of this controversy. We first review previous scholarship and elucidate the structure and rationale of the controversy. Then, we provide an (...)
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  48. Mala according to the Pauṣkaratantra: nature, function and elimination.Usha Colas-Chauhan - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):975-998.
    The dualist Śaiva doctrine considers that mala is that which obstructs the true nature of the self and sets in motion the operation of bondage. Though many dualist Śaiva tantras discuss the concept of mala, only the Pauṣkara presents a detailed exposition supported by numerous arguments. This article aims to closely report those arguments and to search within the Pauṣkara for answers to certain questions that the concept provokes.
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  49. Substantialism, Essentialism, Emptiness: Buddhist Critiques of Ontology.Rafal K. Stepien - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):871-893.
    This article seeks to introduce a greater degree of precision into our understanding of Madhyamaka Buddhist ontological non-foundationalism, focussing specifically on the Madhyamaka founder Nāgārjuna. It distinguishes four senses of what the ‘foundation’ whose existence Mādhyamikas deny means; that is, as ‘something that stands under or grounds things’ ; as ‘a particular kind of basic entity’ ; as ‘an individual essence by means of which it is identical to that very object, to itself’ ; and as ‘an essence in the (...)
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  50. The Concept of Manopavicāra in Vasubandhu’s Exposition of Pratītyasamutpāda in Chapter Three of the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya.Maxim Voroshilov - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (5):759-777.
    This paper examines the concept of manopavicāra, found within the exposition of dependent arising in chapter three of the Commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma of Vasubandhu. According to Vasubandhu, the feeling link in the chain of dependent arising consists of body-related feeling and mind-related feeling. Mind-related feeling is divided into eighteen manopavicāras. Manopavicāras are the three modalities of feeling: satisfaction, dissatisfaction, equanimity. They are said to rely on the objects or to direct the mind toward the objects, which, in (...)
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