About this topic
Summary

The Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c. 55 – c. 135 CE) came originally from Asia Minor and was a slave in Rome under Epaphroditus, one of Nero’s ministers. He attended the lectures of the Stoic philosopher Musonius Rufus in Rome, at some point gained his freedom, and initially lectured in Rome but fled in the wake of Domitian’s ban against philosophers (c. 92-3 CE). He went on to found his own philosophical school in Nicopolis, Greece, which attracted many famous visitors, including the emperor Hadrian.

Epictetus is regularly referred to as the author of two works, the Dissertationes (Discourses) and the Enchiridion (Handbook, Manual) although they are in fact both are the work of his pupil Arrian, the noted historian. The Dissertationes contains lively records of discussions with students and visitors that supposedly took place in Epictetus’s classroom, sometime around 108 CE. The Enchridion is a short summary distilling the central ideas found in the Dissertationes. Four books of the Dissertationes survive out of an original eight or perhaps even twelve (cf. Photius, Bibliotheca cod. 58, who refers to eight books of discourses (Diatribai) and twelve books of conversations (Homiliai); these could be different titles for the same work), and there are a number of fragments from the lost books preserved by other authors.

Key works

Epictetus has been edited and translated numerous times. The best recent translation of all his works is Hard & Gill 2014

Introductions

The best introduction to the thought of Epictetus is Long 2002. The essays in Scaltsas & Mason 2007 are all by leading scholars and examine topics in more detail. Graver 2009 offers a much shorter but well-informed overview. For a fuller annotated guide to work on Epictetus see Sellars 2016.

Related categories

213 found
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  1. Stoic Lessons in Liberation: Epictetus as Educator.William O. Stephens - manuscript
    My project examines the pedagogical approach of the Stoic Epictetus by focusing on seven vital lessons he imparts. This study will deepen our understanding of his vocation as a Stoic educator striving to free his students from the fears and foolishness that hold happiness hostage. These lessons are (1) how freedom, integrity, self-respect, and happiness interrelate; (2) real versus fake tragedy and real versus fake heroism; (3) the instructive roles that various animals play in Stoic education; (4) athleticism, sport, and (...)
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  2. Epictetus on Beastly Vices and Animal Virtues.William Stephens - April 2014 - In Dane R. Gordon & David B. Suits (eds.), Epictetus: His Continuing Influence and Contemporary Relevance. Rochester, NY, USA: Rochester Institute of Technology Press. pp. 207–239.
    It is curious that the imperial Stoics, following a precedent of Diogenes the Cynic, employ so many wide-ranging examples of animal behavior. For example, what are we to make of the rigid dichotomy Seneca and Epictetus draw between rational and nonrational beings in relation to the diverse comparisons they make between human virtues and vices on the one hand and animal excellences and "bestial'behaviors on the other? Why are the most potent, diverse, and philosophically significant animal exempla found in Seneca (...)
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  3. The (Meta)Politics of Thinking: On Arendt and the Greeks.Jussi Backman - 2021 - In Kristian Larsen & Pål Rykkja Gilbert (eds.), Phenomenological Interpretations of Ancient Philosophy. Brill. pp. 260-282.
    In this chapter, Jussi Backman approaches Hannah Arendt’s readings of ancient philosophy by setting out from her perspective on the intellectual, political, and moral crisis characterizing Western societies in the twentieth century, a crisis to which the rise of totalitarianism bears witness. To Arendt, the political catastrophes haunting the twentieth century have roots in a tradition of political philosophy reaching back to the Greek beginnings of philosophy. Two principal features of Arendt’s exchange with the ancients are highlighted. The first is (...)
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  4. Psychological Disease and Action-Guiding Impressions in Early Stoicism.Simon Shogry - 2021 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 29 (5):784-805.
    The early Stoics diagnose vicious agents with various psychological diseases, e.g. love of money and love of wine. Such diseases are characterized as false evaluative opinions that lead the agent to form emotional impulses for certain objects, e.g. money and wine. Scholars have therefore analyzed psychological diseases simply as dispositions for assent. This interpretation is incomplete, I argue, and should be augmented with the claim that psychological disease also affects what kind of action-guiding impressions are created prior to giving assent. (...)
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  5. Epictetus and Prayer - (K.M.) Landefeld Die Gebetslehre Epiktets. Form, Inhalt Und Funktionen der Gebete Epiktets Im Kontext der Antiken Gebetstradition. (Orbis Antiquus 54.) Pp. VIII + 224. Münster: Aschendorff, 2020. Paper, €36. Isbn: 978-3-402-14463-3. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2021 - The Classical Review 71 (1):72-74.
    Landefeld need not be faulted for not cobbling together a unified doctrine of prayer compatible with Stoic physics and logic where none exists in Epictetus. Perhaps this ex-slave fervently needed to unseat contempt for and defiance in the faces of his cruel, abusive human masters with praise of and obedient devotion to a maximally beneficent and providential divine master.
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  6. Reassessing Epictetus’ Opinion of Divination.Erlend D. MacGillivray - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (2):147-160.
    In recent years substantial effort has been expended by scholars to better understand the nature of the ancient interest in divination. This study will argue that the Stoic philosopher Epictetus’ views of divination have been largely overlooked and mistakenly defined by his modern interpreters. While often portrayed as being opposed to the art, it is proposed that he envisages divination can be beneficially employed: namely in highlighting certain moral actions, and in motivating individuals to commence philosophical study.
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  7. Stoic Cosmopolitanism and Environmental Ethics.Simon Shogry - 2020 - In Kelly Arenson (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Hellenistic Philosophy. pp. 397-409.
    This essay considers how ancient Stoic cosmopolitanism – roughly, the claim all human beings are members of the same “cosmopolis”, or universal city, and so are entitled to moral concern in virtue of possessing reason – informs Stoic thinking about how we ought to treat non-human entities in the environment. First, I will present the Stoic justification for the thesis that there are only rational members of the cosmopolis – and so that moral concern does not extend to any non-human (...)
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  8. Akrasia in Epictetus: A Comparison with Aristotle.Michael Tremblay - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (4):397-417.
    This paper argues that Epictetus’ ethics involves three features which are also present in Aristotle’s discussion of akrasia in the Nicomachean Ethics: 1) A major problem for agents is when they fail to render a universal premise effective at motivating a particular action in accordance with that premise. 2) There are two reasons this occurs: Precipitancy and Weakness. 3) Precipitancy and Weakness can be prevented by gaining a fuller understanding of our beliefs and commitments. This comparison should make clear that (...)
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  9. Ética E Atitude Filosófica Em Epicteto.Diogo da Luz - 2019 - Prometeus: Filosofia em Revista 11 (29).
    O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar como a ética proferida por Epicteto se relaciona com uma postura filosófica, mais precisamente com uma atitude filosófica. Essa atitude não é especificamente uma exigência prévia para pensar a ética filosoficamente, pois não se trata de tê-la para então começar a filosofar, mas trata-se da manifestação de autenticidade daquele que se diz filósofo, porque evidencia a real assimilação das opiniões e teorias que defende. Para Epicteto, o progresso do filósofo necessariamente está unido ao progresso (...)
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  10. The Phenomenal-Intentional Nature of Happiness: A Contemporary Approach to Epictetus and Stoicism.Allan Arturo González Estrada - 2019 - Siwô’ Revista De Teología/Revista De Estudios Sociorreligiosos 12 (1):133-149.
    The present paper offers a contrast between the philosophical ideas of Stoicism and contemporary ideas in philosophy of the mind, to understand the nature of intentionality and phenomenal experience as a fundamental element in a theory of "happiness". The metaphysical foundation that I fallow is based on a physicalist approach in non-reductive terms, from a perspective derived from a phenomenal-intentionality program, that is, the idea that intentionality depends on its phenomenal characteristics, in this way, an analysis of popular psychology and (...)
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  11. Digestion and Moral Progress in Epictetus.Michael Tremblay - 2019 - Journal of Ancient Philosophy 13 (1):100-119.
    The Stoic Epictetus famously criticizeshis students for studying Stoicism as ‘mere theory’ and encouraged them to add training to their educational program. This is made all the more interesting by the fact that Epictetus, as a Stoic, was committed to notion that wisdom is sufficient to be virtuous, so theory should be all that’s required to achieve virtue. How are we then to make sense of Epictetus criticism of an overreliance on theory, and his insistence on adding training? This paper (...)
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  12. More or Less Within My Power: Nature, Virtue, and the Modern Stoic.Christian Coseru - 2018 - Reason Papers 40 (2):8-18.
    Can the Stoic conception of what is within our power be adapted to fit our scientifically informed view of nature in general and of human nature in particular? This paper argues that it can, but not without a revision of the Stoic’s classical dichotomy of power principle, namely that some things are up to us, while others are beyond our control. Given the extent to which the Stoic way of life flows from a certain conception of what is real, a (...)
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  13. Diferenciación entre la libertad/esclavitud metafísica y la libertad/esclavitud jurídico-político-social: Cicerón, Séneca y Epicteto.Francisco Miguel Ortiz Delgado - 2018 - Revista de Filosofía UIS 17 (2):85-108.
    In this article we identify that the philosophers Marcus Tullius Cicero, Lucius Annaeus Seneca and Epictetus conceive a “freedom” that is characteristic of the wise and happy, and a “slavery” that is characteristic of the unwise and unhappy, nevertheless they did not use a special word for them. We name such conceptions “metaphysical freedom” and “metaphysical slavery” respectively. And we demonstrate that, in divergent intensities and objectives and in many places, the three thinkers differentiated this freedom/slavery principally from the juridical-political-social (...)
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  14. La philía y la guerra en la filosofía de la historia epicteteana.Francisco Miguel Ortiz Delgado - 2018 - Cuadernos de Filosofía 2 (71):19-32.
    The present article studies the epictetean philosophical use of some passages of the Greek and Roman history. The concepts of love-friendship (philía) and personal con- venience (sumphéron) second the philosopher to explain why happiness (eudaimonía) has not been reached by the human being in all history. All historical war or strife (pólemos), such as the Trojan, the Medics and the Peloponnesian wars, is provoked by epistemological-moral mistakes derived from the ignorance of which is the correct place to put the sumphéron; (...)
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  15. A Psicologia de Epicteto.Diogo Luz - 2018 - Polymatheia 11 (18):90-112.
    Resumo: O presente artigo aborda a dimensão psicológica da filosofia de Epicteto. Para tal, exploramos inicialmente a distinção epictetiana entre as coisas que dependem de nós e as que não dependem, visto que é por meio dela que o filósofo separa o que é interno do que é externo. Ao fazer isso, ele foca a abordagem ética naquilo que é interno, pois afirma que é isso que depende de nós (ἐφ ̓ ἡμῖν). Dentre as ações que são ἐφ ̓ ἡμῖν, (...)
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  16. Exercícios Filosóficos em Epicteto.Diogo Luz - 2018 - Intuitio 11 (2):17-33.
    O presente artigo trata do pensamento de Epicteto pelo viés do exercício (áskēsis), ou seja, por meio de práticas que conduzem ao aperfeiçoamento de quem elege para si o ofício de filósofo. Para tal, inicialmente esclarecemos o que significam os exercícios na filosofia antiga, tendo como subsídio as teses de Pierre Hadot. Logo depois, exploramos seis exercícios que consideramos centrais para o filósofo de Nicópolis, contextualizando com os ensinamentos que estão envolvidos e descrevendo as principais características de seu método. Por (...)
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  17. Nature and Utopia in Epictetus’ Theory of Oikeiōsis.Sara Magrin - 2018 - Phronesis 63 (3):293-350.
    _ Source: _Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 293 - 350 It is widely agreed that there is a gap between the personal and the social ethics of the Stoics due to the difficulty of harmonizing personal and social _oikeiōsis_. By reconstructing Epictetus’ theory of _oikeiōsis_, this paper aims to show that, in his ethics, there is no such gap, and this for two reasons: first, his account of social _oikeiōsis_ is not meant to ground his social ethics; second, his theory (...)
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  18. Necessity, Possibility and Determinism in Stoic Thought.Vanessa de Harven - 2016 - In Max Cresswel, Edwin Mares & Adriane Rini (eds.), Logical Modalities from Aristotle to Carnap: The Story of Necessity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 70-90.
    At the heart of the Stoic theory of modality is a strict commitment to bivalence, even for future contingents. A commitment to both future truth and contingency has often been thought paradoxical. This paper argues that the Stoic retreat from necessity is successful. it maintains that the Stoics recognized three distinct senses of necessity and possibility: logical, metaphysical and providential. Logical necessity consists of truths that are knowable a priori. Metaphysical necessity consists of truths that are knowable a posteriori, a (...)
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  19. The Stoics on Fate and Freedom.Tim O'Keefe - 2016 - In Meghan Griffith, Neil Levy & Kevin Timpe (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Free Will. Routledge. pp. 236-246.
    Overview of the Stoic position. Looks at the roots of their determinism in their theology, their response to the 'lazy argument' that believing that all things are fated makes action pointless, their analysis of human action and how it allows actions to be 'up to us,' their rejection of the Principle of Alternate Possibilities, their rejection of anger and other negative reactive attitudes, and their contention that submission to god's will brings true freedom.
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  20. Brian E. Johnson, The Role Ethics of Epictetus. Stoicism in Ordinary Life. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2014, Pp. Xv+216.Gretchen Reydams-Schils - 2016 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 98 (3):364-368.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie Jahrgang: 98 Heft: 3 Seiten: 364-368.
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  21. Epictetus, Dissertationes 1.18.10.John Sellars - 2016 - Classical Quarterly 66 (1):410-413.
    The Bodleian manuscript of Epictetus' Dissertationes was identified as the archetype of all surviving copies by the presence of an ink smudge on one page obscuring part of the text. Editors have made a variety of conjectures in order to generate a meaningful text. With the aid of high resolution digital images the text obscured by the ink smudge has been re-examined and the various emendations that have been proposed are assessed.
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  22. Epictetus.John Sellars - 2016 - Oxford Bibliographies in Classics.
    An annotated online bibliography on Epictetus covering editions and translations, scholarly work by topic, and later reception.
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  23. Stoicism at War: From Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius to James Stockdale.Konrad Banicki - 2015 - In Tadeusz Marian Ostrowski, Iwona Sikorska & Krzysztof Gerc (eds.), Resilience and Health in a Fast-Changing World. Jagiellonian University Press. pp. 47-58.
    The chapter is devoted to the analysis of ancient Stoic philosophy as a source of resilience for soldiers. At first, some historical cases are investigated, from a Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius to more recent instances from Vietnam and Iraq. Secondly, in turn, the Epictetus' distinction between the controllable and the uncontrollable is introduced with the focus on the prescription to assign value only to the former as the Stoic source of resilience. Finally, some further questions are briefly addressed including the (...)
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  24. The Philosophical Foundations of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Stoicism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Existentialism.Kim Diaz & Edward Murguia - 2015 - Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies 15 (1):39-52.
    In this study, we examine the philosophical bases of one of the leading clinical psychological methods of therapy for anxiety, anger, and depression, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). We trace this method back to its philosophical roots in the Stoic, Buddhist, Taoist, and Existentialist philosophical traditions. We start by discussing the tenets of CBT, and then we expand on the philosophical traditions that ground this approach. Given that CBT has had a clinically measured positive effect on the psychological well-being of individuals, (...)
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  25. Epictetus on the Epistemology of the Art of Living.Jeffrey Fisher - 2015 - Apeiron 48 (1):20-44.
    This paper explores what Epictetus thinks we need to learn in order to acquire the art of living, and, in doing so, illuminates the central tenets of Epictetus’ epistemology. It argues that we need to have cognition of preconceptions–innate, self-evident, general, ethical truths–and we need to know how to apply them. We acquire this “know-how” through habituation and, with it, are able to have cognition of correct applications.
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  26. ‘Proairesis’, ‘Proairetic’ and ‘Aproairetic’: Synopsis of All the Passages Containing These Terms in the ‘Discourses’ and the ‘Manual’ of Epictetus.Franco Scalenghe - 2015 - International Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):24.
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  27. Discourses, Fragments, Handbook.Epictetus . - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    'About things that are within our power and those that are not.' Epictetus's Discourses have been the most widely read and influential of all writings of Stoic philosophy, from antiquity onwards. They set out the core ethical principles of Stoicism in a form designed to help people put them into practice and to use them as a basis for leading a good human life. Epictetus was a teacher, and a freed slave, whose discourses have a vivid informality, animated by anecdotes (...)
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  28. Foucault on Askesis in Epictetus: Freedom Through Determination.Christopher Davidson - 2014 - In Dane R. Gordon & David B. Suits (eds.), Epictetus: His Continuing Relevance and Contemporary Relevance. pp. 41-53.
    Michel Foucault turned to Classical and Hellenistic philosophy late in his career, a change of focus that surprised and was misunderstood by many at the time. Often, it is supposed that his aim was to find the “freedom” that he had allegedly denied in his earlier works on power relations; he is thought to have proposed an autonomous self which would oppose and resist dominating political institutions. I instead contend that Foucault’s work on the Ancients is better understood as a (...)
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  29. Discourses, Fragments, Handbook. Epictetus - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the only complete modern translation of Epictetus's Discourses, together with the Handbook and fragments. A major work of Stoic practical ethics, the Discourses teach that the basis of happiness is up to us. This accessible new translation is accompanied by a full introduction and thorough notes.
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  30. Epictetus's Moral Epistemology.Jeffrey Fisher - 2014 - In David B. Suits & Dane R. Gordon (eds.), Epictetus: His Continuing Influence and Contemporary Relevance. Rochester, NY, USA: RIT Press. pp. 77-87.
    This paper articulates Epictetus's moral epistemology. The argument of the paper is that the famous Stoic "art of living" is best thought of as a science or kind of knowledge, and that, in his conception of knowledge, Epictetus is an orthodox Stoic, upholding the main tenets of Stoic epistemology. Thus, what exactly the art of living is and how it can be acquired can be better understood by understanding Stoic epistemology.
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  31. Epictetus: His Continuing Influence and Contemporary Relevance.Dane R. Gordon & David B. Suits (eds.) - 2014 - RIT Press.
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  32. Roman Political Thought: From Cicero to Augustine.Dean Hammer - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    Roman Political Thought is the first comprehensive treatment of the political thought of the Romans. Dean Hammer argues that the Romans were engaged in a wide-ranging and penetrating reflection on politics. The Romans did not create utopias. Instead, their thinking was relentlessly shaped by their own experiences of violence, the enormity and frailty of power, and an overwhelming sense of loss of the traditions that oriented them to their responsibilities as social, political, and moral beings. However much the Romans are (...)
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  33. Epictetus: Discourses, Fragments, Handbook.Robin Hard & Christopher Gill (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    This is the only complete modern translation of Epictetus's Discourses, together with the Handbook and fragments. A major work of Stoic practical ethics, the Discourses teach that the basis of happiness is up to us. This accessible new translation is accompanied by a full introduction and thorough notes.
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  34. On The “Art of Living” in Epictetus.Germán Meléndez - 2014 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 20:271-310.
    It is the purpose of this essay to inquire into the understanding of technê which Epictetus links with the expression technê peri bion used by him to determine both the “matter” with which philosophy deals and the kind of activity to be duly applied to such matter. Based upon this inquiry, the essay upholds the thesis that Epictetus’ philosophy bares an individualist spirit close to well-known modern versions of philosophy as an art of living.
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  35. The Stoic Account of Apprehension.Tamer Nawar - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14:1-21.
    This paper examines the Stoic account of apprehension (κατάληψις) (a cognitive achievement similar to how we typically view knowledge). Following a seminal article by Michael Frede (1983), it is widely thought that the Stoics maintained a purely externalist causal account of apprehension wherein one may apprehend only if one stands in an appropriate causal relation to the object apprehended. An important but unanswered challenge to this view has been offered by David Sedley (2002) who offers reasons to suppose that the (...)
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  36. How It's Not the Chrisippus You Read: On Cooper, Hadot, Epictetus, and Stoicism as a Way of Life.Matthew Sharpe - 2014 - Philosophy Today 58 (3):367-392.
    This article challenges John M. Cooper’s reading of ancient Stoicism as a way of life, one which sets its back against Pierre Hadot’s notion that Stoicism could have philosophically advocated regimens of non-cognitive practices of the kind documented by Hadot. Part 1 examines Arrian’s Discourses, following A. A. Long in seeing in this text Arrian’s portrait of Epictetus as a philosophical persona: one bringing together the different virtues of Socrates, Diogenes, and Zeno. Part 2 then examines Epictetus’s Handbook , seeing (...)
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  37. Leonard Cohen as a Guide to Life.Brendan Shea - 2014 - In Jason Holt (ed.), Leonard Cohen and Philosophy: Various Positions. Open Court. pp. 3-15.
    As any fan of Leonard Cohen will tell you, many of his songs are deeply “philosophical,” in the sense that they deal reflectively and intelligently with the many of the basic issues of everyday human life, such as death, sex, love, God, and the meaning of life. It may surprise these same listeners to discover that much of academic philosophy (both past and present) has relatively little in common with this sort of introspective reflection, but is instead highly abstract, methodologically (...)
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  38. Epictetus on Fearing Death: Bugbear and Open Door Policy.W. O. Stephens - 2014 - Ancient Philosophy 34 (2):365-391.
  39. Epictetus and Moral Apprehensive Impressions in Stoicism.Pavle Stojanovic - 2014 - In Dane R. Gordon & David B. Suits (eds.), Epictetus: His Continuing Influence and Contemporary Relevance. Rochester, NY, USA: pp. 165-195.
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  40. Stoicism’s Integration Problem and Epictetus’ Metaphors.Scott F. Aikin - 2013 - Southwest Philosophy Review 29 (1):185-193.
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  41. On Some Rhetorical-pedagogical Strategies in Epictetus' Discourses Concerning Proairesis.Rodrigo Sebastian Braicovich - 2013 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 19:39-56.
    The paper aims to clarify some features of Epictetus ' specific usage of the concept of proairesis throughout his Discourses. This will be done by suggesting that a number of problematic expressions concerning proairesis and its freedom should be understood as rhetorical-pedagogical expressions of Epictetus ' intellec-tualism. I will mainly focus on a series of problematic passages that have been discussed by several commentators concerning the concept of proairesis, and I will suggest that those passages are best interpreted as rhetorical (...)
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  42. The Role Ethics of Epictetus: Stoicism in Ordinary Life.Brian E. Johnson - 2013 - Lexington Books.
    The Role Ethics of Epictetus: Stoicism in Ordinary Life offers an original interpretation of Epictetus’s ethics and how he bases his ethics on an appeal to our roles in life. Epictetus's role theory is a complete ethical theory, one that has been both misunderstood and under-appreciated in the literature.
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  43. Paul and Epictetus on Law: A Comparison. By Niko Huttunen. Pp. X, 187, Library of New Testament Studies 405, T & T Clark, London, 2009, £60.00. [REVIEW]Geoffrey Turner - 2013 - Heythrop Journal 54 (1):147-148.
  44. Delimiting a Self by God in Epictetus.Jula Wildberger - 2013 - In Jörg Rüpke & Greg Woolf (eds.), Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 23-45.
    Epictetus' thought is defined by an antithesis of mine and not-mine, which is an antithesis of externals and self. From this arise a number of questions for Epictetus‘ theology, which are addressed in this paper: How is the self delimited from God, given that God is all-pervading? Is God inside or outside the self? In which way is God the cause, creator and shaper of the self? And how does human agency and self-shaping through prohairesis spell out within this determinst (...)
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  45. Paraenesis and Argument in Arrian’s Dissertations of Epictetus.Jula Wildberger - 2013 - In Michael Erler (ed.), Argument und literarische Form in antiker Philosophie. Berlin; New York: De Gruyter. pp. 411-434.
    Close reading of the argumentative and logical structure of Diatribe 1.4 and the means of protreptic persuasion used in it. The paper argues that Arrian represents Epictetus as using deliberately bad arguments to showcase and exemplify the audience's muddled thinking.
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  46. An Unexamined Life is Not Worth Experiencing by Man:" Socratic" Variations in Epictetus.Marcelo D. Boeri - 2012 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 53 (125):81-102.
  47. Una vida sin examen no merece ser vivida por el hombre: variaciones "socráticas" en Epicteto.Marcelo D. Boeri - 2012 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 53 (125):81-102.
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  48. Critical Assent, Intellectualism, and Repetition in Epictetus.Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich - 2012 - Apeiron 45 (4):314-337.
  49. ¿ Epicteto necesita de Zeus?: Gratitud, vergüenza y responsabilidad moral en Epicteto.Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich - 2012 - Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 33 (1):115-134.
    Contrary to what has been assumed by several of Epictetus' commentators, I will argue in the present paper that the concept of aidōs in Epictetus cannot be reduced to the modern notion of moral conscience, given that the mental phenomenon of aidōs (which is closer to the idea of shame than has been assumed by some authors) involves the presence of a transcendent other. The consequences concerning the ethical and theological foundations of Epictetus' thought which derive from this impossibility cannot (...)
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  50. El solipsismo y el papel de la divinidad en las reflexiones de Epicteto.Rodrigo Sebastián Braicovich - 2012 - Pensamiento 68 (255):153-161.
    En el presente trabajo propongo una interpretación de las Dissertationes de Epicteto estructurada sobre dos argumentos centrales: el Argumento Eudaimonista y el Argumento Teleológico. Sugeriré que a pesar de las estrategias que el autor presenta para evitar la acusación de solipsismo, Epicteto no puede escapar a la misma, y que la figura de la divinidad adquiere, por esa misma razón, una dimensión que ha sido desestimada por los comentaristas contemporáneos. -/- In the present paper I put forward an interpretation of (...)
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