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Summary

Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is the most influential thinker in modern western philosophy. 

The central doctrine of Kant’s theoretical philosophy is what he calls “transcendental idealism.”  This is, roughly, the view that there is a sharp distinction between things as they appear to us and things as they really are (in themselves). It is controversial what that distinction consists in or even how to characterize it, but it is clear that Kant wants to deny that things-in-themselves have spatio-temporal features.  Thus they are things that we can think about (‘noumena’) but not things that appear (‘phenomena’). 

Kant argues that we can only explain our knowledge of non-trivial (‘synthetic’) necessary principles -- including the principle according to which all events have causes --  if transcendental idealism is true.  He also thinks that distinguishing between phenomena and noumena leaves room for incompatibilist freedom, God, and the immortality of the soul (at the noumenal level). 

Kant places the notion of autonomy at the center of his moral and political philosophy, and argues that specific moral obligations are based in a very general principle called the Categorical Imperative.  This principle is fundamental to practical rationality and requires that we respect the autonomy of rational agents and refuse to make arbitrary exceptions for ourselves. 

In his early years, Kant was trained in the German rationalist tradition of Christian Wolff (1679–1750) and G. W. Leibniz (1646–1716). But he was influenced by the British Empiricists like John Locke (1632–1704), Isaac Newton (1642–1727), and David Hume (1711–1776). Later, Kant characterizes his Critical philosophy as a synthesis of rationalism and empiricism. 

Kant’s massive influence is felt across the continental and analytic traditions. He is typically regarded as the forefather of German Idealism, and a key figure in the development of Existentialism, NeoKantianism (obviously), Phenomenology, Critical Theory, and even Post-Modernism. 

In the analytic tradition, Kant’s views were in the background of many of the debates in 20th-century epistemology and philosophy of mind. Kantian moral philosophy is one of the main positions in contemporary ethics, and Kantian political philosophy dominated most of the discussion in 20th and early 21st century political philosophy. Kant’s views about aesthetic judgment are central to many developments in the philosophy of art and art criticism. Kant is not a major figure in contemporary analytic metaphysics, however.

Key works

The three Critiques are the central texts for Kant’s “critical system”: Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), Critique of Power of Judgment (1790). His Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) is among the most influential works in modern ethics. Other major works include Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783), Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786), Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason (1793)Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1798)

The standard German edition of Kant’s works is Königlichen Preußischen (later Deutschen) Akademie der Wissenschaften (ed.), 1900–, Kants gesammelte Schriften, Berlin: Georg Reimer (later Walter De Gruyter). The standard English edition of Kant’s works is P. Guyer and A. Wood (eds.), 1992–, The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Introductions Good overall introductions include Wood 2004, Höffe & Farrier 1994, and Guyer 2006Buroker 2006 offers a good introductory overview of Kant’s key text in theoretical philosophy. Cleve 1999 is a more advanced introduction for analytic philosophers. Gardner 1999 is an opinionated but very accessible introduction.  A good introduction to Kant's moral philosophy is Sedgwick 2008.
Related categories
Subcategories:
Kant: Metaphysics and Epistemology (11,385 | 3,102)

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  1. Conceptual art and aesthetic ideas.Diarmuid Costello - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (4).
    This paper considers whether Kant’s aesthetics withstands the challenge of Conceptual Art. I begin by looking at two competing views of Conceptual Art by recent philosophers, before settling on an ‘inclusive’ view of the form: Conceptual Art includes both ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ non-perceptual art (NPA). I then set out two kinds of conceptual complexity that I argue are implicated by all aesthetic judgements of art (as art) on Kant’s view: the concept of art itself, and the idea the work is (...)
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  2. Kant and the Divine: From Contemplation to Moral Law by Christopher J. Insole. [REVIEW]Chris L. Firestone - 2023 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (1):164-166.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Kant and the Divine: From Contemplation to Moral Law by Christopher J. InsoleChris L. FirestoneChristopher J. Insole. Kant and the Divine: From Contemplation to Moral Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020. Pp. v + 409. Hardback, $110.00.The extent to which the philosophy of Immanuel Kant converges with or diverges from Christian thought has been a hotly debated topic in recent years. Central to that debate has been the (...)
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  3. The World According to Kant: Appearances and Things in Themselves in Critical Idealism by Anja Jauernig. [REVIEW]Patricia Kitcher - 2023 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (1):160-162.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:The World According to Kant: Appearances and Things in Themselves in Critical Idealism by Anja JauernigPatricia KitcherAnja Jauernig. The World According to Kant: Appearances and Things in Themselves in Critical Idealism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021. Pp. 400. Hardback, $105.00.After Peter Strawson's withering criticisms of the "Metaphysics of Transcendental Idealism" in The Bounds of Sense (London: Methuen, 1966), many Kant scholars devoted their labors to explaining and expanding (...)
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  4. Kant's Transcendental Deduction by Alison Laywine. [REVIEW]Katherine Dunlop - 2023 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (1):162-164.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Reviewed by:Kant's Transcendental Deduction by Alison LaywineKatherine DunlopAlison Laywine. Kant's Transcendental Deduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020. Pp. iv + 318. Hardback, $80.00.Alison Laywine's contribution to the rich literature on Kant's "Transcendental Deduction of the Categories" stands out for the novelty of its approach and conclusions. Laywine's declared "strategy" is "to compare and contrast" the Deduction with the Duisburg Nachlaß, an important set of manuscript jottings from the 1770s (...)
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  5. Kant's Response to Hume on Natural Theology: Dogmatic Anthropomorphism, Analogical Inference, and Symbolic Representation.Pavel Reichl - 2023 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 61 (1):77-101.
    Abstractabstract:This article examines Kant's response to the criticisms of natural theology that Hume articulates in the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Though Kant was in agreement with the Dialogues' rejection of dogmatic theism, he equally viewed many of its arguments as a threat to his aim of constructing a critical theology. Kant is often taken to have successfully diffused this skeptical threat on the basis of a symbolic anthropomorphism articulated in the Prolegomena. However, I argue that the Prolegomena account remains susceptible (...)
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  6. Epistemic deontology, epistemic trade-offs, and Kant’s formula of humanity.James Andow - 2023 - Synthese 201 (2):1-21.
    An epistemic deontology modelled on Kant’s ethics—in particular the humanity formula of the categorical imperative—is a promising alternative to epistemic consequentialism because it can forbid intuitively impermissible epistemic trade-offs which epistemic consequentialism seems doomed to permit and, most importantly, it can do so in a way that is not ad hoc.
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  7. Pre-Critical Kant on the Anthropological Basis of the Enlightenment Project.A. M. Malivskyi & O. I. Yakymchuk - 2022 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 22:141-149.
    _Purpose__._ The authors aim to reveal the peculiarity of comprehension of the human phenomenon in the process of referring to the text of "Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime" by the early Immanuel Kant, which is based on the critical rethinking of the Enlightenment position. A prerequisite for its substantial solution is addressing the problem of the place of the "Observations" in the evolution of Kant’s anthropological views. _Theoretical basis__._ Our view of Kant’s legacy is based upon (...)
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  8. Synthetic Attributes and the Schematized Categories.Maximilian Edwards - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-20.
    Within Kant scholarship, there is an entrenched tendency to distinguish, on Kant’s behalf, between pure and ‘schematized’ categories. There is also a widespread tendency to view the schematized categories as conceptually richer than the pure categories. I argue that this reading of the distinction, which I call the standard view, should be rejected. In its place, I draw on a neglected part of Kant’s theory of marks – namely, his account of ‘synthetic attributes’ – to propose an account of the (...)
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  9. Revisiting the Proof-Structure of Kant’s Transcendental Deduction.Hyoung Sung Kim - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-23.
    There is no consensus concerning how to understand the ‘two-step proof structure’ (§§15–20, 21–7) of the Transcendental Deduction in the B-edition of the Critique of Pure Reason. This disagreement invites a closer examination of what Kant might have meant by a ‘transcendental deduction’. I argue that the transcendental deduction consists of three tasks that parallel Kant’s broader project of a ‘critique’ of pure reason; first, an origin task to justify reason’s authority to use them; second, an analytical task that determines (...)
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  10. David Baumeister, Kant on the Human Animal: Anthropology, Ethics, Race Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2022 Pp. 176 ISBN: 9780810144682 (hbk) $99.95 – ERRATUM. [REVIEW]Jacob Browning - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (4):683-683.
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  11. Milla Emilia Vaha, The Moral Standing of the State in International Politics. A Kantian Account Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2021 Pp. vi + 182 ISBN 9781786837868 (hbk) £75.00. [REVIEW]Ewa Wyrębska-Đermanović - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (4):677-681.
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  12. La dimensión cosmopolita de la protección jurídica en Kant. Algunas consecuencias de la “posesión común de la tierra” en la Doctrina del Derecho.Nuria Sánchez Madrid - 2022 - Araucaria 24 (51).
    Este artículo examina la protección jurídica resultante del derecho cosmopolita en Kant con el fin de arrojar luz sobre su articulación con la protección ofrecida por el derecho político estatal. En primer lugar, analizaré el tratamiento de la _equidad_ en la _Doctrina racional del Derecho_, como un espacio normativo que, sin recurrir a la coacción legal, transmite al sujeto la deuda en que se encuentra con los individuos más desfavorecidos económicamente. En segundo lugar, comentaré algunos textos en que Kant se (...)
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  13. Kant on Despondent Moral Failure.Kate Moran - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-17.
    Typically, Kant describes maxims that violate the moral law as engaging in a kind of comparative judgement: the person who makes a false promise judges it best – at least subjectively – to deceive her friend. I argue that this is not the only possible account of moral failure for Kant. In particular, when we examine maxims of so-called despondency (Verzagtheit) we find that some maxims are resistant to comparative judgement. I argue that this is true for at least two (...)
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  14. Jimmy Yab, Kant and the Politics of Racism: Towards Kant’s Racialised Form of Cosmopolitan Right Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021 Pp. vii + 285 ISBN 978-3030691004 (hbk) €109.99. [REVIEW]Jameliah Inga Shorter-Bourhanou - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-3.
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  15. Rudolf A. Makkreel, Kant’s Worldview: How Judgment Shapes Human Comprehension. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2021 Pp. xii + 284 ISBN 9780810144316 (hbk) $99.95. [REVIEW]Reed Winegar - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-3.
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  16. Ido Geiger, Kant and the Claims of the Empirical World: A Transcendental Reading of the Critique of the Power of Judgment Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022 Pp. xiv + 225 ISBN 9781108834261 (hbk) £75.00. [REVIEW]Nabeel Hamid - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-5.
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  17. Perfect and Imperfect Duty: Unpacking Kant’s Complex Distinction.Simon Hope - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-18.
    I attempt first to disentangle three aspects of Kant’s distinction between perfect and imperfect duty. There is the central distinction between principles of duty contrary to that which is contradictory in conception/consistent in conception but contradictory in will. There is also a distinction between essential and non-essential duties: those which cannot, or occasionally can, be passed over consistent with the requirements of morality. Finally, there is a distinction between duties that exhibit a scalar aspect – degrees of goodness or virtue (...)
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  18. Never Merely as a Means: Rethinking the Role and Relevance of Consent.Melissa Seymour Fahmy - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-22.
    For several decades, Kant scholars, inspired by the Groundwork false-promising example, have constructed consent-based criteria for using another merely as a means. Unfortunately, these consent-based accounts produce assessments that are both counter-intuitive and un-Kantian in relatively simple cases. This article investigates why these consent-based accounts fail and offers an alternative. The Groundwork false-promising example has encouraged a problematically narrow understanding of the conditions for using another merely as a means in virtue of the fact that the example involves a consent-sensitive (...)
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  19. Did Rousseau Teach Kant Discipline?Jeremiah Alberg - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-19.
    Both Rousseau and Kant wrote their works with the intention of contributing to the well-being of humans. The ways in which Kant followed Rousseau to achieve this aim were many and go beyond those easily recognized. This article presents evidence for Rousseau’s influence in the Discipline of Pure Reason chapter of the Doctrine of Method in the First Critique. Both Rousseau and Kant emphasized discipline as a necessary part of a proper education that leads to a well-ordered life. Kant’s form (...)
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  20. Kant on Moral Feeling and Respect.Vojtěch Kolomý - forthcoming - Kantian Review:1-19.
    Although in his earlier ethical writings Kant explains the concept of moral feeling, inherited from the British sentimentalists, as a peculiar feeling of respect for the moral law that functions as an incentive for moral actions, the Doctrine of Virtue seems to add complexity to the issue. There, Kant discusses two similar aesthetic predispositions, moral feeling and respect, whose relationship to the feeling of respect is far from clear. This article offers a much needed elucidation of the relationship between these (...)
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  21. Kantian Freedom as “Purposiveness”.Ava Thomas Wright - 2022 - Kant Studien 113 (4):640-658.
    Arthur Ripstein’s conception of Kantian freedom has exerted an enormous recent influence on scholars of Kant’s political philosophy; however, the conception seems to me flawed. In this paper, I argue that Ripstein’s conception of Kantian freedom as “your capacity to choose the ends you will use your means to pursue” – your “purposiveness” – is both too narrow and too broad: (1) Wrongful acts such as coercive threats cannot choose my ends for me; instead, such acts wrongfully restrict my perceived (...)
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  22. Kant-Bibliographie 2020.Margit Ruffing - 2022 - Kant Studien 113 (4):725-760.
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  23. Stefan Schick: Die Legitimität der Aufklärung. Selbstbestimmung der Vernunft bei Immanuel Kant und Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, 2019. VIII, 533 Seiten. ISBN 978-3-465-04392-8. [REVIEW]Gideon Stiening - 2022 - Kant Studien 113 (4):766-770.
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  24. Freiheit nach Kant. Traditionen, Rezeption, Transformation, Aktualität. Hrsg. von Saša Josifović_ und _Jörg Noller. Leiden/Boston 2019. [Critical Studies in German Idealism 22] 369 Seiten. ISBN: 978-90-04-38357-9. [REVIEW]Jörn Spindeldreher - 2022 - Kant Studien 113 (4):761-766.
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  25. Brigitte Falkenburg: Kant’s Cosmology: From the Pre-Critical System to the Antinomy of Pure Reason. Springer: Cham 2020, 284 + xvii pp., € 108,99, ISBN: 9783030522896. [REVIEW]Courtney D. Fugate - 2022 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 53 (4):601-603.
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  26. The Highest Good as the Ideal of Reason in the Canon of the first _Critique_ .Luigi Filieri - forthcoming - Kant Studien.
    In the Dialectic of the first Critique, Kant claims that a highest being is the transcendental ideal of speculative reason. However, the Canon of the Doctrine of Method presents the highest good as an ideal of both the speculative and the practical use of reason. In this paper, I argue (1) that the highest good is the ideal of the unity of reason – unlike the ideal in the Dialectic – insofar as (2) the highest good serves both the speculative (...)
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  27. La tavola e la mappa. Paradigmi per una metaforologia mediale dell’immaginazione cartografica in Kant.Tommaso Morawski - unknown
    Immanuel Kant’s thought is a central historical and theoretical reference in Hans Blumenberg’s metaphorological project. This is demonstrated by the fact that in the Paradigms the author outlines the concept of absolute metaphor by explicitly referring to §59 of the Critique of the Power of Judgment and recognizing in the Kantian symbol a model for his own metaphorics. However, Kant’s name also appears in the chapter on the metaphor of the “terra incognita” that not only did he theorize the presence (...)
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  28. Kantian Autonomy.Helga Varden - 2022 - Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy.
  29. Rethinking Kant: Volume VII.Edgar J. Valdez (ed.) - forthcoming
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  30. Kant’s Metaphysics of the Self: The Self as a “Clear” Representation.Ekin Erkan - 2022 - Philosophia 51 (1):1-47.
    This paper seeks to show how Kant’s epistemological conception of the transcendental faculties of cognition relates to his ontological conception of the transcendental distinction between mind-dependent, ideal appearances (viz., empirical objects) and mind-independent, transcendentally real things in themselves, as they relate to the self. I engage the metaphysical foundations of Kant’s account of self-consciousness and how this account relates to the self as an empirically perceivable and conceptualizable object of observation. This paper also connects Kant’s work in the Transcendental Deduction (...)
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  31. Murderer at the Switch: Thomson, Kant, and the Trolley Problem.James Edwin Mahon - 2021 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death and Anti-Death, Volume 19: One Year After Judith Jarvis Thomson (1929-2020). Ann Arbor, MI, USA: pp. 153-187.
    In this book chapter I argue that, contrary to what is said by Paul Guyer in his book Kant (Routledge, 2006), Kant's moral philosophy prohibits the bystander from throwing the switch to divert the runaway trolley to a side track with an innocent person on it, in order to save more people who are in the path of the trolley, in the "Trolley Problem" case made famous by Judith Jarvis Thomson (1976; 1985). Furthermore, Thomson herself (2008) came to agree that (...)
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  32. Wittgenstein on the Limits of Language.Hans Sluga - forthcoming - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    The paper interprets Wittgenstein’s famous call to silence at the end of his Tractatus – that “whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent” – as a critique of philosophy itself. Wittgenstein was concerned throughout his philosophical life with finding a way to delineate the limits of language. These limits, once we have them clearly in view, rob our attempts to put forth philosophical theories of their legitimacy. In order to give a critical assessment of this Wittgensteinian critique of (...)
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  33. Metaphysical Dissatisfaction.Barry Stroud - forthcoming - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. London: Routledge.
    The article deals with the dissatisfaction we can fall into in reflecting on some of our indispensable ways of thinking. This dissatisfaction brings out where consistent thought reaches its limits: in trying to investigate some of our ways of thinking, we seem to have to step beyond them in order to properly assess them, and still find ourselves making use of those very ways of thinking in order to attain any understanding of them at all. Drawing from Kant, the article (...)
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  34. Positive Aesthetic Pleasure in Early Schopenhauer: Two Kantian Accounts in advance.Alexander Sattar - forthcoming - Idealistic Studies.
    Schopenhauer is widely held to accommodate no positive aesthetic pleasure. While this may be the case in his mature oeuvre overall, where he insists on the negative character of all gratification, I reconstruct two early accounts of such pleasure in his manuscripts, both of which are a direct result of Schopenhauer’s engagement with Kant’s first and third Critiques. To do so, I analyze his so-called metaphysics of the ‘better consciousness’ and his transition from it to the metaphysics of will (roughly (...)
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  35. Kant on the Christian Religion.Chris L. Firestone & Nathan Jacobs - 2007 - Philosophia Christi 9 (1):63-72.
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  36. Kant and the Continental Tradition: Sensibility, Nature and Religion.Annapaola Varaschin - 2021 - Humana Mente 29 (3):426-432.
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  37. Kant’s Transcendental Deduction: A Cosmology of Experience.August Buholzer - 2021 - Humana Mente 29 (2):253-259.
    In her new book, Alison Laywine applies the historical approach of her earlier book Kant’s Early Metaphysics and the Origins of the Critical Philosophy (1993) to the delicate philosophical task of...
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  38. La lógica trascendental de Emil Lask entre Platón y Kant. Teoría de los dos mundos y revolución copernicana.Stefano Cazzanelli - 2022 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 55 (2):219-235.
    En el presente artículo presentamos la filosofía trascendental de Emil Lask como el resultado de una mediación entre la teoría de los dos mundos de Platón y la revolución copernicana de Kant. Aprovechando el descubrimiento de Lotze según el cual los significados no son, sino valen, y ampliando el horizonte de la lógica más allá del ámbito del juicio, Lask elabora un platonismo (o aristotelismo) trascendental que le ubica en un punto medio entre el neokantismo y la fenomenología. Su filosofía (...)
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  39. Reyna Fortes, Rafael. Unidad conceptual y síntesis objetiva en Kant: Un estudio sobre la función de los conceptos en la producción de conocimiento. Hildesheim - Zurich - New York: OLMS, 2021, pp. 216. [REVIEW]Gustavo da Encarnação Galvão França - 2022 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 55 (2):435-438.
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  40. La relación entre la concepción de Kant acerca del origen de la maldad y la deducción de esta a partir de la sensibilidad.Julius Müller & Jorge Aurelio Díaz - 2021 - Ideas Y Valores 70 (175):163-170.
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  41. Fichte's original presentation of the foundational principles of the Wissenschaftslehre : the question of method.Marina F. Bykova - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
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  42. Hume and Kant on utility, freedom, and justice.Paul Guyer - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
  43. The identity of reason.Stephen Engstrom - 2022 - In Giovanni Pietro Basile & Ansgar Lyssy (eds.), System and Freedom in Kant and Fichte. Routledge.
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  44. Kant's 'as if' and Hume's 'remote analogy' : deism and theism in Prolegomena [sections]57 and 58.Tim Jankowiak - 2021 - In Peter Thielke (ed.), Kant's Prolegomena: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
  45. Between Kant and Hegel : Alexandre Kojève and the absolute state.Jeff Love - 2022 - In Luis J. Pedrazuela (ed.), Alexandre Kojève: A Man of Influence. Lexington Books.
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  46. Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein.Jens Pier (ed.) - 2023 - London: Routledge.
    The essays in this volume investigate the question of where, and in what sense, the bounds of intelligible thought, knowledge, and speech are to be drawn. Is there a way in which we are limited in what we think, know, and say? And if so, does this mean that we are constrained – that there is something beyond the ken of human intelligibility of which we fall short? Or is there another way to think about these limits of intelligibility – (...)
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  47. A Dívida de Popper Para Com Kant: Os Dois Problemas Fundamentais da Teoria Do Conhecimento.Paulo Uiris da Silva Gomes - 2021 - REVISTA APOENA - Periódico dos Discentes de Filosofia da UFPA 1 (1):117.
    Este trabalho tem como objetivo refletir sobre os dois problemas fundamentais da teoria do conhecimento: o problema da demarcação científica, ou problema de Kant; e o problema da indução, ou problema de Hume. O primeiro refere-se a questão acerca do critério da demarcação, isto é, que critério devemos usar para distinguir enunciados das ciências empíricas de afirmações metafísicas e pseudocientíficas. Popper afirma que Kant foi o primeiro a formular tal problema, e com ele, a demarcação científica tornou-se o problema central (...)
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  48. Kant’ın Aydınlanma Anlayışı: Tarihi Arka Planı ve Aydınlanmada Eğitimin Rolü.Saniye Vatansever - 2022 - Kaygı. Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Felsefe Dergisi 21 (2):838-880.
    Kant defines enlightenment of the individual as emergence of the individual from a self-imposed immaturity. In this definition, individuals who are not enlightened are held responsible for their failures. This is because Kant, in this text, implies that the only thing we need in order to be enlightened as individuals is to be able to use our capacity to think, which is present in every mentally fit individual. One can infer that Kant has an egalitarian understanding of enlightenment, since anyone (...)
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  49. Lotze : platoniser Kant?Charlotte Morel - 2019 - Philosophie 2:4.
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  50. En torno a la imaginación en Martha Nussbaum y Kant.Miguel Herszenbaun - 2021 - Tópicos 41:117-141.
    In her book Poetic Justice, Martha Nussbaum supports the thesis that the imagination plays a major role in the judicial decision-making. In this paper, I intend to defend that Nussbaum’s thesis is partially Kantian. However, by analyzing in detail how the imagination works in Kant and in Nussbaum, I will be able to show the main differences and similarities. I claim that the main problem that Nussbaum’s imagination is thought to solve is the articulation between singular and universal. This is (...)
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