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  1. Understanding Steroid Use – Review and Discussion of ‘Gym Culture, Identity and Performance-Enhancing Drugs’.Ask Vest Christiansen, April Henning, Francisco Javier Lopez Frias & John M. Hoberman - forthcoming - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy:1-21.
    This is a review and discussion of Ask Vest Christiansen’s book Gym Culture, Identity and Performance-Enhancing Drugs: Tracing a Typology of Steroid Use. As indicated by the title, the book...
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  2. WADA’s Concept of the ’Protected Person’ – and Why it is No Protection for Minors.Marcus Campos, Jim Parry & Irena Martínková - 2022 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 17 (1):58-69.
    The recent alleged doping case of the figure skater Kamila Valieva at the Winter Olympic Games in Beijing 2022 dramatically raised the issue of the protection of minors in anti-doping policy. We firstly present the literature on doping in relation to minors. Secondly, we present WADA’s Protected Person (PP) concept and its implications. Thirdly, we analyse the WADA Code’s purpose and the vulnerability of minors under the Code, and fourthly, we identify the real threats from which minors should be protected (...)
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  3. (In)justice on Ice: Valieva and International Sport Governing Bodies’ Justice Duties Toward Underage Athletes.Brett Diaz, Marcus Campos, Matija Škerbić, Cam Mallett & Francisco Javier Lopez Frias - 2022 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 17 (1):70-84.
    After two years of discussions and revisions, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) published the 2021 World Anti-Doping Code on June 16, 2020. Among the most significant additions to this iteration of the Code was the inclusion of new categories of athletes subject to differential treatment by WADA, including the “protected person” category. In this paper, we examine the recent case of figure skater Kamila Valeryevna Valieva, the first athlete given differential treatment due to her being categorized as a “protected person.” (...)
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  4. A Scoping Review on the Implementation of Active Recreational Activities.Louie Gula - 2022 - INDONESIAN SPORT INNOVATION REVIEW 3 (1):56-70.
    The purpose of the study. This study aims to identify the prevalence of participants in physical activities, the motivation needed by the students to engage in the activity, challenges encountered by the implementors, health benefits, and recommendations and suggestions needed for the improvement of the implementation. -/- Materials and methods. A systematic analysis of the data from different articles was conducted using Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) scoping review framework. -/- Results. It was found that the implementation of active recreational activities (...)
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  5. Factors Influencing College Students' Perception on Participating in Swimming Activities.Louie Gula, Marlon P. Ribon, Allyana Athens Alejandrino & Mario Acero Galeon Jr - 2022 - Partners Universal International Research Journal 1 (2):103-111.
    The purpose of this research is to determine the variables influencing college students' engagement in swimming activities, as well as the significant themes that often appear in these occurrences. A descriptive research design was used to identify the factors influencing college students' perception of participating in swimming activities. Descriptive research is a type of nonexperimental study that aims to describe the features of phenomena as it occurs. It was found out that participating in swimming activities provides various benefits, some of (...)
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  6. RULE OF THE GAME OF ORGANIZING YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYER COMPETITIONS: CAN IMPROVE LEVEL OF ENJOYMENT IN COACHING INTERACTIONS?Louie Gula, Sulistiyono, Sumaryanto & Sigit Nugroho - 2022 - MEDIKORA 21 (2):111-120.
    The level of enjoyment in participating in sports activities is one component that causes young athletes to decide to stop or become more motivated to pursue sports activities. Practicing and participating in competitions are the main activities in sports coaching interactions towards optimal performance. This study aims to determine the effect of modifying the match rules implemented in youth soccer competitions on the level of enjoyment of players. Using an experimental method with 20 soccer schools participating in a competition with (...)
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  7. THE INCREASING PHYSICAL INACTIVITY OF TEENAGERS AGED 12-16 YEARS OLD OF SAINT JOSEPH COLLEGE.Louie Gula & Kevin Sumayang - 2022 - MEDIKORA 21 (1):1-11.
    This study aims to identify the following factors that affect the physical inactivity of the students in saint joseph college aged 12- 16 years old. It aims to understand the impact of this crisis and how to address this pressing issue. A descriptive- survey research design was utilized to document the respondents' behavior, demographics, and experiences correlated to the questions provided. The questionnaire includes 15-item questions that seek to gather information on their basic profile, current experiences, and behavior towards physical (...)
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  8. In defense of medically supervised doping.Eric Moore & Jo Morrison - 2022 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 49 (2):159-176.
    We propose that doping be legalized under medical supervision. First, we discuss two motivations for allowing medically supervised doping. We reject the ‘compromised choice/harm minimization’ motivation as unlikely to win the support of athletes. We agree that it could lead to an arms race. Instead, we favor full acceptance of doping under medical supervision and answer Reid’s spirit of sport objection to medical manipulation. After presenting a set of guiding principles, we use them to answer the arms race objection and (...)
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  9. Are You Game – Theoretically? A Critical Discussion of A Game-theory-based Argument in Favour of Banning Doping.Thomas Søbirk Petersen - 2022 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 16 (4):563-574.
    The aim of this article is to present and critically discuss a game-theory-based argument in favour of the view that sports organizations ought to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. After presenting the argument in detail, I try to show that the argument is not convincing. First, the argument cannot be used to argue in favour of WADA’s (World Anti-Doping Agency) current ban on doping, at least if it rests on the assumption, that doping use is always harmful. (...)
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  10. Are You Game – Theoretically? A Critical Discussion of A Game-theory-based Argument in Favour of Banning Doping.Thomas Søbirk Petersen - 2022 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 16 (4):563-574.
    The aim of this article is to present and critically discuss a gametheory- based argument in favour of the view that sports organizations ought to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. After presenting the argument in detail, I try to show that the argument is not convincing. First, the argument cannot be used to argue in favour of WADA’s (World Anti-Doping Agency) current ban on doping, at least if it rests on the assumption, that doping use is always (...)
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  11. Basic values predict unethical behavior in sport: the case of athletes’ doping likelihood.Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu, Bahri Gürpınar, Jean Whitehead & Hannah Mortimer - 2022 - Ethics and Behavior 32 (1):90-98.
    ABSTRACT Although basic values have been linked with unethical attitudes and behavior in non-sport contexts, their association with doping in sport has yet to be established. We examined the relationships between basic values and doping likelihood. College athletes rated the importance of basic values using the Portrait Values Questionnaire Revised and indicated their likelihood of doping in a hypothetical scenario. In terms of basic value dimensions, self-enhancement values were positively related to doping likelihood, openness to change values were unrelated to (...)
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  12. Book Symposium: Ask Vest Christiansen’s Gym Culture, Identity and Performance-Enhancing Drugs’.Ask Vest Christiansen, April Henning, Francisco Javier Lopez Frias & John M. Hoberman - 2021 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (4):572-593.
    This is a review and discussion of Ask Vest Christiansen’s book Gym Culture, Identity and Performance-Enhancing Drugs: Tracing a Typology of Steroid Use. As indicated by the title, the book...
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  13. Doping as a Manifestation of a Narcissistic Civilization.Konstantinos Dedousis - 2021 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (1):88-102.
    Over every and each sport event, a dark veil spreads and obfuscates the celebration: doping. Although anti-doping policies have been widely applied, controlling and diminishing this phenomenon has not been achieved yet and the use of doping is commonplace. In this article, I propose the concept of narcissistic civilization as a tool to interpret this phenomenon. I seek for a parallel reading between the Freudian idea of narcissism and its extension to social narcissism by Fromm, together with Heidegger’s analysis of (...)
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  14. Doping as a Manifestation of a Narcissistic Civilization.Konstantinos Dedousis - 2021 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (1):88-102.
    Over every and each sport event, a dark veil spreads and obfuscates the celebration: doping. Although anti-doping policies have been widely applied, controlling and diminishing this phenomenon has not been achieved yet and the use of doping is commonplace. In this article, I propose the concept of narcissistic civilization as a tool to interpret this phenomenon. I seek for a parallel reading between the Freudian idea of narcissism and its extension to social narcissism by Fromm, together with Heidegger’s analysis of (...)
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  15. O Captain! My Captain!: leadership, virtue, and sport.John William Devine - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 48 (1):45-62.
    There is a crisis of leadership in sport. Leadership as an athletic excellence is under threat from the deepening influence of coaches on in-game decision- making. To appreciate what is being lost in this shift of responsibility, it is necessary to understand the challenge of athlete leadership. Captaincy is the quintessential on-field leadership role. However, the role of captain, and athlete leadership more widely, remains philosophically untheorized. This paper initiates a discussion of leadership in sport by providing the first normative (...)
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  16. A Framework to Evaluate Justice Claims in the Russian State-Led Doping Case.Francisco Javier Lopez Frias, Brett Diaz & Rachel Park - 2021 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 16 (4):427-442.
    In this article, we examine scholarly analyses of justice and develop a framework that can help assess the claims from the parties in the Russian state-led doping scandal, including, but not limited to, Russian athletes, non-Russian athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and sport governing bodies. The two key components of this justice framework are pluralism and relationality/contextuality. We argue that a justice framework built upon these elements better captures the nature of justice. We conclude that no party in the Russian (...)
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  17. Testing for Athlete Citizenship: Regulating Doping and Sex in Sport.T. Rachel Park, Emmanuel Macedo, Brett A. Diaz & Francisco Javier Lopez Frias - 2021 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 16 (1):153-157.
    In Testing for Athlete Citizenship: Regulating Doping and Sex in Sport, Kathryn E. Henne provides ‘a genealogical account of anti-doping regulation by questioning the meanings we take from sport’ (...
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  18. What money can buy: technology and breaking the two-hour ‘marathon’ record.Danny Rosenberg & Pam R. Sailors - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 49 (1):1-18.
    On 12 October 2019, Kenyan runner Eliud Kipchoge became the first person to run a ‘marathon’, known as the INEOS 1:59 Challenge, in less than 2 hours in a time of 1:59:40.2. However, his time was n...
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  19. Doping, Debunking, and Drawing the Line.Eric Gilbertson - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (2):160-184.
    The current ban on certain performance enhancing substances in sport such as erythropoietin faces a line-drawing problem: what is the moral difference between taking an EPO injection to incre...
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  20. Doping and Moral Disapprovals.Mika Hämäläinen, Andrew Bloodworth & Suvi Heikkinen - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (3):331-348.
    This paper explores variance in how people morally disapprove wrongs related to doping. The variance may pertain to what type of moral disapproval a person uses or to what they disapprove of. Our e...
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  21. Would Relaxation of the Anti-doping Rule Lead to Red Queen Effects?Bengt Kayser & Andreas De Block - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (3):1-15.
    One of the claims sometimes advanced in favour of anti-doping is that allowing doping would lead to a uniform increase in performance in comparison to no doping. The idea is that if all athletes wo...
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  22. Doping in Sport: A Defence.Thomas Søbirk Petersen - 2020 - London and New York; UK and USA: Routledge.
    It has become a mantra, that doping is immorally and therefore should be punished with exclusion, fines and stigmatization. In most parts of the world, the doping debate is characterised by an extreme tunnel vision since all athletes, politicians and sports managers who have public airtime express that doping is bad or the invention of the devil. -/- The purpose of 'Doping in Sport: A Defence' is to identify, clarify and challenge some of the central arguments that are used in (...)
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  23. Promoting Fairness in Sport through Performance-enhancing Substances: An Argument for Why Sport Referees Ought to ‘Be on Drugs’.Thomas Søbirk Petersen & Francisco Javier Lopez Frias - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (2):199-207.
    The debate on the use of performance-enhancing substances or methods to improve refereeing is underdeveloped in the sport philosophical literature. This contrast with the attention scholars have de...
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  24. If You’re Not First, You’re Last: Are the Empirical Premises Correct in the Ethics of Anti-Doping?Werner Pitsch & John Gleaves - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (4):495-506.
    In the ethical discussion of anti-doping, a number of normative arguments rely on empirical premises. The truth of these premises, however, often remains unverified. This article identifies several...
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  25. The Ethics of Doping: Between Paternalism and Duty.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2020 - Pannoniana: Journal of Humanities 4 (1):35-49.
    The most plausible line of anti-doping argumentation starts with the fact that performance enhancing substances are harmful and put at considerable risk the health and the life of those who indulge in the overwhelming promises these substances hold. From a liberal point of view, however, this is not a strong reason neither to morally reject doping altogether, nor to put a blanket ban on it; on the contrary, allowing adult, competent and informed athletes to have access to performance enhancement drugs (...)
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  26. Neurostimulation, doping, and the spirit of sport.Jonathan Pugh & Christopher Pugh - 2020 - Neuroethics 14 (2):141-158.
    There is increasing interest in using neuro-stimulation devices to achieve an ergogenic effect in elite athletes. Although the World Anti-Doping Authority does not currently prohibit neuro-stimulation techniques, a number of researchers have called on WADA to consider its position on this issue. Focusing on trans-cranial direct current stimulation as a case study of an imminent so-called ‘neuro-doping’ intervention, we argue that the emerging evidence suggests that tDCS may meet WADA’s own criteria for a method’s inclusion on its list of prohibited (...)
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  27. ‘Fair Play’ as a Larger Loyalty: The Case of Anti-Doping.Morten Renslo Sandvik - 2020 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (2):185-198.
    This paper explores a redescription of ‘fair play’ as loyalty. Focusing on the context of elite sport and the case of anti-doping, the paper develops an adaptation of Richard Rorty’s call to dispen...
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  28. The Ethics of Cloning Horses in Polo.Francisco Javier Lopez Frias & Cesar R. Torres - 2019 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):125-139.
    The ethics of using genetic engineering to enhance athletic performance has been a recurring topic in the sport philosophy and bioethics literature. In this article, we analyze the ethics of cloning horses for polo competition. In doing so, we critically examine the arguments most commonly advanced to justify this practice. In the process, we raise concerns about cloning horses for polo competition, centering on normative aspects pertaining to sport ethics usually neglected by defenders of cloning. In particular, we focus on (...)
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  29. Sport, stories, and morality: a Rortyan approach to doping ethics.Morten Renslo Sandvik - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 46 (3):383-400.
    ABSTRACTStories pervade sport. In elite spectator sport, stories play out in packed stadiums while being broadcast simultaneously to immense TV audiences. These stories, which present controversial...
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  30. Enhancement and Cheating: Implications for Policy in Sport.Justin Caouette & Allen Habib - 2018 - In David Boonin (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of Philosophy and Public Policy. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 523-533.
    There is a widely held view that the rules forbidding the use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are justified on grounds that utilizing these drugs constitutes cheating . In this chapter we engage with this assumption. Relying on an interpretative approach borrowed from Ronald Dworkin, we offer a novel analysis of cheating, one that makes it out to be a matter of inhibiting the attainment of certain sorts of achievements. These achievements are the important goods at the centre of sport, (...)
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  31. Sport, Performance-enhancing Drugs, and the Art of Self-imposed Constraints.Sigmund Loland - 2018 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 32 (1):87-100.
    Should the use of performance-enhancing drugs be banned in sport? A proper response to this question depends upon ideas of the meaning and value of sport. To a certain extent, sport is associated with ideal values such as equality of opportunity, fair play, performance and progress. PED use is considered contrary to these values. On the other hand, critics see sport as an expression of non-sustainable and competitive individualism that threatens human welfare and development. PED use is considered a logical (...)
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  32. Lowering Restrictions on Performance Enhancing Drugs in Elite Sports.Rory Warwick Collins - 2017 - Inquiries Journal 9 (3).
    This article argues that performance enhancing drugs ought to be allowed across all elite sporting competitions for athletes over the age of 16 so long as consuming them does not pose a significant risk to their health. I begin with a brief explanation of the current state of PED use in professional sports before assessing the prospect of allowing PEDs by three widely accepted measures of ethical merit: well-being, autonomy, and justice. I end with a critique of the World Anti-Doping (...)
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  33. Doping Use Meta-Analysis: Science Seasoned with Moralistic Prejudice.Ognjen Arandjelović - 2015 - Sports Medicine 45 (3):443-444.
  34. The Only Good Reason to Ban Steroids in Baseball: To Prevent an Arms Race.Jacob Beck - 2013 - The Atlantic:0-0.
    I review six bad arguments for banning performance-enhancing drugs from sports--and a seventh good one.
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  35. Doping and the limits of competitive sports.Alexander Bagattini - 2012 - Ethik in der Medizin 24 (3):207-219.
    ZusammenfassungOb eine sportliche Leistung anerkannt wird, hängt maßgeblich davon ab, ob sie im Einklang mit Werten steht, die wir für wesentlich für den Sport halten. Die philosophischen Standardargumente gegen Doping im Sport behaupten eine Unvereinbarkeit von Doping mit Werten wie Fairness, Gesundheit oder Natürlichkeit. Ich möchte im Gegensatz zu diesen Argumenten eine grundsätzliche Unvereinbarkeit von Doping mit dem Wert eines nachhaltigen Umgangs einer Person mit sich selbst behaupten. Wer dopt, so meine These, folgt einem verabsolutierten Leistungsdenken, was aus ethischer Perspektive (...)
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  36. Drug Taking, Bodybuilding and Sporting Women.Michael Burke - 2001 - Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 9 (3-4):49-80.
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