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  1. Average Utilitarianism Implies Solipsistic Egoism.Christian Tarsney - manuscript
    Average utilitarianism and several related axiologies, when paired with the standard expectational theory of decision-making under risk and with reasonable empirical credences, can find their practical prescriptions overwhelmingly determined by the minuscule probability that the agent assigns to solipsism -- i.e., to the hypothesis that there is only one welfare subject in the world, viz., herself. This either (i) constitutes a reductio of these axiologies, (ii) suggests that they require bespoke decision theories, or (iii) furnishes a novel argument for ethical (...)
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  2. Socratic Ruler and Egoism.A. Chu - unknown - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 13.
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  3. Egoismo e altruismo.Lorenzo Greco - forthcoming - In Simone Pollo (ed.), L’etica: una storia per idee. Carocci.
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  4. Eudaimonism, Egoism, and Responsibility for Oneself.Micah Lott - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Research 45:35-56.
    This paper considers the following claim: In order to live well, your first concern must be with yourself. I show how the truth in this claim can be captured by a eudaimonist framework. I distinguish two sorts of self-concern: self-care and self-responsibility. I examine each of these notions. I also consider different senses in which either sort of self-concern might be one’s first concern. I identify the place of each of these ideas in a properly developed eudaimonism. As part of (...)
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  5. Contractarianism.Michael Moehler - 2020 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a systematic defense of moral contractarianism as a distinct approach to the social contract. It elucidates, in comparison to moral conventionalism and moral contractualism, the distinct features of moral contractarianism, its scope, and conceptual and practical challenges that concern the relationship between morality and self-interest, the problems of assurance and compliance, rule-following, counterfactualism, and the nexus between morals and politics. It argues that, if appropriately conceived, moral contractarianism is conceptually coherent, empirically sound, and practically relevant, and has (...)
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  6. Ethical Egoism.Nathan Nobis - 2020 - 1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology.
    Selfishness is often considered a vice and selfish actions are often judged to be wrong. But sometimes we ought to do what’s best for ourselves: in a sense, we sometimes should be selfish. -/- The ethical theory known as ethical egoism states that we are always morally required to do what’s in our own self-interest. The view isn’t that we are selfish—this is psychological egoism—but that we ought to be. -/- This essay explores ethical egoism and the main arguments for (...)
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  7. The Challenge of Selfish Actions to the Fight Against COVID-19 and Mencius's Condemnation of Yang Zhu.Ranie Villaver - 2020 - SES Journal:32-52.
    Because Mencius’s condemnation is equivalent to condemnation of ethical egoism, Mencius’s condemnation of Yang Zhu has something to say about the fight against COVID-19. There are measures, imposed by government, to fight the virus and defiance against these measures is condemned as selfish. In other words, Mencius’s condemnation of Yang Zhu could be said to be saying that the defiance is to be condemned as selfish.
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  8. Self-Love, Egoism and the Selfish Hypothesis: Key Debates From Eighteenth-Century British Moral Philosophy.Christian Maurer - 2019 - Edinburgh, Vereinigtes Königreich: Edinburgh University Press.
    Do people only act out of self-interest? Or is there a less pessimistic explanation for human behaviour? Maurer delves into early-Enlightenment debates on self-love from both famous and lesser known authors, including Lord Shaftesbury, Bernard Mandeville, Francis Hutcheson, Joseph Butler, Archibald Campbell, David Hume and Adam Smith.
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  9. Reasoning with the Exclusionary Other: Classical Scenes for a Postradical Horizon.Carlos Palacios - 2019 - Critical Inquiry 46 (1):97-117.
    Thanks to Michel Foucault, one might say it has become possible to conceive that the political relevance of humanity in modern thought does not have to do with its “philosophical essence” but rather with its “nonessence.” Yet this very idea surfaced earlier in Western thought, at the time of the revolutionary turn towards a politicized humanitarianism, and helped to shape some crucial political strategies making up modern liberal democracy. Its potential eluded even Foucault. I contend that tracing the contours of (...)
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  10. Joy as a Moral Motive: A Response to Yong Huang's Why Be Moral?Justin Tiwald - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 69 (1):280-287.
    This essay is a response to Yong Huang's Why Be Moral? I raise three concerns about Huang's answer to the very question "Why Be Moral?" which is the subject of the first chapter of the book. First, I suggest that the justificatory interpretation of the question is as important as the motivational one, in general and for the Cheng brothers, and that it shouldn't be dismissed as quickly as Huang dismisses it. Second, I argue that joy cannot be the direct (...)
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  11. The Bright Lights on Self Identity and Positive Reciprocity: Spinoza’s Ethics of the Other Focusing on Competency, Sustainability and the Divine Love.Ignace Haaz - 2018 - Journal of Dharma 43 (3):261-284.
    The claim of this paper is to present Spinoza’s view on self-esteem and positive reciprocity, which replaces the human being in a monistic psycho-dynamical affective framework, instead of a dualistic pedestal above nature. Without naturalising the human being in an eliminative materialistic view as many recent neuro-scientific conceptions of the mind do, Spinoza finds an important entry point in a panpsychist and holistic perspective, presenting the complexity of the human being, which is not reducible to the psycho-physiological conditions of life. (...)
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  12. How Should One Live? An Introduction to Ethics and Moral Reasoning.Bradley Thames - 2018 - San Diego, CA, USA: Bridgepoint Education.
    This book provides an entry-level introduction to philosophical ethics, theories of moral reasoning, and selected issues in applied ethics. Chapter 1 describes the importance of philosophical approaches to ethical issues, the general dialectical form of moral reasoning, and the broad landscape of moral philosophy. Chapter 2 presents egoism and relativism as challenges to the presumed objectivity and unconditionality of morality. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 discuss utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics, respectively. Each chapter begins with a general overview of the (...)
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  13. Eliminating Prudential Reasons.Alex Worsnip - 2018 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 8:236-257.
    I argue, contrary to the consensus of most contemporary work in ethics, that there are no (fundamentally, distinctively) prudential reasons for action. That is to say: there is no class of reasons for action that is distinctively and fundamentally about the promotion of the agent’s own well-being. Considerations to do with the agent’s well-being can supply the agent with reasons only in virtue of her well-being mattering morally or in virtue of her caring about her own well-being. In both of (...)
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  14. Alokacyjne konsekwencje wprowadzenia prywatnych dodatkowych/równoległych ubezpieczeń zdrowotnych w społeczeństwach kierujących się egoizmem, altruizmem lub zawiścią – perspektywa ekonomiczna.Christoph Sowada - 2017 - Diametros 51:90-112.
    Assessing the implementation of various instruments and solutions in a healthcare system, we cannot limit ourselves to examining their impact on the fulfillment of the criteria of justice and equity alone. Another important social objective is to maximize social welfare under the conditions of the scarcity of resources. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact on social welfare of the implementation of private insurance into the existing system of public security, with a view to the following factors: (...)
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  15. The Nathaniel Branden Annotated Bibliography. Bissell, Cox, Campbell, Long & Sciabarra - 2016 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 16 (1-2):260.
  16. A Critique of Ayn Rand's Philosophy of Religion: The Gospel According to John Galt.Dustin J. Byrd - 2015 - Lexington Books.
    This book critiques Ayn Rand’s secular philosophy of religion while simultaneously highlighting the fundamental contradiction of the Tea Party movement’s dual basis, that is, Randian economics and conservative Christianity.
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  17. Kant and Rand on Rationality and Reality.Dana Andreicut - 2014 - Philosophy Now 101:25-27.
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  18. Response to Eyal Mozes, “Tara Smith’s Ayn Rand’s Normative Ethics: A Positive Contribution?”.Carrie-ann Biondi & Irfan Khawaja - 2013 - Reason Papers 35 (1):132-140.
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  19. Taking Egoism Seriously.Keith Burgess-Jackson - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):529-542.
    Though utilitarianism is far from being universally accepted in the philosophical community, it is taken seriously and treated respectfully. Its critics do not dismiss it out of hand; they do not misrepresent it; they do not belittle or disparage its proponents. They allow the theory to be articulated, developed, and defended from criticism, even if they go on to reject the modified versions. Ethical egoism, a longstanding rival of utilitarianism, is treated very differently. It is said to be “refuted” by (...)
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  20. Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical.Chris Matthew Sciabarra - 2013 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Author of _The Fountainhead_ and _Atlas Shrugged_, Ayn Rand is one of the most widely read philosophers of the twentieth century. Yet, despite the sale of over thirty million copies of her works, there have been few serious scholarly examinations of her thought. _Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical_ provides a comprehensive analysis of the intellectual roots and philosophy of this controversial thinker. It has been nearly twenty years since the original publication of Chris Sciabarra’s _Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical_. Those (...)
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  21. The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism * by Alison Hills.D. Cummiskey - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):403-405.
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  22. How Should I Be? A Defense of Platonic Rational Egoism.Jyl Gentzler - 2012 - European Journal of Philosophy 20 (4):39-67.
    There has been a long tradition of interpreting Plato as a rational egoist. Over the past few decades, however, some scholars have challenged this reading. While Rational Egoism appeals to many ordinary folk, in sophisticated philosophical circles it has fallen out of favor as a general and complete account of the nature of reasons for action. I argue that while the theory of practical rationality that is often equated with rational egoism—a view that I call ‘Simple-Minded Rational Egoism'—is neither plausible (...)
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  23. La solidarité chez Hegel, von Hartmann, Tocqueville et Mill.Ignace Haaz - 2012 - Paris: L'Harmattan.
    Selon une psychologie empiriste, aucune vie mentale inconsciente n'existe ; la conscience devrait être vue comme intérieure au sujet. Au contraire, la psychologie idéaliste soutient une philosophie de l'inconscient (et non pas de l'inconscience). La multiplicité et la finalité ne sont pas représentables comme des produits de l'évolution ou du destin des individus ; notre image du monde est conscience du monde. Nietzsche (1874), le premier, réagit contre cette thèse ; il y voit un tourbillon de consciences étroites : "l'homme (...)
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  24. Introduction to Ayn Rand’s Anthem.Roderick Long - 2012 - In Ayn Rand's Anthem.
  25. Is Life the Ultimate Value?: A Reassessment of Ayn Rand's Ethics.Ole Moen - 2012 - Reason Papers 34 (2):84-116.
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  26. A Defense of Rothbardian Ethics Via a Mediation of Hoppe and Rand.Cade Share - 2012 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 12 (1):117-150.
    This paper will provide Murray N. Rothbard's "ethics of liberty" with a greater theoretical cogency and ultimately validateits natural law underpinnings. This can be achieved via a mediation of Hans-Herrmann Hoppe 's praxeological argumentation ethics and Ayn Rand 's Objectivist teleologjcal/Objectivist theory of ethics. Synthesizing these two disparate schools of epistemology provides a metaethic or praxeological/Objectivist epistemology that considerably strengthens and ultimately validates the central axioms of the Rothbardian natural law project on both rational and moral grounds.
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  27. Ayn Rand, Religion, and Libertarianism.Walter E. Block - 2011 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 11 (1):63 - 79.
    Ayn Rand most certainly favored liberty, although she renounced the "libertarian" appellation. Yet, in her continuous, contemptuous and shrill attacks on religion, she was denigrating an institution that has made great contributions to freedom. The present essay is an attempt to right the balance; to demonstrate that religion and liberty are not the enemies supposed by Rand.
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  28. The Moral Conversion of Rational Egoists.Michael Cholbi - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (4):533-556.
    One principal challenge to the rationalist thesis that the demands of morality are requirements of rationality has been that posed by the "rational egoist." In attempting to answer's the egoist's challenge, some rationalists have supposed that an adequate reply must take the form of a deductive argument that "converts" the egoist by showing that her position is contradictory, arbitrary, or violates some precept that defines practical rationality as such. Here I argue (a) that such rationalist replies will fail to persuade (...)
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  29. Egoism and Morality.Stephen Darwall - 2011 - In Desmond M. Clarke & Catherine Wilson (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy in Early Modern Europe. Oxford University Press.
    This article examines changes in the conception of morality and egoism in early modern Europe. It explains that the postulate that human beings were fractious, covetous, and endowed with a strong drive towards self-aggrandizement was associated with Thomas Hobbes, and his writings produced a strong counterflow in the form of assertions and demonstrations of altruism and benevolence as natural endowments of human beings. It suggests that the modern ethical thought has defined itself by its concern with a specific ethical conception (...)
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  30. The Mirror of Anarchy : The Egoism of John Henry Mackay and Dora Marsden.Ruth Kinna - 2011 - In Saul Newman (ed.), Max Stirner. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 42-67.
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  31. Review of Jennifer Burns, Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right. [REVIEW]Roderick Long - 2011 - The Independent Review 15:615-619.
  32. The Six Million Dollar Rand. [REVIEW]Neil Parille - 2011 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 11 (2):237 - 248.
    100 Voices: An Oral History of Ayn Kandis an enjoyable compendium of mostly favorable interviews of those who knew or met Ayn Rand. While it contains many valuable insights about Rand and her life, it fails to achieve its objective in providing a good selection of interviews of those who knew Rand in various "contexts" and "relationships," contrary to what editor Scott McConnell claims. Those who are interested in the movement side of Objectivism, which developed in the 1950s and 1960s, (...)
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  33. The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism – Alison Hills.Robert Shaver - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):658-660.
  34. Hills , Alison . The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism .Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. Xii+266. $55.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW]James P. Sterba - 2011 - Ethics 121 (3):661-664.
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  35. The Reward of Virtue: An Essay on the Relationship Between Character and Well-Being.Ian Stoner - 2011 - Dissertation, University of Minnesota
    Most work in neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics begins by supposing that the virtues are the traits of character that make us good people. Secondary questions, then, include whether, why, and in what ways the virtues are good for the people who have them. This essay is an argument that the neo-Aristotelian approach is upside down. If, instead, we begin by asking what collection of character traits are good for us---that is, what collection of traits are most likely to promote our own (...)
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  36. Dai Zhen's Defense of Self‐Interest.Justin Tiwald - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (s1):29-45.
    This paper is devoted to explicating Dai Zhen’s defense of self-interested desires, over and against a tradition that sets strict limits to their range and function in moral agency. I begin by setting the terms of the debate between Dai and his opponents, noting that the dispute turns largely on the moral status of directly self-interested desires, or desires for one’s own good as such. I then consider three of Dai’s arguments against views that miscategorize or undervalue directly self-interested desires. (...)
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  37. Egoism and Ethics.Andy Cochrane - 2010 - In Richard Corrigan (ed.), Ethics: A University Guide. Progressive Frontiers Pubs.. pp. 135.
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  38. Metaethics, Egoism, and Virtue: Studies in Ayn Rand's Normative Theory.Allan Gotthelf & James G. Lennox (eds.) - 2010 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Philosopher-novelist Ayn Rand is a cultural phenomenon. Her books have sold more than 25 million copies, and countless individuals speak of her writings as having significantly influenced their lives. In spite of the popular interest in her ideas, or perhaps because of it, Rand’s work has until recently received little serious attention from academics. Though best known among philosophers for her strong support of egoism in ethics and capitalism in politics, there is an increasingly widespread awareness of both the range (...)
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  39. The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism.Alison Hills - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    The Beloved Self is about the holy grail of moral philosophy, an argument against egoism that proves that we all have reasons to be moral. Part One introduces three different versions of egoism. Part Two looks at attempts to prove that egoism is false, and shows that even the more modest arguments that do not try to answer the egoist in her own terms seem to fail. But in part Three, Hills defends morality and develops a new problem for egoism, (...)
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  40. Ayn Rand.Roderick Long & Neera K. Badhwar - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  41. Virtue Ethics and the Nature and Forms of Egoism.Christopher Toner - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Research 35:275-303.
    Virtue ethics is often alleged to be egoistic, based upon its linking of virtue and happiness. Virtue ethicists often respond that their approach to the moral life is only “formally egoistic” and therefore not objectionable. This paper develops a clear, non-arbitrary definition of egoism (often lacking in these exchanges) as systematic pursuit of one’s own welfare, and then catalogues four broad egoistic strategies for achieving it. I identify “formal foundational egoism” as the one mostplausibly attributed to virtue ethics (its subtlety (...)
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  42. Egoism in Nietzsche and Rand.Stephen R. C. Hicks - 2009 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 10 (2):249 - 291.
    Philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and Ayn Rand are often identified as strong critics of altruism and arch advocates of egoism. In this essay, Stephen Hicks argues that Nietzsche and Rand have much in common in their critiques of altruism but almost nothing in common in their views on egoism.
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  43. Egoism in Nietzsche and Rand: A Somewhat Different Approach.Lester Hunt - 2009 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 10 (2).
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  44. Book ReviewsTara Smith,. Ayn Rand’s Normative Ethics: The Virtuous Egoist.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. X+318. $92.00 ; $26.99. [REVIEW]Lester Hunt - 2009 - Ethics 119 (2):394-397.
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  45. 16 Egoism.John O'Neill - 2009 - In Jan Peil & Irene van Staveren (eds.), Handbook of Economics and Ethics. Edward Elgar. pp. 115.
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  46. Tara Smith’s Ayn Rand’s Normative Ethics: The Virtuous Egoist. [REVIEW]Carrie-ann Biondi - 2008 - Reason Papers 30:91-105.
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  47. Ayn Rand's Normative Ethics: The Virtuous Egoist - by Tara Smith.R. Mayhew - 2008 - Philosophical Books 49 (1):56-57.
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  48. The Dualism of the Practical Reason: Some Interpretations and Responses.Francesco Orsi - 2008 - Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics 10 (2):19-41.
    Sidgwick’s dualism of the practical reason is the idea that since egoism and utilitarianism aim both to have rational supremacy in our practical decisions, whenever they conflict there is no stronger reason to follow the dictates of either view. The dualism leaves us with a practical problem: in conflict cases, we cannot be guided by practical reason to decide what all things considered we ought to do. There is an epistemic problem as well: the conflict of egoism and utilitarianism shows (...)
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  49. Plato, Aristotle, Rand, and Sexuality. [REVIEW]Fred Seddon - 2008 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 10 (1):207 - 217.
    This essay offers a critical review of Robert Mayhew's translation oí Plato: I aws 10, Chris Matthew Sciabarra's monograph, Ayn Rand, Homosexuality, and Human I iberation, and Roderick T. Long's monograph, Reason and Value: Aristotle versus Rand. Seddon finds especially questionable Long's treatment of Plato.
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  50. Egoism.Robert Shaver - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Egoism can be a descriptive or a normative position. Psychological egoism, the most famous descriptive position, claims that each person has but one ultimate aim: her own welfare. Normative forms of egoism make claims about what one ought to do, rather than describe what one does do. Ethical egoism claims that it is necessary and sufficient for an action to be morally right that it maximize one's self-interest. Rational egoism claims that it is necessary and sufficient for an action to (...)
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