About this topic
Summary Erotetic logic is the study of questions in symbolic logic. Its main issues concern (i) the formalization of different kinds of questions (e.g. yes/no-questions, wh-questions, etc.), (ii) the characterization of their answers and presuppositions, (iii) the definition of relations holding between questions and other lingual entities, and (iv) the setting up of rules and calculi of asking and answering. Post-Fregean logicians have treated questions since the 1920s, but the first attempts at full systems of erotetic logic date appear in the 1960s. Today, there is no agreed-upon mainstream in the field, but rather a handful of different approaches of disparate or unclear relationship to one another.
Key works Each of the different traditions in erotetic logic have more or less their own reference texts. In chronological order: Harrah 1963 attempts a simple first-order representation of questions. Åqvist 1965 proposes an imperative-epistemic reduction, which gained much popularity beyond the borders of the field of erotetic logic. Kubiński who's largely Polish work on questions begins in the 1960s is most comprehensively represented in Kubiński 1980. The categorial approach by Belnap introduced some terminology which has been referred to ever since; Belnap & Steel 1976 is the relevant introduction. Hintikka's Interrogative Model of Inquiry (IMI), developed since the 1970s, received textbook-style treatment in Hintikka & Bachman 1991. Wiśniewski's Inferential Erotetic Logic (IEL) is currently one of the most active fields within erotetic logic; Wisniewski 2013 is a recent overview. This property it shares with Inquisitive Semantics, which is described in Ciardelli et al 2018.
Introductions Harrah 2002 presents an overview over different approaches. The works named above, which each represent a different tradition, frequently include some description of some of the other approaches. In this regard, Wiśniewski 1995 is quite helpful.
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198 found
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  1. Games and Cardinalities in Inquisitive First-Order Logic.Ivano Ciardelli & Gianluca Grilletti - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-28.
    Inquisitive first-order logic, InqBQ, is a system which extends classical first-order logic with formulas expressing questions. From a mathematical point of view, formulas in this logic express properties of sets of relational structures. This paper makes two contributions to the study of this logic. First, we describe an Ehrenfeucht–Fraïssé game for InqBQ and show that it characterizes the distinguishing power of the logic. Second, we use the game to study cardinality quantifiers in the inquisitive setting. That is, we study what (...)
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  2. Calculizing Classical Inferential Erotetic Logic.Moritz Cordes - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-22.
    This paper contributes to the calculization of evocation and erotetic implication as defined by Inferential Erotetic Logic (IEL). There is a straightforward approach to calculizing (propositional) erotetic implication which cannot be applied to evocation. First-order evocation is proven to be uncalculizable, i.e. there is no proof system, say FOE, such that for all X, Q: X evokes Q iff there is an FOE-proof for the evocation of Q by X. These results suggest a critique of the represented approaches to calculizing (...)
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  3. Questions in Two-Dimensional Logic.Thom van Gessel - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-21.
    Since Kripke, philosophers have distinguished a priori true statements from necessarily true ones. A statement is a priori true if its truth can be established before experience, and necessarily true if it could not have been false according to logical or metaphysical laws. This distinction can be captured formally using two-dimensional semantics. There is a natural way to extend the notions of apriority and necessity so they can also apply to questions. Questions either can or cannot be resolved before experience, (...)
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  4. An Abductive Question-Answer System for the Minimal Logic of Formal Inconsistency $$\mathsf {mbC}$$ mbC.Szymon Chlebowski, Andrzej Gajda & Mariusz Urbański - 2022 - Studia Logica 110 (2):479-509.
    The aim in this paper is to define an Abductive Question-Answer System for the minimal logic of formal inconsistency \. As a proof-theoretical basis we employ the Socratic proofs method. The system produces abductive hypotheses; these are answers to abductive questions concerning derivability of formulas from sets of formulas. We integrated the generation of and the evaluation of hypotheses via constraints of consistency and significance being imposed on the system rules.
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  5. Why We Need a Question Semantics.Ivano Ciardelli - 2021 - In Moritz Cordes (ed.), Asking and Answering: Rivalling Approaches to Interrogative Methods. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto. pp. 15–47.
    In this paper I discuss the role that question contents should play in an overall account of language, thought, and communication. Based on these considerations, I argue against the Fregean view that analyzes questions as distinguished only at the level of force. Questions, I argue, are associated with specific semantic objects, which play a distinctive role in thought and in compositional semantics, stand in logical relations to one another, and can act as contents of multiple speech acts. In the second (...)
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  6. Inquisitive Bisimulation.Ivano Ciardelli & Martin Otto - 2021 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 86 (1):77-109.
    Inquisitive modal logic, InqML, is a generalisation of standard Kripke-style modal logic. In its epistemic incarnation, it extends standard epistemic logic to capture not just the information that agents have, but also the questions that they are interested in. Technically, InqML fits within the family of logics based on team semantics. From a model-theoretic perspective, it takes us a step in the direction of monadic second-order logic, as inquisitive modal operators involve quantification over sets of worlds. We introduce and investigate (...)
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  7. How to Arrive at Questions.Moritz Cordes - 2021 - In Asking and Answering: Rivalling Approaches to Interrogative Methods. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto. pp. 165–175.
    The question of how to arrive at questions is ambiguous. I will concentrate on two readings: (i) How should one set up a formal syntax that accomodates questions? (ii) How does one, while working in a suitable formal language, arrive at a situation where one is allowed to or even must ask a certain question? In other words: How is the asking of questions regulated within a given formal language? I will propose an answer to question (i) and consider the (...)
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  8. Asking and Answering: Rivalling Approaches to Interrogative Methods.Moritz Cordes (ed.) - 2021 - Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto.
    Questions are everywhere and the ubiquitous activities of asking and answering, as most human activities, are susceptible to failure – at least from time to time. This volume offers several current approaches to the systematic study of questions and the surrounding activities and works toward supporting and improving these activities. The contributors formulate general problems for a formal treatment of questions, investigate specific kinds of questions, compare different frameworks with regard to how they regulate the activities of asking and answering (...)
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  9. Justifying Questions: What Kinds, How, and Why.David Hitchcock - 2021 - In Moritz Cordes (ed.), Asking and Answering: Rivalling Approaches to Interrogative Methods. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto. pp. 139–155.
    The authors of 200 arguments for questions posed 19 types of questions, justified them in 62 different ways, offered a justification of the question for 50 different types of purposes, and posed the question for 49 different types of purposes. Further consolidation of the categories used in the analysis is desirable and possible. Of the six most commonly posed types of questions, only three (yes-no questions, select questions, and either-or questions) are at first glance capable of formal representation in an (...)
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  10. The Method of Socratic Proofs: From the Logic of Questions to Proof Theory.Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion - 2021 - In Moritz Cordes (ed.), Asking and Answering: Rivalling Approaches to Interrogative Methods. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto. pp. 183–198.
    I consider two cognitive phenomena: inquiring and justifying, as complementary processes running in opposite directions. I explain on an example that the former process is driven by questions and the latter is a codification of the results of the first one. Traditionally, proof theory focuses on the latter process, and thus describes the former, at best, as an example of a backward proof search. I argue that this is not the best way to analyze cognitive processes driven by questions, and (...)
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  11. A Defeasible Calculus for Zetetic Agents.Jared Millson - 2021 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 30 (1):3-37.
    The study of defeasible reasoning unites epistemologists with those working in AI, in part, because both are interested in epistemic rationality. While it is traditionally thought to govern the formation and (with)holding of beliefs, epistemic rationality may also apply to the interrogative attitudes associated with our core epistemic practice of inquiry, such as wondering, investigating, and curiosity. Since generally intelligent systems should be capable of rational inquiry, AI researchers have a natural interest in the norms that govern interrogative attitudes. Following (...)
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  12. Accepting & Rejecting Questions: First Steps Toward a Bilateralism for Erotetic Logic.Jared A. Millson - 2021 - In Moritz Cordes (ed.), Asking and Answering: Rivalling Approaches to Interrogative Methods. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto. pp. 211–232.
    It’s commonly thought that, in conversation, speakers accept and reject propositions that have been asserted by others. Do speakers accept and reject questions as well? Intuitively, it seems that they do. But what does it mean to accept or reject a question? What is the relationship between these acts and those of asking and answering questions? Are there clear and distinct classes of reasons that speakers have for acceptance and rejection of questions? This chapter seeks to address these issues. Beyond (...)
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  13. Inquisitive Heyting Algebras.Vít Punčochář - 2021 - Studia Logica 109 (5):995-1017.
    In this paper we introduce a class of inquisitive Heyting algebras as algebraic structures that are isomorphic to algebras of finite antichains of bounded implicative meet semilattices. It is argued that these structures are suitable for algebraic semantics of inquisitive superintuitionistic logics, i.e. logics of questions based on intuitionistic logic and its extensions. We explain how questions are represented in these structures and provide several alternative characterizations of these algebras. For instance, it is shown that a Heyting algebra is inquisitive (...)
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  14. An Essay on Inferential Erotetic Logic.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2021 - In Moritz Cordes (ed.), Asking and Answering: Rivalling Approaches to Interrogative Methods. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto. pp. 105–138.
    By and large, Inferential Erotetic Logic (IEL, for short) is an approach to the logic of questions which puts in the centre of attention inferential aspects of questioning. IEL is not an enterprise of the last few years only. The idea originates from the late 1980s. It evolved through time. Initially, the stress was put on the phenomenon of question raising. This changed gradually, as some forms of reasoning that involve questions have appeared to be analyzable by means of the (...)
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  15. Questions and Dependency in Intuitionistic Logic.Ivano Ciardelli, Rosalie Iemhoff & Fan Yang - 2020 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 61 (1):75-115.
    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and dependencies to this classical core. In this paper, we broaden the scope of these investigations by studying questions and dependency in the context of intuitionistic logic. We propose an intuitionistic team semantics, where teams are embedded within intuitionistic Kripke models. (...)
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  16. Arguing for Questions.David Hitchcock - 2020 - In Bart Garssen & Frans van Eemeren (eds.), From Argument Schemes to Argumentative Relations in the Wild: A Variety of Contributions to Argumentation Theory. Springer Verlag. pp. 167-184.
    People sometimes argue for questions, as can be verified by a Web search using as search terms phrases consisting of a conclusion indicator and an interrogative particle. These arguments provide a reason for asking the question and thus try to establish that it needs to be answered. Typically, they do so either in order to motivate interest in discovering the answer or in order to challenge addressees or a third party to explain their behaviour. The “inferential erotetic logic” of the (...)
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  17. Pytania I Odpowiedzi: Ujęcie Teoriomnogościowe.Adam Jonkisz - 2020 - Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Ignatianum W Krakowie.
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  18. A Relevant Logic of Questions.Vít Punčochář - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (5):905-939.
    This paper introduces the inquisitive extension of R, denoted as InqR, which is a relevant logic of questions based on the logic R as the background logic of declaratives. A semantics for InqR is developed, and it is shown that this semantics is, in a precisely defined sense, dual to Routley-Meyer semantics for R. Moreover, InqR is axiomatized and completeness of the axiomatic system is established. The philosophical interpretation of the duality between Routley-Meyer semantics and the semantics for InqR is (...)
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  19. Disjunction and Existence Properties in Inquisitive First-Order Logic.Gianluca Grilletti - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1199-1234.
    Classical first-order logic \ is commonly used to study logical connections between statements, that is sentences that in every context have an associated truth-value. Inquisitive first-order logic \ is a conservative extension of \ which captures not only connections between statements, but also between questions. In this paper we prove the disjunction and existence properties for \ relative to inquisitive disjunction Open image in new window and inquisitive existential quantifier \. Moreover we extend these results to several families of theories, (...)
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  20. A Cut-Free Sequent Calculus for Defeasible Erotetic Inferences.Jared Millson - 2019 - Studia Logica (6):1-34.
    In recent years, the e ffort to formalize erotetic inferences (i.e., inferences to and from questions) has become a central concern for those working in erotetic logic. However, few have sought to formulate a proof theory for these inferences. To fill this lacuna, we construct a calculus for (classes of) sequents that are sound and complete for two species of erotetic inferences studied by Inferential Erotetic Logic (IEL): erotetic evocation and regular erotetic implication. While an attempt has been made to (...)
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  21. A Cut-Free Sequent Calculus for Defeasible Erotetic Inferences.Jared Millson - 2019 - Studia Logica 107 (6):1279-1312.
    In recent years, the effort to formalize erotetic inferences—i.e., inferences to and from questions—has become a central concern for those working in erotetic logic. However, few have sought to formulate a proof theory for these inferences. To fill this lacuna, we construct a calculus for sequents that are sound and complete for two species of erotetic inferences studied by Inferential Erotetic Logic : erotetic evocation and erotetic implication. While an effort has been made to axiomatize the former in a sequent (...)
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  22. Questions as Information Types.Ivano Ciardelli - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):321-365.
    This paper argues that questions have an important role to to play in logic, both semantically and proof-theoretically. Semantically, we show that by generalizing the classical notion of entailment to questions, we can capture not only the standard relation of logical consequence, which holds between pieces of information, but also the relation of logical dependency, which holds between information types. Proof-theoretically, we show that questions may be used in inferences as placeholders for arbitrary information of a given type; by manipulating (...)
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  23. Inquisitive Semantics.Ivano Ciardelli, Jeroen Groenendijk & Floris Roelofsen - 2018 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    The book presents a new logical framework to capture the meaning of sentences in conversation. It is based on a richer notion of meaning than traditional approaches, and allows for an integrated treatment of statements and questions. The first part of the book presents the framework in detail, while the second demonstrates its many benefits.
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  24. Deduction and Reduction Theorems for Inferential Erotetic Logic.Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2018 - Studia Logica 106 (2):295-309.
    The concepts of question evocation and erotetic implication play central role in Inferential Erotetic Logic. In this paper, deduction theorems for question evocation and erotetic implication are proven. Moreover, it is shown how question evocation by a finite non-empty set of declaratives can be reduced to question evocation by the empty set, and how erotetic implication based on a finite non-empty set of declaratives can be reduced to a relation between questions only.
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  25. The Dynamic Logic of Stating and Asking.Ivano Ciardelli - 2017 - In Alexandru Baltag, Jeremy Seligman & Tomoyuki Yamada (eds.), Logic, Rationality, and Interaction. LORI 2017. Springer. pp. 240-255.
    Inquisitive dynamic epistemic logic extends standard public announcement logic incorporating ideas from inquisitive semantics. In IDEL, the standard public announcement action can be extended to a more general public utterance action, which may involve a statement or a question. While uttering a statement has the effect of a standard announcement, uttering a question typically leads to new issues being raised. In this paper, we investigate the logic of this general public utterance action. We find striking commonalities, and some differences, with (...)
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  26. Question Meaning= Resolution Conditions.Ivano Ciardelli - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (3):383-416.
    Traditional approaches to the semantics of questions analyze questions indirectly, via the notion of an answer. In recent work on inquisitive semantics, a different perspective is taken: the meaning of a question is equated with its resolution conditions, just like the meaning of a statement is traditionally equated with its truth-conditions. In this paper I argue that this proposal improves on previous approaches, combining the formal elegance and explanatory power of Groenendijk and Stokhof’s partition theory with the greater generality afforded (...)
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  27. IEL-Based Formal Dialogue System for Tutorials.Paweł Łupkowskim - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (3):287-320.
    FFormal dialogue system for tutorials DLT is introduced. The system allows for modelling certain behaviours related to questioning agendas observed in tutorial dialogues. Inferential Erotetic Logic is the underlying logic of questions used here. Tutorial dialogues retrieved from the Basic Electricity and Electronics Corpus are presented and analysed with the use of DLT.
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  28. Scheinprobleme - Ein explikativer Versuch.Moritz Cordes - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Greifswald
    The traditional use of the expression 'pseudoproblem' is analysed in order to clarify the talk of pseudoproblems and related phenomena. The goal is to produce a philosophically serviceable terminology that stays true to its historical roots. This explicative study is inspired by and makes use of the method of logical reconstruction. Since pseudoproblems are usually expressed by pseudoquestions a formal language of questions is presented as a possible reconstruction language for alleged pseudoproblems. The study yields an informal theory of pseudoproblems (...)
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  29. Erotetic Search Scenarios and Three-Valued Logic.Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion & Paweł Łupkowski - 2016 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (1):51-76.
    Our aim is to model the behaviour of a cognitive agent trying to solve a complex problem by dividing it into sub-problems, but failing to solve some of these sub-problems. We use the powerful framework of erotetic search scenarios combined with Kleene’s strong three-valued logic. ESS, defined on the grounds of Inferential Erotetic Logic, has appeared to be a useful logical tool for modelling cognitive goal-directed processes. Using the logical tools of ESS and the three-valued logic, we will show how (...)
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  30. Dual Erotetic Calculi and the Minimal LFI.Szymon Chlebowski & Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion - 2015 - Studia Logica 103 (6):1245-1278.
    An erotetic calculus for a given logic constitutes a sequent-style proof-theoretical formalization of the logic grounded in Inferential Erotetic Logic ). In this paper, a new erotetic calculus for Classical Propositional Logic ), dual with respect to the existing ones, is given. We modify the calculus to obtain complete proof systems for the propositional part of paraconsistent logic CLuN and its extensions CLuNs and mbC. The method is based on dual resolution. Moreover, the resolution rule is non-clausal. According to the (...)
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  31. On the Semantics and Logic of Declaratives and Interrogatives.Ivano Ciardelli, Jeroen Groenendijk & Floris Roelofsen - 2015 - Synthese 192 (6):1689-1728.
    In many natural languages, there are clear syntactic and/or intonational differences between declarative sentences, which are primarily used to provide information, and interrogative sentences, which are primarily used to request information. Most logical frameworks restrict their attention to the former. Those that are concerned with both usually assume a logical language that makes a clear syntactic distinction between declaratives and interrogatives, and usually assign different types of semantic values to these two types of sentences. A different approach has been taken (...)
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  32. Inferential Erotetic Logic Meets Inquisitive Semantics.Andrzej Wiśniewski & Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion - 2015 - Synthese 192 (6):1585-1608.
    Inferential erotetic logic and inquisitive semantics give accounts of questions and model various aspects of questioning. In this paper we concentrate upon connections between inquisitiveness, being the core concept of INQ, and question raising, characterized in IEL by means of the concepts of question evocation and erotetic implication. We consider the basic system InqB of INQ, remain at the propositional level and show, inter alia, that: a disjunction of all the direct answers to an evoked question is always inquisitive; a (...)
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  33. Modalities in the Realm of Questions: Axiomatizing Inquisitive Epistemic Logic.Ivano Ciardelli - 2014 - In Rajeev Goré, Barteld Kooi & Agi Kurucz (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Volume 10. CSLI Publications. pp. 94-113.
  34. Generating Cooperative Question-Responses by Means of Erotetic Search Senarios.Paweł Łupkowskim & Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion - 2014 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 24 (1):61-78.
    The concept of cooperative question-responses as an extension of cooperative behaviours used by interfaces for databases and information systems is proposed. A procedure to generate question-responses based on question dependency and erotetic search scenarios is presented. The procedure is implemented in Prolog.
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  35. Socratic Trees.Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion, Mariusz Urbański & Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (5):959-986.
    The method of Socratic proofs (SP-method) simulates the solving of logical problem by pure questioning. An outcome of an application of the SP-method is a sequence of questions, called a Socratic transformation. Our aim is to give a method of translation of Socratic transformations into trees. We address this issue both conceptually and by providing certain algorithms. We show that the trees which correspond to successful Socratic transformations—that is, to Socratic proofs—may be regarded, after a slight modification, as Gentzen-style proofs. (...)
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  36. Questions, Inferences, and Scenarios.Andrzej Wisniewski - 2013 - College Publications.
    "The importance of questions is beyond doubt. But the degree of attention paid to them in logic and linguistics is still less than they deserve." What is a question? How to represent questions in formal languages? How to model reasoning in which questions are involved? Can we prove anything by means of pure questioning? How to model goal-directed problem solving? These are the main issues of Andrzej Wi niewski's "Questions, Inferences, and Scenarios." This book offers a state-of-the-art exposition of Inferential (...)
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  37. Question–Answer Games.Thomas Ågotnes, Johan van Benthem, Hans van Ditmarsch & Stefan Minica - 2011 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):265-288.
    We propose strategic games wherein the strategies consist of players asking each other questions and answering those questions. We study simplifications of such games wherein two players simultaneously ask each other a question that the opponent is then obliged to answer. The motivation for our research is to model conversation including the dynamics of questions and answers, to provide new links between game theory and dynamic logics of information, and to exploit the dynamic/strategic structure that, we think, lies implicitly inside (...)
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  38. Theory of Questions: Erotetics Through the Prism of its Philosophical Background and Practical Applications.Anna Brożek - 2011 - Warszawa: Rodopi.
    It is hard to imagine our life without questions. They facilitate orientation in our environment, enable interpersonal communication and make the acquisition of knowledge possible. Questions direct scientific research, are used as research tools and are an important medium of transferring knowledge in teaching. The book is intended as a par excellence philosophical monograph of the theory of questions, presenting the most important erotetic problems, their general background and selected practical applications. It is prepared in all fairness to results acquired (...)
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  39. Inquisitive Logic.Ivano Ciardelli & Floris Roelofsen - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (1):55-94.
    This paper investigates a generalized version of inquisitive semantics. A complete axiomatization of the associated logic is established, the connection with intuitionistic logic and several intermediate logics is explored, and the generalized version of inquisitive semantics is argued to have certain advantages over the system that was originally proposed by Groenendijk (2009) and Mascarenhas (2009).
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  40. A Formal Approach to Exploring the Interrogator's Perspective in the Turing Test.Paweł Łupkowski - 2011 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (1-2):139-158.
    My aim in this paper is to use a formal approach to the Turing test. This approach is based on a tool developed within Inferential Erotetic Logic, so called erotetic search scenarios. First, I reconstruct the setting of the Turing test proposed by A.M. Turing. On this basis, I build a model of the test using erotetic search scenarios framework. I use the model to investigate one of the most interesting issues of the TT setting – the interrogator’s perspective and (...)
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  41. Turing Interrogative Games.Paweł Łupkowski & Andrzej Wiśniewski - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (3):435-448.
    The issue of adequacy of the Turing Test (TT) is addressed. The concept of Turing Interrogative Game (TIG) is introduced. We show that if some conditions hold, then each machine, even a thinking one, loses a certain TIG and thus an instance of TT. If, however, the conditions do not hold, the success of a machine need not constitute a convincing argument for the claim that the machine thinks.
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  42. A First-Order Inquisitive Semantics.Ivano Ciardelli - 2010 - In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds.), Logic, Language, and Meaning: Selected Papers From the Seventeenth Amsterdam Colloquium. Springer. pp. 234–243.
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  43. The Logic of “Asked and Answered!”: The Case of the Traffic Light.Joseph S. Fulda - 2010 - Ratio Juris 23 (2):282-287.
    Uses erotetic logic to model the courtroom objection "Asked and Answered!".
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  44. Generalized Inquisitive Logic: Completeness Via Intuitionistic Kripke Models.Ivano Ciardelli & Floris Roelofsen - 2009 - In Theoretical Aspacts of Rationality and Knowledge.
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  45. Query Answering in Description Logics: The Knots Approach.Thomas Eiter, Carsten Lutz, Magdalena Ortiz & Mantas Šimkus - 2009 - In Logic, Language, Information and Computation. Folli Publications on Logic, Language and Information. pp. 26–36.
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  46. The Game of Inquiry: The Interrogative Approach to Inquiry and Belief Revision Theory.Emmanuel Genot - 2009 - Synthese 171 (2):271-289.
    I. Levi has advocated a decision-theoretic account of belief revision. We argue that the game-theoretic framework of Interrogative Inquiry Games, proposed by J. Hintikka, can extend and clarify this account. We show that some strategic use of the game rules generate Expansions, Contractions and Revisions, and we give representation results. We then extend the framework to represent explicitly sources of answers, and apply it to discuss the Recovery Postulate. We conclude with some remarks about the potential extensions of interrogative games, (...)
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  47. The Interpretation of Questions in Dialogue.Alex Lascarides & Nicholas Asher - 2009 - Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung, Vol. 13, No. 1.
    A semantic framework for interpreting dialogue should provide an account of the content that is mutually accepted by its participants. The acceptance by one agent of another’s contribution crucially involves the theory of what that contribution means; A’s acceptance of B’s contribution means that the content of B’s contribution must be integrated into A’s extant commitments.1 For assertions, traditionally assumed to express a proposition formalised as a set of possible worlds, it was clear how the integration should go: acceptance meant (...)
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  48. The Method of Socratic Proofs for Modal Propositional Logics: K5, S4.2, S4.3, S4F, S4R, S4M and G.Dorota Leszczyńska-Jasion - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (3):365-399.
    The aim of this paper is to present the method of Socratic proofs for seven modal propositional logics: K5, S4.2, S4.3, S4M, S4F, S4R and G. This work is an extension of [10] where the method was presented for the most common modal propositional logics: K, D, T, KB, K4, S4 and S5.
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  49. Socratic Epistemology: Explorations of Knowledge-Seeking by Questioning.Jaakko Hintikka - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Most current work in epistemology deals with the evaluation and justification of information already acquired. In this book, Jaakko Hintikka instead discusses the more important problem of how knowledge is acquired in the first place. His model of information-seeking is the old Socratic method of questioning, which has been generalized and brought up-to-date through the logical theory of questions and answers that he has developed. Hintikka also argues that philosophers' quest for a definition of knowledge is ill-conceived and that the (...)
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  50. The Method of Socratic Proofs for Normal Modal Propositional Logics.Dorota Leszczyńska - 2007 - Wydawn. Naukowe Uniwersytetu Im. Adama Mickiewicza.
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