G. W. F. Hegel

Edited by Paul Redding (University of Sydney)
Assistant editor: Paolo Diego Bubbio (Università di Torino)
About this topic
Summary

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) is generally considered to be the most systematic philosopher within the movement of “German idealism” in the first decades of the Nineteenth Century. In his writings, and particularly in his popular lectures at the University of Berlin in the 1820s, Hegel attempted to elaborate a comprehensive and systematic philosophy from a “logical” starting point. He is perhaps most well-known for his social and political philosophy and for his teleological account of history, an account which was later taken over by Karl Marx and “inverted” into a materialist theory of an historical development culminating in communism. For most of the twentieth century, the “logical” and systematic side of Hegel's thought had been largely forgotten, but his political and social philosophy continued to attract interest and support. Since the 1970s, a degree of more general philosophical interest in Hegel’s systematic thought has also been revived, often treating Hegel’s philosophy in relation to the earlier “transcendental” idealism of Immanuel Kant.

Key works Hegel's first major publication was his Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) [Hegel 1977], published in 1807. Working through this work was meant to lift the reader from their naturally perspectival view of the world to the objective standpoint of philosophy or "science" (Wissenschaft). This work was followed by his Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik) published in three volumes in 1812, 1813 and 1816 [Hegel 2010], and then, in 1817, his Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences, comprising a shortened "Logic" [Hegel 2010], a "Philosophy of Nature" [Hegel 1970] and a "Philosophy of Spirit" [Hegel 1894]. While occupying the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin, Hegel gave multiple lecture series on the Philosophy of History [Hegel 1975], the History of Philosophy [Brown 2009, Brown 2006, Brown 2009], Aesthetics [Hegel 1998, Hegel 1998], and Philosophy of Religion [Hegel 2006].
Introductions Online encyclopedia articles: David A. Duquette, "Hegel's Social and Political Thought" [Duquette 2001]; Paul Redding, "G. W. F. Hegel" [Redding 2008]. Book-length introductory works: Frederick Beiser, Hegel [Beiser 2002]; Stephen Houlgate, An Introduction to Hegel: Freedom, Truth and History [Houlgate 2005]; Peter Singer, Hegel: A Very Short Introduction [Singer 2001]. Terry Pinkard, Hegel: A Biography [Pinkard 2000] provides a comprehensive introduction to all spheres of Hegel's philosophy presented in the context of his biography.
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Hegel, Misc (365)

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  1. Principle and Practice in Hegel’s Critique of Rousseau.Paul Franco - 2016 - In Christopher Lynch & Jonathan Marks (eds.), Principle and prudence in Western political thought. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 209-233.
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  2. Does Philosophy Have More Than One Method? On Intercultural Comparison, Hegel, and Universality.Timo Ennen - 2023 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 15 (3):208-219.
    This essay takes issue with two possible stances in comparative and intercultural philosophy. First, there is the idea of ascertaining a method or conditions of possibility before engaging in intercultural comparison. This amounts to contemplating a form prior to any content. Second, there is the idea that a plurality of given philosophical traditions exist that do not have to be held together by a notion of what philosophy is. This is equivalent to asserting a diversity of content without giving it (...)
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  3. Hegel’s Wasteland: Situating T.S. Eliot’s Representations of History in Conversation with Hegel: Eliot’s Representations of History in Conversation with Hegel.Virginia Moscetti - 2024 - Journal of Neurophilosophy 3 (1).
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  4. The Hegelian Art of the Table of Contents: On the logic, and tradition, of Hegel's organizational practices.S. F. Kislev - 2024 - Substance 53 (1):41-59.
    Abstract:During the early 19th century, a peculiarly systematic way of organizing books emerged in Germany. This systematization, which purported to be a rational organization of subject matter, was an outgrowth of the philosophy of Hegel. This article attempts to outline Hegel's organizational practice. It argues that Hegel's encyclopedia was a reaction against the Enlightenment encyclopedia, and that it attempted to restore the systematic mindset of pre-modern reference books. Yet it did this, not in a straightforward fashion, but by developing a (...)
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  5. Introduction to Part 1 of the Themed Issue, ‘Racism and Colonialism in Hegel's Philosophy’: Rationale and Topics.Daniel James & Franz Knappik - 2024 - Hegel Bulletin 45 (1):1-5.
    It is increasingly realized today that Western modernity has not only promoted progressive ideals such as scientific thought, human rights and democratic political systems. Its history is also marked by a much darker side, one of brutal conquest, biological and cultural destruction, enslavement and exploitation of non-European peoples in the context of European colonialism. This dark side of Western modernity was legitimized by pro-colonial ideologies of property, war, civilization, progress and race. Such ideologies emerged in areas like jurisprudence and philosophy (...)
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  6. Where Did Hegel Go Wrong on Race?Michael O. Hardimon - 2024 - Hegel Bulletin 45 (1):23-42.
    Where exactly did Hegel go wrong on race? Moellendorf helpfully tells us that Hegel's treatment of race begins systematically in the Philosophy of Subjective Spirit and that he went wrong philosophically in the use of the biological category of race. This is basically correct but requires precisification. This article considers why Hegel's category of race is not unambiguously biological. Race's biological status can be problematized from the standpoint of contemporary biology and from the standpoint of Hegel's system. The textual placement (...)
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  7. Hegel, Colonialism and Postcolonial Hegelianism.Jamila M. H. Mascat - 2024 - Hegel Bulletin 45 (1):120-143.
    This article aims to shed light on Hegel's conception of colonialism and its implications for the postcolonial reception of Hegel. Drawing on the abundant literature on the topic, it begins by engaging with Hegel's understanding of colonialism through a close reading of relevant passages of his works, in particular the Heidelberg Vorlesungen über Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft (1817–18), the Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts (1821), the Vorlesungen über die Philosophie des Rechts (1819/20, 1821/22, 1822/23, 1824/25) and the Vorlesungen über die Philosophie (...)
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  8. Notes on Dialectics: C. L. R. James's Hegel.Evgenia Ilieva - 2024 - Hegel Bulletin 45 (1):144-165.
    Hegel's philosophy has been a fundamental reference point for a broad network of mid-twentieth century anticolonial thinkers and activists, a major inspiration for figures such as W. E. B. Du Bois, Frantz Fanon, C. L. R. James, Martin Luther King Jr. and Angela Davis, among others. James's Notes on Dialectics (1948) constitutes one of the most significant textual engagements with Hegel from within that internationalist tradition. Even though James considered Notes to be his most important work and one of his (...)
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  9. Jacob McNulty, Hegel's Logic and Metaphysics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023. ISBN 978-1-316-51256-2. Pp. xxi + 264. £75/$99.00. [REVIEW]Mark Alznauer - 2024 - Hegel Bulletin 45 (1):175-179.
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  10. Hegel and Egypt's African Element.Robert Bernasconi - 2024 - Hegel Bulletin 45 (1):6-22.
    Contrary to the widespread view that Hegel excluded Africa from what he called world history proper, the specifically African element of Egypt was indispensable to his account of the pivotal dialectical moment that saw spirit's release from its immersion in nature. Hegel's racist caricature of Africans in the early part of the lectures was not gratuitous, something that commentators can leave to one side. It was integral to his dialectical account of world history because it served to generate the contradiction (...)
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  11. Nahum Brown, Hegel's Actuality Chapter of the Science of Logic: A Commentary. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2019. ISBN 978-1-4985-6056-6 (hbk). Pp. xxvii+97. [REVIEW]Daniel Kaplan - 2024 - Hegel Bulletin 45 (1):166-169.
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  12. El Platón de Hegel: propiedad privada y libertad subjetiva.Alejandro Mauro Gutiérrez - 2024 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 69:85-117.
    En este artículo analizo la interpretación de Hegel de la filosofía política platónica (particularmente la República) en determinados pasajes de dos obras puntuales: los Fundamentos de la filosofía del derecho y las Lecciones sobre Platón. Considero dos ejes específicos de análisis: la propiedad privada y la libertad subjetiva. El objetivo del artículo es señalar la relación que Hegel establece con Platón o, al menos, con República. Muestro que, en realidad, en este diálogo existen ciertos matices con respecto a los dos (...)
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  13. La nueva metafísica de Hegel desde el prólogo a la Wissenschaft der Logik (1812).Joan Cordero Redondo - 2024 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 69:55-83.
    Este artículo analiza el prólogo de 1812 a la Ciencia de la lógica (WdL) y responde a los planteos: ¿de qué trata esta obra?, ¿qué hay de lógico en la expresión “lógica”?, ¿es ”lógica” un nombre sustituto para “metafísica” o, más bien, la WdL es la inauguración de una disciplina completamente nueva y que dista de la metafísica en el sentido tradicional? Concluyo que la lógica es aquí el desarrollo del concepto expresada como libertad social.
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  14. Hegel’s world revolutions.Umur Başdaş - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-4.
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  15. Hegels objektive Vernunft: Kritik der Versöhnung.Hans-Ernst Schiller - 2020 - Springe: Zu Klampen!.
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  16. Hegel with Hamlet : Questions of method.Anselm Haverkamp - 2021 - In Lowell Gallagher, James Kearney & Julia Reinhard Lupton (eds.), Entertaining the idea: Shakespeare, philosophy, and performance. University of Toronto Press in association with the UCLA Center for Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Studies and the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library.
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  17. The Peculiarities of Hegel's Ethics.Vardenis Pavardenis - 1999 - Problemos 56.
    The article deals with four actual aspects of Hegelian philosophy of morals and education. It is argued that his propositions are significant for the program of the present moral education. The first peculiarity consists in the statements, that present the matter for an analysis of the principles of morals, that are simultaneous but taken one with another are not consistent with. The other peculiarity is a topic of an activity, of bringing the issues nearer to the real life, of the (...)
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  18. Der Pöbel und die Freiheit: eine Untersuchung zur Philosophie des Rechts von G.W.F. Hegel.Mesut Bayraktar - 2021 - Köln: PapyRossa Verlag.
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  19. Preliminari al pensiero puro: tra mente e mondo in G. W. F. Hegel.Paolo Livieri - 2021 - Bolzano: QuiEdit.
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  20. Konkretion der Methode: die Dialektik und ihre teleologische Entwicklung in Hegels Logik.Lars Heckenroth - 2021 - Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag.
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  21. Schelling's late philosophy in confrontation with Hegel. By Peter Dews, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2022. pp. 344. $110 (hardback). [REVIEW]Eliza Starbuck Little - 2024 - European Journal of Philosophy 32 (1):296-298.
    European Journal of Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  22. Recognition and the self in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit.Stephen Houlgate - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-7.
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  23. Hegel’de Aklın Zorunlu Tarihselliği Üzerine.Erdem Baykal - 2024 - Beytulhikme An International Journal of Philosophy 14 (14:1):71-92.
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  24. Zarathustra's moral tyranny: spectres of Kant, Hegel and Feuerbach.Francesca Cauchi - 2022 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Introduction -- Nietzsche's ascetic morality -- The Kanitan rational will and the tyranny of self-overcoming -- Hegel's 'labour of the negative' and the Lacerations of self-negation -- The bitter cup of pur love : Feuerbach and Zarathustra -- Conclusion.
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  25. Danza turbulenta: Hegel y Deleuze.Julián Ferreyra - 2022 - [Adrogué?]: La Cebra.
    El prejuicio más aciago de la filosofía es que su historia jalona rivalidades sangrientas, conflictos insuperables, superaciones radicales, reinicios absolutos, fines y clausuras. Se trata de una concepción pobre y desangelada de esta pasión que impulsa mi viaje por la tierra. El paisaje de lo trascendental se anima cuando se lo concibe como el trabajo conjunto de una saga de artistas embriagados por el pensamiento. Esto no quiere decir que se trate de una suave danza de almas bellas; por el (...)
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  26. Hegels Ägypten: die Sphinx und der Geist in der Geschichte.Peter Eschweiler - 2022 - Paderborn: Brill / Fink.
    I. Aufklärung und anthropologischen Wende - Goethe, Kant, Schiller, Novalis und Herder über Ägypten -- II. Hegel über Ägypten - Zu den Quellen -- III. Zur Geschichtstheorie und -philosophie -- IV. Zur Religion -- V. Zur Kunst und Ästhetic -- VI. Hegel als Inspiration- Typologie und Semiotik -- VII. Geistesepochen?- Moderne und postmoderne Hegellektüren -- Schluss- Abschied vom Imperium der Rationalität.
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  27. Dialectique et existence: de Hegel à Heidegger.Jacques Colette - 2023 - Grenoble: Millon.
  28. Schopenhauer and Hegel.Stephen Houlgate - 2023 - In David Bather Woods & Timothy Stoll (eds.), The Schopenhauerian mind. New York, NY: Routledge.
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  29. Natural law in the ideas of Bloch, Hegel and Marxism.Holger Glinka - 2023 - In Henk de Berg & Cat Moir (eds.), Rethinking Ernst Bloch. Boston: Brill.
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  30. Hegel's theory of self-conscious life.Guido Seddone - 2022 - Boston: Brill.
    This book strives to deal with Hegel's thought by means of a thorough, unitarian and logical approach and to enforce the idea that philosophy is rigorous as far as it is able to consistently tackle the question of self-consciousness. It results that the logic underlying every philosophical interest traces back to the self-referring investigation about life in the mode of self-consciousness, by which social practices and their history can be grasped. Once we assess that self-consciousness is life through the concept, (...)
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  31. Antigona: esej o Heglovi politični filozofiji.Gregor Moder - 2023 - Ljubljana: Fakulteta za družbene vede, Založba FDV.
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  32. Schelling, Hegel, and the philosophy of nature: from matter to spirit.Benjamin Berger - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This book develops an original interpretation of the relationship between F.W.J. Schelling and G.W.F. Hegel. It argues that the difference between these philosophers must be understood in light of their shared commitment to the philosophy of nature and the idea that spirit, or humanity, emerges from the natural world. The author makes a case for the contemporary relevance of German idealist philosophy of nature by walking the reader through its major themes, motivations, and arguments. Along the way, Schelling and Hegel (...)
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  33. Hegel and the present of art's past character.Alberto L. Siani - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This book reclaims Hegel's notion of the "end of art"-or, more precisely, of "art's past character"-not just as a piece of the history of philosophy but as a living critical and interpretive methodology. It addresses the presence of the past character of art both in Hegel and contemporary philosophy and aesthetics. The book's innovative contribution lies in unifying the Hegelian thesis with discussions of contemporary art and philosophy. The author not only offers a Hegelian exegesis but applies the idea of (...)
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  34. Badiou, infinity, and subjectivity: reading Hegel and Lacan after Badiou.Reza Naderi - 2024 - Lanham: Lexington Books.
    This book focuses on the three main categories of Badiou's philosophy-being, truth, and subject- which are elaborated according to three encounters: structure, real, and mathematical infinity. It articulates an underlying theory, "discipline," constituted based on these encounters, which reveals the inner logic of Badiou's method.
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  35. The dialectic of absolute emptiness: revisiting Watsuji's engagement with Hegel.Hiroshi Abe - 2025 - In Gregory S. Moss & Takeshi Morisato (eds.), The dialectics of absolute nothingness: the legacies of German philosophy in the Kyoto school. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
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  36. Tanabe Hajime and Hegel's dialectic: a negative ground for the birth of Tanabean philosophy.Takeshi Morisato - 2025 - In Gregory S. Moss & Takeshi Morisato (eds.), The dialectics of absolute nothingness: the legacies of German philosophy in the Kyoto school. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
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  37. Hegel’s Philosophy of World History as Theodicy.Pierre Chételat - 2010 - In Will Dudley (ed.), Hegel and History. State University of New York Press. pp. 215-230.
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  38. The Mechanization of Labor and the Birth of Modern Ethicality in Hegel’s Jena Political Writings.Nathan Ross - 2010 - In Will Dudley (ed.), Hegel and History. State University of New York Press. pp. 177-194.
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  39. Hegel’s New World.Sûrya Parekh - 2010 - In Will Dudley (ed.), Hegel and History. State University of New York Press. pp. 111-131.
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  40. Hegel’s Account of the Present.Karin de Boer - 2010 - In Will Dudley (ed.), Hegel and History. State University of New York Press. pp. 51-67.
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  41. Hegel, Utopia, and the Philosophy of History.Mario Wenning - 2010 - In Will Dudley (ed.), Hegel and History. State University of New York Press. pp. 35-50.
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  42. Pragmatism and Idealism: Rorty and Hegel on Representation and Reality, written by Brandom, R.B.Kaveh Boveiri - forthcoming - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis:1-5.
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  43. Reconsidering Heidegger’s Temporal Idealism.Morganna Lambeth & Christopher Yeomans - 2024 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 28 (2):361-382.
    Is Heidegger a temporal idealist or a temporal realist? That is, does he believe that time is supplied by the human standpoint, or that we derive it from the structure of the world around us? Blattner makes a compelling case that Heidegger is a temporal idealist, but a failed one. Rousse, however, argues that Heidegger’s position is more promising when he is interpreted not as an unsuccessful idealist, but as an underdeveloped realist. In contrast, we offer arguments grounded in German (...)
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  44. Grounds and First Principles in Heidegger and Hegel.Samuel Patrick Munroe - 2024 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 28 (2):337-359.
    In this article, I provide an interpretation of Heidegger’s critique of Hegel. Hegel’s ability to provide a presuppositionless metaphysics is often taken to be the core strength of his Logic. In his critique of Hegel, Heidegger attempts to show that Hegel in fact smuggles in a decisive presupposition concerning being. Building on the recent work of Robert Pippin, I argue that we can understand this critique by situating it in terms of their common understanding of problems of first principles. Once (...)
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  45. Reflection and Mediation: Parliament and the Public Sphere in Hegel’s Philosophy of Law - A Critique of Honneth’s Interpretation of Hegel -. 이지선 - 2024 - CHUL HAK SA SANG - Journal of Philosophical Ideas 91 (91):41-68.
    헤겔은 『법철학』에서 의회와 공론장을 “국가”의 핵심적인 제도로서 다룬다. 헤겔의 논의가 통상적인 자유주의적인 논의와 상당한 차이를 보이는 까닭에, 그 이론적인 근거를 규명하려는 노력이 다각도로 이루어져 왔다. 본 논문은 이 주제와 관련해 반성과 매개의 개념에 주목한다. 의회와 공론장을 사회와 국가 사이의 반성적인 매개기관으로서 규정하는 것은 일반적이나, 헤겔의 사유는 반성과 매개에 대한 그의 독특한 관점을 통해서 고유성을 드러낸다. 헤겔에서 이 개념들은 사회의 합리성 및 국가의 정당성 문제와의 관련성에서가 아니라, 국가가 사회의 국가로서 존립하고 기능할 수 있어야 한다는 문제와 관련해서 그 의미를 얻는다. 본 논문은 (...)
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  46. Ciò che è vivo e ciò che è morto della filosofia di Hegel.Benedetto Croce - 1907 - Bari,: G. Laterza & figli.
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  47. The mystical element in Hegel's early theological writings.George Plimpton Adams - 1910 - Berkeley,: The University press.
    This Is A New Release Of The Original 1910 Edition.
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  48. The Difference Between Analytical and Synthetic in the Philosophy of Georg Friedrich Hegel.Elnur Yusifzada - 2024 - Metafizika 7 (1):77-90.
    The main goal of the article is to briefly review the difference between analytical and synthetic in Hegel's philosophy, as well as to determine whether this philosopher was a follower of Kant's philosophy or not. First, in the "Introduction" section, the difference between analytical and synthetic in Kant's philosophy is shown; moreover, Kant's influence on Hegel and, generally, on the period in question and the conclusions of both scientists on this issue are analyzed. In the article, the main features of (...)
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  49. Hegel i Paris – Beauvoir og den feministiske kritiks dialektiske arv.Anna Cornelia Ploug - 2021 - Slagmark - Tidsskrift for Idéhistorie 83:77-97.
    While it is well-known that the intense albeit short-lived Hegel renaissance of the 1930s’ and 1940s’ France had a huge influence on later intellectual currents of the 20th century, its importance to Simone de Beauvoir is often left unnoticed or reduced to her appropriation of the master/slave dialectic. This paper argues that Beauvoir – who came to know Hegel through the work of Alexandre Kojève as well as her own studies during the war – in fact, makes recourse to Hegelian (...)
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  50. Georq Vilhelm Fridrix Hegel fəlsəfəsində analitik və sintetikin fərqi.Elnur Yusifzadə - 2024 - Metafizika 7 (1):77-90.
    The main goal of the article is to briefly review the difference between analytical and synthetic in Hegel's philosophy, as well as to determine whether this philosopher was a follower of Kant's philosophy or not. First, in the "Introduction" section, the difference between analytical and synthetic in Kant's philosophy is shown; moreover, Kant's influence on Hegel and, generally, on the period in question and the conclusions of both scientists on this issue are analyzed. In the article, the main features of (...)
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