About this topic
Summary Moral norms are intimately connected to how we, as moral agents, think, feel, and behave. As the interdisciplinary study of the mind, cognitive science is well suited to address such issues as they relate to ethical theory. Fruitful areas of inquiry include, for example: the nature of happiness, character, personality, emotions, and choice; the kinds of processes in the brain that generate our moral intuitions (e.g. affective versus cognitive); the evolutionary origins of our moral capacities (e.g. moral emotions, intuitions, and motivation); cross-cultural differences in moral norms; and so on. 
Key works Collections of key works in cognitive science generally include Nadelhoffer et al 2010 (both historical and contemporary articles) and Sinnott-Armstrong 2008 (a comprehensive state of the art with multiple volumes full of new articles and replies from prominent philosophers and scientists). On some more specific topics: Sober & Wilson 1998 (evolution of altruism), Joyce 2005 (evolution of morality), Doris 2002 (skepticism about character), Haidt 2001 (moral cogniiton), Mikhail 2009 (moral cognition), Greene 2013 (neuroethics), Bloom 2013 (moral development).
Introductions Doris 2010 provides an excellent collection of original articles for a handbook. Doris & Stich 2008 and May 2017 are overviews of empirical work in moral psychology, while more specific topics are covered in Andreou 2006 (ethics and psychology), Levy 2009 (neuroethics), May 2014 (moral cognition).
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  1. Ethical Naturalism: Problems and Prospects.Louise M. Antony & Ernesto V. Garcia - 2023 - In Paul Bloomfield & David Copp (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Moral Realism. Oxford University Press. pp. 193-219.
    This chapter discusses fundamental problems and prospects for ethical naturalism. Section 1 explains what is meant by “ethical naturalism” and surveys different versions of the view. Section 2 discusses the central philosophical challenge to ethical naturalism, viz., the “Normativity Objection.” Section 3 offers a battery of responses to it on behalf of the ethical naturalist. Section 4 explores a promising and novel approach to ethical naturalism, viz., a moral nativist theory that that combines a Chomskian approach to moral competence with (...)
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  2. Psychedelics and Moral Psychology: The Case of Forgiveness.Samir Chopra & Chris Letheby - forthcoming - In Chris Letheby & Philip Gerrans (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Psychedelic Psychiatry. Oxford University Press.
    Several authors have recently suggested that classic psychedelics might be safe and effective agents of moral enhancement. This raises the question: can we learn anything interesting about the nature of moral experience from a close examination of transformative psychedelic experiences? The interdisciplinary enterprise of philosophical psychopathology attempts to learn about the structure and function of the “ordinary” mind by studying the radically altered mind. By analogy, in this chapter we argue that we can gain knowledge about the everyday moral life (...)
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  3. 道德命題是否能作為感知內容呢︖.Lian Jr-Jiun & 連 祉鈞 - 2021 - 台灣哲學學會2021年學術研討會「台灣哲學 與在台灣的哲學研究」(Taiwanese Philosophical Association Annual Conference 2021).
    內容型道德感知主義者(Contentful Moral Perceptualists): Audi (2013), Lord (2018), McNaughton (1988), McBrayer (2010a, 2010b), Cowan (2014, 2015), Werner (2016, 2018) 宣稱 道德命題(moral proposition)可以作為道德主體的感知內容(content of perception)。然而,在筆 者原創的詮釋下,晚近反駁道德感知主義的學者,如: Faraci (2015), Väyrynen (2018), Chudnoff (2015),則隱約透露出以下想法:「與其宣稱道德命題是感知內容,不如宣稱道德 命題是認知信念內容(content of cognition)〕更為合理」。Faraci、Väyrynen、Chudnoff 都認為 「內容型道德感知主義者所謂的道德感知」背後其實是受到宰制型的道德原則(dominative moral principles)所主導的,是一種從原則所推論產生的心理狀態; 也因此,上述反駁者認為 「內容型道德感知主義者所謂的〔道德感知〕」缺乏貨真價實的感知經驗所具有的「非推論 的」(non-inferential)特徵,並不是真正的感知。本文將評估:「內容型的道德感知模型」是 否有辦法回應上述反駁者所提出的挑戰呢? 筆者將為肯定的答案提供初步的辯護。.
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  4. Do Moral Beliefs Motivate Action?Rodrigo Díaz - 2023 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 26 (3):377-395.
    Do moral beliefs motivate action? To answer this question, extant arguments have considered hypothetical cases of association (dissociation) between agents’ moral beliefs and actions. In this paper, I argue that this approach can be improved by studying people’s actual moral beliefs and actions using empirical research methods. I present three new studies showing that, when the stakes are high, associations between participants’ moral beliefs and actions are actually explained by co-occurring but independent moral emotions. These findings suggest that moral beliefs (...)
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  5. Beyond the Brave New Nudge: Activating Ethical Reflection Over Behavioral Reaction.Julian Friedland, Kristian Myrseth & David Balkin - 2023 - Academy of Management Perspectives 37 (4):297-313.
    Behavioral intervention techniques leveraging reactive responses have gained popularity as tools for promoting ethical behavior. Choice architects, for example, design and present default opt-out options to nudge individuals into accepting preselected choices deemed beneficial to both the decision-maker and society. Such interventions can also employ mild financial incentives or affective triggers including joy, fear, empathy, social pressure, and reputational rewards. We argue, however, that ethical competence is achieved via reflection, and that heavy reliance on reactive behavioral interventions can undermine the (...)
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  6. In praise of animals.Rhys Borchert & Aliya R. Dewey - 2023 - Biology and Philosophy 38 (4):1-26.
    Reasons-responsive accounts of praiseworthiness say, roughly, that an agent is praiseworthy for an action just in case the reasons that explain why they acted are also the reasons that explain why the action is right. In this paper, we argue that reasons-responsive accounts imply that some actions of non-human animals are praiseworthy. Trying to exclude non-human animals, we argue, risks neglecting cases of inadvertent virtue in human action and undermining the anti-intellectualist commitments that are typically associated with reasons-responsive accounts. Of (...)
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  7. Sympathetic Joy.Daniel Coren - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-11.
    Unlike Yiddish (fargin) and Sanskrit (muditā), English has no single word to describe the practice of sharing someone else’s joy at their success. Sympathetic joy has also escaped attention in philosophy. We are familiar with schadenfreude, begrudging, envy, jealousy, and other terms describing either (a) pleasure at someone else’s misfortune or (b) displeasure at someone else’s good fortune. But what, exactly, is sympathetic joy? I argue that it is a short-term or long-term feeling of great delight at another’s good fortune, (...)
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  8. Sympathetic Joy.Daniel Coren - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-11.
    Unlike Yiddish (fargin) and Sanskrit (muditā), English has no single word to describe the practice of sharing someone else’s joy at their success. Sympathetic joy has also escaped attention in philosophy. We are familiar with schadenfreude, begrudging, envy, jealousy, and other terms describing either (a) pleasure at someone else’s misfortune or (b) displeasure at someone else’s good fortune. But what, exactly, is sympathetic joy? I argue that it is a short-term or long-term feeling of great delight at another’s good fortune, (...)
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  9. Change the People or Change the Policy? On the Moral Education of Antiracists.Alex Madva, Daniel Kelly & Michael Brownstein - 2023 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (1):1-20.
    While those who take a "structuralist" approach to racial justice issues are right to call attention to the importance of social practices, laws, etc., they sometimes go too far by suggesting that antiracist efforts ought to focus on changing unjust social systems rather than changing individuals’ minds. We argue that while the “either/or” thinking implied by this framing is intuitive and pervasive, it is misleading and self-undermining. We instead advocate for a “both/and” approach to antiracist moral education that explicitly teaches (...)
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  10. Should editors with multiple retractions or a record of academic misconduct serve on journal editorial boards?Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva - 2022 - European Science Editing 48:e95926.
    In the academic world, despite their corrective nature, there is still a negative stigma attached to retractions, even more so if they are based on ethical infractions. Editors-in-chief and editors are role models in academic and scholarly communities. Thus, if they have multiple retractions or a record of academic misconduct, this viewpoint argues that they should not serve on journals’ editorial boards. The exception is where such individuals have displayed a clear path of scholarly reform. Policy and guidance is needed (...)
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  11. A Better Ape: The Evolution of the Moral Mind and How it Made Us Human.Victor Kumar & Richmond Campbell - 2022 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Edited by Richmond Campbell.
    Humans are moral creatures. Among all life on Earth, we alone experience rich moral emotions, follow complex rules governing how we treat one another, and engage in moral dialogue. But how did human morality evolve? And can humans become morally evolved? -/- In A Better Ape, Victor Kumar and Richmond Campbell draw on the latest research in the biological and social sciences to explain the key role that morality has played in human evolution. They explore the moral traits that humans (...)
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  12. Diversity and Moral Address.Daphne Brandenburg - 2022 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 39 (4):631-644.
    This article evaluates communicative approaches to responsibility within the Strawsonian tradition. These approaches consider reactive attitudes to be forms of moral address and consider responsiveness to moral address a condition on responsible agency. The article consists of a critical and a positive part. In the first part, I identify a risk for these theories. They often provide an overly narrow account of how we can communicate with others about perceived moral disregard. I argue that, when read this way, a conversational (...)
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  13. 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos. [REVIEW]Scott D. G. Ventureyra - 2018 - Crisis Magazine.
    This link contains two reviews of Jordan Peterson's 12 Rules for Life. My review is the second one.
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  14. Revisiting the Social Origins of Human Morality: A Constructivist Perspective on the Nature of Moral Sense-Making.Andrés Segovia-Cuéllar - 2021 - Topoi 41 (2):313-325.
    A recent turn in the cognitive sciences has deepened the attention on embodied and situated dynamics for explaining different cognitive processes such as perception, emotion, and social cognition. This has fostered an extensive interest in the social and ‘intersubjective’ nature of moral behavior, especially from the perspective of enactivism. In this paper, I argue that embodied and situated perspectives, enactivism in particular, nonetheless require further improvements with regards to their analysis of the social nature of human morality. In brief, enactivist (...)
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  15. Mindshaping, Enactivism, and Ideological Oppression.Michelle Maiese - 2021 - Topoi 41 (2):341-354.
    One of humans’ distinctive cognitive abilities is that they develop an array of capacities through an enculturation process. In “Cognition as a Social Skill,” Sally points to one of the dangers associated with enculturation: ideological oppression. To conceptualize how such oppression takes root, Haslanager appeals to notions of mindshaping and social coordination, whereby people participate in oppressive social practices unthinkingly or even willingly. Arguably, an appeal to mindshaping provides a new kind of argument, grounded in philosophy of mind, which supports (...)
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  16. DA EDUCAÇÃO ENTRE UM NIILISMO RADICAL E UMA “VONTADE DE ARTE” NO FILME INSTITUTO BENJAMENTA E A SUPERAÇÃO DAS IMAGENS DOGMÁTICAS DO PENSAMENTO EM DELEUZE E GUATTARI.Luiz Carlos Mariano da Rosa - 2021 - Revista SCIAS Arte/Educação 2 (10):p. 51-79.
    Baseado na perspectiva da geofilosofia de Deleuze e Guattari em um processo que se sobrepõe à relação envolvendo sujeito e objeto enquanto fronteira do pensamento e que implica o pensamento como desdobramento de uma violência e as formações genealógicas do saber, o artigo se detém na análise do paradoxal mundo do Instituto Benjamenta (1995) em uma construção fílmica adaptada do romance Jakob von Gunten, de Robert Walser, que encerra um movimento que traz como conteúdo a matéria que se impõe ao (...)
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  17. Penalties of a Judgmental Mind.Zachary Behlok - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Barnes and Noble Press.
    This text, entitled Penalties of a Judgmental Mind, is philosophical look into the consequences of judgmental thoughts or behaviors, as well as how to deal with them. Within this text, many methods of improving your own negatives, or even those of others, are laid out in an understandable and easy to read format. The idea behind this text is that we can all improve in removing bias and prejudice from society so long as we put in the effort.
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  18. Embodied Institutions and Epistemic Exclusions: Affect in the Academy.Millicent Churcher - 2022 - Topoi 41 (5):895-904.
    This paper explores the intersection between affect, emotion, social imaginaries, and institutions through the lens of epistemic power in the academy. It argues that attending to this intersection is critical for a fuller understanding of how affective and emotional dynamics can assist to entrench, but also disrupt, asymmetries of epistemic privilege that cut across lines of race, sex, and other markers of social difference. As part of this discussion the paper reflects on the possibility of intervening in dominant social imaginaries (...)
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  19. Children prioritize humans over animals less than adults do.Matti Wilks, Lucius Caviola, Guy Kahane & Paul Bloom - 2021 - Psychological Science 1 (32):27-38.
    Is the tendency to morally prioritize humans over animals weaker in children than adults? In two pre-registered studies (N = 622), 5- to 9-year-old children and adults were presented with moral dilemmas pitting varying numbers of humans against varying numbers of either dogs or pigs and were asked who should be saved. In both studies, children had a weaker tendency to prioritize humans over animals than adults. They often chose to save multiple dogs over one human, and many valued the (...)
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  20. Ethical leadership and employee ethical behaviour: exploring dual-mediation paths of ethical climate and organisational justice: empirical study on Iraqi organisations.Hussam Al Halbusi, Mohd Nazari Ismail & Safiah Binti Omar - 2021 - International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 15 (3):303–325.
    Due to ethical lapses of leaders, interest in ethical leadership has grown, raising important questions about the responsibility of leaders in ensuring moral and ethical conduct. Research conducted on ethical leadership failed to investigate the active role that the characteristics of ethical climate and organisational justice have an increasing or decreasing influence on the ethical leadership in the organisation’s outcomes of employees’ ethical behaviour. Thus, this study examined the dual-mediations of work ethical climate and organisational justice on the relation of (...)
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  21. A Framework for the Emotional Psychology of Group Membership.Taylor Davis & Daniel Kelly - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-22.
    The vast literature on negative treatment of outgroups and favoritism toward ingroups provides many local insights but is largely fragmented, lacking an overarching framework that might provide a unified overview and guide conceptual integration. As a result, it remains unclear where different local perspectives conflict, how they may reinforce one another, and where they leave gaps in our knowledge of the phenomena. Our aim is to start constructing a framework to help remedy this situation. We first identify a few key (...)
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  22. Review of The Meaning of Disgust by Colin McGinn. [REVIEW]Daniel Kelly - 2012 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1:1-8.
    Colin McGinn's The Meaning of Disgust numbers among several scholarly books on disgust that have been published in the last couple of years (including, in the interest of full and up front disclosure, one by the writer of this review). McGinn's book argues for a coherent, if incredible, account of the essence of disgustingness and of the emotion of disgust, and reflects on the potential significance of that account for different areas of human concern. It also bears many of the (...)
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  23. Why do we develop a curriculum in the Humanities and Social Sciences?Abduljaleel Kadhim Alwali - 2009 - ICERI ,International Conference of Education Research and Innovation.
    Since the beginning of humanity and up till now, education is a cornerstone in building human communities. No real social development will take place unless there are scientific and specific education principles. Pursuing the human march is the best example. During the Greek times, the philosophers focused their attention on education. Plato's Academy and Lyceum Aristotle's are educational institutes which produced designs for educational curricula delineated by Plato in his Republic and Aristotle in Nichomachean Ethics. Within Islamic heritage, Prophet Mohamed (...)
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  24. The Self, Self-knowledge, and a Flattened Path to Self-improvement.Robert D. Rupert - manuscript
    This essay explores the connection between theories of the self and theories of self-knowledge, arguing (a) that empirical results strongly support a certain negative thesis about the self, a thesis about what the self isn’t, and (b) that a more promising account of the self makes available unorthodox – but likely apt – ways of characterizing self-knowledge. Regarding (a), I argue that the human self does not appear at a personal level the autonomous (or quasi-autonomous) status of which might provide (...)
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  25. Moral Foundations are not Moral Propositions.Dan Haas - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42 (154).
    Joshua May responds to skepticism about moral knowledge via appeal to empirical work on moral foundations. I demonstrate that the moral foundations literature is not able to do the work May needs. It demonstrates shared moral cognition, not shared moral judgment, and therefore, May's attempt to defeat general skepticism fails.
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  26. Era posverdad: Comunicación, política y filosofía.David Villena Saldaña - 2019 - Psicopraxia 1 (1):17-26.
    According to the Oxford dictionaries, the term ‘post-truth’ is the word of the year 2016. This title was granted to ‘post-truth’ because of its virtual omnipresence in the reviews and assessments of several political events that took place during that year. The present essay shows how post-truth politicians try to connect with people, and offers a reflection on the philosophical implications of this new attitude towards truth and empirical evidence.
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  27. Moral Worth and Consciousness: In Defense of a Value-Secured Reliability Theory.John W. Robison - 2020 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    What minimal role—if any—must consciousness of morally significant information play in an account of moral worth? According to one popular view, a right action is morally worthy only if the agent is conscious (in some sense) of the facts that make it right. I argue against this consciousness condition and close cousins of it. As I show, consciousness of such facts requires much more sophistication than writers typically suggest—this condition would bar from moral worth most ordinary, intuitively morally worthy agents. (...)
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  28. Review of Hanno Sauer, Moral Thinking, Fast and Slow. [REVIEW]Brendan de Kenessey - 2019 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2019.
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  29. Empirical research on folk moral objectivism.Thomas Pölzler & Jennifer Cole Wright - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (5).
    Lay persons may have intuitions about morality's objectivity. What do these intuitions look like? And what are their causes and consequences? In recent years, an increasing number of scholars have begun to investigate these questions empirically. This article presents and assesses the resulting area of research as well as its potential philosophical implications. First, we introduce the methods of empirical research on folk moral objectivism. Second, we provide an overview of the findings that have so far been made. Third, we (...)
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  30. Deliberation and Automaticity in Habitual Acts.Christos Douskos - 2018 - Ethics in Progress 9 (1):25-43.
    Most philosophers and psychologists assume that habitual acts do not ensue from deliberation, but are direct responses to the circumstances: habit essentially involves a variety of automaticity. My objective in this paper is to show that this view is unduly restrictive. A habit can explain an act in various ways. Pointing to the operation of automaticity is only one of them. I draw attention to the fact that acquired automaticity is one outgrowth of habituation that is relevant to explanation, but (...)
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  31. Mind and Morality: An Examination of Hume’s Moral Philosophy. [REVIEW]Andrew Cunningham - 1997 - Review of Metaphysics 51 (1):140-140.
    The main line of argument in Bricke’s stimulating and well-written interpretation of Hume’s moral theory runs roughly as follows: Hume holds that, in practical reasoning, beliefs are subordinate to desires, and is therefore a “conativist” ; we must attribute to Hume the view that both desires and beliefs have representational content, so that they are essentially distinguished by their opposite “directions of fit”—otherwise we cannot forestall the cognitivist from simply insisting that intrinsically motivating beliefs are possible; moral sentiments are motivating (...)
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  32. Is the folk concept of luck normative?Mario Attie-Picker - 2019 - Synthese 198 (2):1-35.
    Contemporary accounts of luck, though differing in pretty much everything, all agree that the concept of luck is descriptive as opposed to normative. This widespread agreement forms part of the framework in which debates in ethics and epistemology, where the concept of luck plays a central role, are carried out. The hypothesis put forward in the present paper is that luck attributions are sensitive to normative considerations. I report five experiments suggesting that luck attributions are influenced by the normative features (...)
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  33. Atheism and Agatheism in the Global Ethical Discourse: Reply to Millican and Thornhill-Miller.Janusz Salamon - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (4):197– 245.
    Peter Millican and Branden Thornhill-Miller have recently argued that contradictions between different religious belief systems, in conjunction with the host of defeaters based on empirical research concerning alleged sources of evidence for ‘perceived supernatural agency’, render all ‘first-order’, that is actual, religious traditions positively irrational, and a source of discord on a global scale. However, since the authors recognise that the ‘secularisation thesis’ appears to be incorrect, and that empirical research provides evidence that religious belief also has beneficial individual and (...)
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  34. Negligence: its moral significance.Santiago Amaya - forthcoming - In Manuel Vargas & John M. Doris (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Moral Psychology.
    This is a draft of my chapter on Negligence for the forthcoming Oxford Handbook in Moral Psychology. It discusses philosophical, psychological, and legal approaches to the attribution of culpability in cases of negligent wrongdoing.
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  35. Cognición Moral.Santiago Amaya - forthcoming - In Introducción a la filosofía de las ciencias cognitiva.
    Este artículo está escrito para una colección de ensayos introductorios sobre filosofía de las ciencias cognitivas. Es una revisión (selectiva) de la literatura sobre la psicología del juicio moral.
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  36. Compulsory moral bioenhancement should be covert.Parker Crutchfield - 2018 - Bioethics 33 (1):112-121.
    Some theorists argue that moral bioenhancement ought to be compulsory. I take this argument one step further, arguing that if moral bioenhancement ought to be compulsory, then its administration ought to be covert rather than overt. This is to say that it is morally preferable for compulsory moral bioenhancement to be administered without the recipients knowing that they are receiving the enhancement. My argument for this is that if moral bioenhancement ought to be compulsory, then its administration is a matter (...)
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  37. Une théorie morale peut-elle être cognitivement trop exigeante?Nicolas Delon - 2015 - Implications Philosophiques.
    Starting from the typical case of utilitarianism, I distinguish three ways a moral theory may be deemed (over-)demanding: practical, epistemic, and cognitive. I focus on the latter, whose specific nature has been overlooked. Taking animal ethics as a case study, I argue that knowledge of human cognition is critical to spelling out moral theories (including their implications) that are accessible and acceptable to the greatest number of agents. In a nutshell: knowing more about our cognitive apparatus with a view to (...)
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  38. Book ReviewsMichael Ruse,. Can a Darwinian Be a Christian? The Relationship between Science and Religion.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Pp. 254. $17.99. [REVIEW]Robert C. Koons - 2004 - Ethics 115 (1):163-166.
  39. Book ReviewsPeter Singer,. A Darwinian Left: Politics, Evolution, and Cooperation. Darwinism Today.New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000. Pp. ix+70. $9.95. [REVIEW]Philip Kitcher - 2002 - Ethics 112 (4):861-863.
  40. The tale of a moderate normative skeptic.Brendan Cline - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (1):141-161.
    While Richard Joyce’s moral skepticism might seem to be an extreme metaethical view, it is actually far more moderate than it might first appear. By articulating four challenges facing his approach to moral skepticism, I argue that Joyce’s moderation is, in fact, a theoretical liability. First, the fact that Joyce is not skeptical about normativity in general makes it possible to develop close approximations to morality, lending support to moderate moral revisionism over moral error theory. Second, Joyce relies on strong, (...)
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  41. Can model-free reinforcement learning explain deontological moral judgments?Alisabeth Ayars - 2016 - Cognition 150 (C):232-242.
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  42. Mental Pathology in its Relation to Normal Psychology.I. Madison Bentley - 1908 - Philosophical Review 17 (5):549.
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  43. The Empirical Nature of Behavior Therapies.Anthony Biglan - 1977 - Behavior and Philosophy 5 (1):1.
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  44. Review of Herbert Spencer: Justice: Being Part IV. of the Principles of Ethics.[REVIEW]Josiah Royce - 1891 - International Journal of Ethics 2 (1):117-123.
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  45. Review of Henry Sidgwick: Lectures on the Ethics of T. H. Green, Mr. Herbert Spencer and J. Martineau[REVIEW]S. H. Mellone - 1903 - International Journal of Ethics 14 (1):106-115.
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  46. Review of Thomas Henry Huxley: Evolution and Ethics, and Other Essays[REVIEW]B. Bosanquet - 1895 - International Journal of Ethics 5 (3):390-392.
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  47. The Problem of Personality. [REVIEW]Savilla Alice Elkus - 1917 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 14 (8):221-222.
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  48. Review of Larry May, Marilyn Friedman and Andy Clark: Mind and Morals: Essays on Ethics and Cognitive Science.[REVIEW]G. F. Schueler - 1997 - Ethics 107 (2):349-351.
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  49. The Perspective of Morality. [REVIEW]Christopher Tollefsen - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 65 (3):674-675.
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  50. Religion and Morality. [REVIEW]G. M. - 1974 - Review of Metaphysics 28 (2):354-355.
    Religion and Morality seeks to answer two fundamental questions regarding the relation between religion and morality. The first is the puzzle posed by Socrates, the so-called ' Euthyphro dilemma', which asks: is morality valuable by virtue of its intrinsic importance and worth, or is morality valuable because, and only because, God approves it and commands us to follow its dictates? The second question is raised by Kierkegaard in Fear and Trembling. He asks: Is a conflict between religion and morality possible? (...)
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