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Developmental constraints are restrictions on the development of a particular phenotypic trait. These are physical, mechanical or structural limitations as well as irreversible commitments at key developmental stages that will limit or bias the phenotypes that selection can work with. Accordingly, developmental constraints (and not stabilizing selection) explain why certain traits, such as the structure of the tetrapod limb, are highly conserved in different evolving lineages with different adaptive pressures (e.g.  whale fins and frog legs).

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  1. Evolution of Self-Consciousness. Pan-Homo Split and Anxiety Management. (June 2023 ASSC 26 Poster. Not presented).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    Primatology tells that about seven million years ago a split began in primate evolution, a split that led to chimpanzee and human lineages (the pan-homo split). During these millions of years our human lineage has developed performances that our chimpanzee cousins do not possess, like reflective self-consciousness and language. We present here an evolutionary scenario that proposes a rationale for the pan-homo split. It is based on a pre-human anxiety that may have barred access to self-consciousness for the chimpanzee lineage. (...)
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  2. Structuralism and Adaptationism: Friends? Or foes?Rachael Brown - forthcoming - Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology.
    Historically, the empirical study of phenotypic diversification has fallen into two rough camps; (1) "structuralist approaches" focusing on developmental constraint, bias, and innovation (with evo-devo at the core); and (2) "adaptationist approaches" focusing on adaptation, and natural selection. Whilst debates, such as that surrounding the proposed "Extended" Evolutionary Synthesis, often juxtapose these two positions, this review focuses on the grey space in between. Specifically, here I present a novel analysis of structuralism which enables us to take a more nuanced look (...)
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  3. Form and Function in the Imitative Learning of Language: Comment on “Replication and emergence in cultural transmission” by Monica Tamariz.Richard Moore - forthcoming - Physics of Life Reviews.
  4. Developmental Channeling and Evolutionary Dappling.Grant Ramsey & Cristina Villegas - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    The developmental properties of organisms play important roles in the generation of variation necessary for evolutionary change. But how can individual development steer the course of evolution? To answer this question, we introduce developmental channeling as a disposition of individual organisms that shapes their possible developmental trajectories and evolutionary dappling as an evolutionary outcome in which the space of possible organismic forms is dappled—it is only partially filled. We then trace out the implications of the channeling-dappling framework for contemporary debates (...)
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  5. Structure and Function.Rose Novick - 2023 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    The history of biology is mottled with disputes between two distinct approaches to the organic world: structuralism and functionalism. Their persistence across radical theory change makes them difficult to characterize: the characterization must be abstract enough to capture biologists with diverse theoretical commitments, yet not so abstract as to be vacuous. This Element develops a novel account of structuralism and functionalism in terms of explanatory strategies (Section 2). This reveals the possibility of integrating the two strategies; the explanatory successes of (...)
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  6. Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on the Study of Developmental Bias.Ingo Brigandt - 2020 - Evolution & Development 22 (1-2):7-19.
    Throughout the recent history of research at the intersection of evolution and development, notions such as developmental constraint, evolutionary novelty, and evolvability have been prominent, but the term ‘developmental bias’ has scarcely been used. And one may even doubt whether a unique and principled definition of bias is possible. I argue that the concept of developmental bias can still play a vital scientific role by means of setting an explanatory agenda that motivates investigation and guides the formulation of integrative explanatory (...)
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  7. Dispositional Properties in Evo-Devo.Christopher J. Austin & Laura Nuño de la Rosa - 2018 - In Laura Nuño de la Rosa & G. Müller (eds.), Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Springer.
    In identifying intrinsic molecular chance and extrinsic adaptive pressures as the only causally relevant factors in the process of evolution, the theoretical perspective of the Modern Synthesis had a major impact on the perceived tenability of an ontology of dispositional properties. However, since the late 1970s, an increasing number of evolutionary biologists have challenged the descriptive and explanatory adequacy of this “chance alone, extrinsic only” understanding of evolutionary change. Because morphological studies of homology, convergence, and teratology have revealed a space (...)
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  8. Kant’s epigenesis: specificity and developmental constraints.Boris Demarest - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 39 (1):1-19.
    In this paper, I argue that Kant adopted, throughout his career, a position that is much more akin to classical accounts of epigenesis, although he does reject the more radical forms of epigenesis proposed in his own time, and does make use of preformationist sounding terms. I argue that this is because Kant (1) thinks of what is pre-formed as a species, not an individual or a part of an individual; (2) has no qualm with the idea of a specific, (...)
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  9. Information, Constraint and Meaning from Pre-biotic World to a possible Post-human one. An Evolutionary Approach (MDPI Proceedings).Christophe Menant - 2017 - Mdpi Proceeedings 1 (3).
    The presentation proposes to complement an existing development on meaning generation for animals, humans and artificial agents by looking at what could have existed at pre-biotic times and what could be a post-human meaning generation. The core of the approach is based on an existing model for meaning generation: the Meaning Generator System (MGS). The MGS is part of an agent submitted to an internal constraint. The MGS generates a meaning when it receives information that has a connection with the (...)
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  10. Cellular lifespan and senescence: a complex balance between multiple cellular pathways.David Dolivo, Sarah Hernandez & Tanja Dominko - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (S1):33-44.
    The study of cellular senescence and proliferative lifespan is becoming increasingly important because of the promises of autologous cell therapy, the need for model systems for tissue disease and the implication of senescent cell phenotypes in organismal disease states such as sarcopenia, diabetes and various cancers, among others. Here, we explain the concepts of proliferative cellular lifespan and cellular senescence, and we present factors that have been shown to mediate cellular lifespan positively or negatively. We review much recent literature and (...)
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  11. Eine neue Sicht der Evolution: Ist es nur der Zufall, der sie leitet?Paul Gottlob Layer - 2016 - BRIEFE Zur Orientierung Im Konflikt Mensch - Erde, Evangelische Akademie Sachsen-Anhalt E.V 121 (4):16-24.
    Nach neodarwinistischem Verständnis der Evolution entstehen neue Organismen letztlich durch rein zufällige Mutationsprozesse auf genetischer Ebene. Ihre Überlebenschancen werden dann durch die jeweilig herrschende Umwelt begünstigt oder unterdrückt. Die Evolution ist demnach nur vom reinen Zufall geleitet. Neuere Einsichten aus Entwicklungsbiologie (EvoDevo) und Epigenetik haben unsere Sicht der Evolutionsabläufe jedoch deutlich erweitert. Dabei kommt der Umwelt eine lenkende Rolle zu, der reine Zufall verliert an Bedeutung. Damit lässt sich naturwissenschaftliches Verständnis wieder besser mit herkömmlichen Schöpfungsbildern versöhnen.
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  12. From Developmental Constraint to Evolvability: How Concepts Figure in Explanation and Disciplinary Identity.Ingo Brigandt - 2015 - In Alan C. Love (ed.), Conceptual Change in Biology: Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives on Evolution and Development. Berlin: Springer Verlag, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. pp. 305-325.
    The concept of developmental constraint was at the heart of developmental approaches to evolution of the 1980s. While this idea was widely used to criticize neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory, critique does not yield an alternative framework that offers evolutionary explanations. In current Evo-devo the concept of constraint is of minor importance, whereas notions as evolvability are at the center of attention. The latter clearly defines an explanatory agenda for evolutionary research, so that one could view the historical shift from ‘developmental constraint’ (...)
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  13. Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences.Gillian Barker, Eric Desjardins & Trevor Pearce (eds.) - 2014 - Dordrecht: Springer.
    Despite the burgeoning interest in new and more complex accounts of the organism-environment dyad by biologists and philosophers, little attention has been paid in the resulting discussions to the history of these ideas and to their deployment in disciplines outside biology—especially in the social sciences. Even in biology and philosophy, there is a lack of detailed conceptual models of the organism-environment relationship. This volume is designed to fill these lacunae by providing the first multidisciplinary discussion of the topic of organism-environment (...)
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  14. An evolutionary Ockham's razor to reciprocity.Irene Berra - 2014 - Frontiers in Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 5:01258.
    Reciprocal altruism implies delayed payoffs by definition. It might therefore seem logical to assume that limited memory, calculation, and planning capacities have constrained the evolution of reciprocity in non-human animals. Here I will argue that this is not the case. First, I will show that the emotional track of past interactions is enough to motivate and maintain reciprocity over longer timespans. Second, I will propose a developmental pathway of this system of emotional bookkeeping. In particular, the neuropeptide modulation underlying mother-infant (...)
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  15. The Constraint Interpretation of Physical Emergence.James Blachowicz - 2013 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 44 (1):21-40.
    I develop a variant of the constraint interpretation of the emergence of purely physical (non-biological) entities, focusing on the principle of the non-derivability of actual physical states from possible physical states (physical laws) alone. While this is a necessary condition for any account of emergence, it is not sufficient, for it becomes trivial if not extended to types of constraint that specifically constitute physical entities, namely, those that individuate and differentiate them. Because physical organizations with these features are in fact (...)
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  16. Predictive Power of “A Minima” Models in Biology.L. Almeida & J. Demongeot - 2012 - Acta Biotheoretica 60 (1-2):3-19.
    Many apparently complex mechanisms in biology, especially in embryology and molecular biology, can be explained easily by reasoning at the level of the “efficient cause” of the observed phenomenology: the mechanism can then be explained by a simple geometrical argument or a variational principle, leading to the solution of an optimization problem, for example, via the co-existence of a minimization and a maximization problem . Passing from a microscopic level to the macroscopic level often involves an averaging effect that gives (...)
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  17. Mechanistic Constraints on Evolutionary Outcomes.Tudor M. Baetu - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (2):276-294.
    Understanding the role mechanistic constraints play in shaping evolution can relieve the tension between the generally accepted intuition that there are no strict laws in biology and empirical findings showing that evolutionary processes are biased toward preferred outcomes. Mechanistic constraints explain why some evolutionary outcomes are more probable than others and allow for predictions in specific lineages. At the same time, mechanistic constraints are neither necessary nor universal in the way laws are traditionally characterized: they remain contingent on the past (...)
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  18. Expanding the Temporal Dimensions of Developmental Biology: The Role of Environmental Agents in Establishing Adult-Onset Phenotypes.Scott F. Gilbert - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (1):65-72.
    Developmental biology is expanding into several new areas. One new area of study concerns the production of adult-onset phenotypes by exposure of the fetus or neonate to environmental agents. These agents include maternal nutrients, developmental modulators (endocrine disruptors), and maternal care. In all three cases, a major mechanism for the generation of the altered phenotype is chromatin modification. Nutrient conditions, developmental modulators, and even maternal care appear to alter DNA methylation and other associated changes in chromatin that regulate gene expression. (...)
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  19. Evolution and Constraints on Variation: Variant Specification and Range of Assessment.Trevor Pearce - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):739-751.
    There is still a great deal of debate over what counts as a constraint and about how to assess experimentally the relative importance of constraints and selection in evolutionary history. I will argue that the notion of a constraint on variation, and thus the selection-constraint distinction, depends on two specifications: (1) what counts as a variant -- constraints limit or bias the production of what? and (2) range of assessment -- over what range of times or conditions is the variation (...)
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  20. Accounting for Vertebrate Limbs: From Owen's Homology to Novelty in Evo-Devo.Ingo Brigandt - 2009 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 1:e004.
    This article reviews the recent reissuing of Richard Owen’s On the Nature of Limbs and its three novel, introductory essays. These essays make Owen’s 1849 text very accessible by discussing the historical context of his work and explaining how Owen’s ideas relate to his larger intellectual framework. In addition to the ways in which the essays point to Owen’s relevance for contemporary biology, I discuss how Owen’s unity of type theory and his homology claims about fins and limbs compare with (...)
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  21. EvoDevo: die molekulare Entwicklungsbiologie als Schlüssel zum Verständnis der Evolutionstheorie.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2009 - Zeitschrift Für Pädagogik Und Theologie 61 (4):322-333.
    Darwin´s Erkenntnis über die Abstammung der Arten durch Mutation und Selektion sind in aller Munde, dass aber darüber im Detail noch viel Unklarheit herrscht, ist weniger bekannt. Es sind Fortschritte der Entwicklungsbiologie, die erst seit wenigen Jahren uns molekulare Erklärungsmuster an die Hand geben, mit denen die Entstehung neuer Arten besser verständlich wird. Es handelt sich um die Aufklärung der Wirkungsweise von Genen und ihren molekularen Produkten, die während der embryonalen Entwicklung von Tier und Mensch dafür sorgen, daß der Organismus (...)
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  22. The nature of developmental constraints and the difference-Maker argument for externalism.Roger Sansom - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):441-459.
    One current version of the internalism/externalism debate in evolutionary theory focuses on the relative importance of developmental constraints in evolutionary explanation. The received view of developmental constraints sees them as an internalist concept that tend to be shared across related species as opposed to selective pressures that are not. Thus, to the extent that constraints can explain anything, they can better explain similarity across species, while natural selection is better able to explain their differences. I challenge both of these aspects (...)
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  23. Waddington’s Legacy to Developmental and Theoretical Biology.Jonathan B. L. Bard - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (3):188-197.
    Conrad Hal Waddington was a British developmental biologist who mainly worked in Cambridge and Edinburgh, but spent the late 1930s with Morgan in California learning about Drosophila. He was the first person to realize that development depended on the then unknown activities of genes, and he needed an appropriate model organism. His major experimental contributions were to show how mutation analysis could be used to investigate developmental mechanisms in Drosophila, and to explore how developmental mutation could drive evolution, his other (...)
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  24. A General Formalism for Tissue Morphogenesis Based on Cellular Dynamics and Control System Interactions.Loïc Forest & Jacques Demongeot - 2008 - Acta Biotheoretica 56 (1):51-74.
    Morphogenesis is a key process in developmental biology. An important issue is the understanding of the generation of shape and cellular organisation in tissues. Despite of their great diversity, morphogenetic processes share common features. This work is an attempt to describe this diversity using the same formalism based on a cellular description. Tissue is seen as a multi-cellular system whose behaviour is the result of all constitutive cells dynamics. Morphogenesis is then considered as a spatiotemporal organization of cells activities. We (...)
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  25. Typology now: homology and developmental constraints explain evolvability.Ingo Brigandt - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (5):709-725.
    By linking the concepts of homology and morphological organization to evolvability, this paper attempts to (1) bridge the gap between developmental and phylogenetic approaches to homology and to (2) show that developmental constraints and natural selection are compatible and in fact complementary. I conceive of a homologue as a unit of morphological evolvability, i.e., as a part of an organism that can exhibit heritable phenotypic variation independently of the organism’s other homologues. An account of homology therefore consists in explaining how (...)
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  26. Was ist Leben? - Von Zellen und anderen Lebewesen zwischen Genkonstanz und Umweltvarianz.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2007 - Arnoldshainer Texte - Der Etwas Andere Blick Auf Die Schöpfung 136:102-116.
    Bei der Suche nach dem rätselhaften Ursprung des Phänomens „Leben“ wird hier zunächst die zelluläre Ebene betrachtet. Im Grundaufbau zeigen alle Zellen viel Konstantes, aber gleichzeitig stellt jede Zelle ein einmaliges Individuum dar. Leben von Zellen gibt es nur als gegenseitiges Wechselspiel mit ihrer jeweiligen Umwelt. Das Genom (die Gesamtheit aller Gene) bleibt ab der Befruchtung in jeder Zelle eines Individuums konstant. Aber auch die Verwirklichung der Gene braucht eine „molekulare Umwelt“, besonders die vom Muttertier vorbereitete Umwelt im Zytoplasma des (...)
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  27. Finding the way in phenotypic space: the origin and maintenance of constraints on organismal form.Massimo Pigliucci - 2007 - Annals of Botany 100:433-438.
    Background: One of the all-time questions in evolutionary biology regards the evolution of organismal shapes, and in particular why certain forms appear repeatedly in the history of life, others only seldom and still others not at all. Recent research in this field has deployed the conceptual framework of constraints and natural selection as measured by quantitative genetic methods. Scope: In this paper I argue that quantitative genetics can by necessity only provide us with useful statistical sum- maries that may lead (...)
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  28. Pathologies and the origin of language: an epistemological reflection.Nathalie Gontier - 2006 - Cognitive Systems 1 (7):35-62.
  29. Did internal transport, rather than directed locomotion, favor the evolution of bilateral symmetry in animals?John R. Finnerty - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (11):1174-1180.
    The standard explanation for the origin of bilateral symmetry is that it conferred an advantage over radial symmetry for directed locomotion. However, recent developmental and phylogenetic studies suggest that bilateral symmetry may have evolved in a sessile benthic animal, predating the origin of directed locomotion. An evolutionarily feasible alternative explanation is that bilateral symmetry evolved to improve the efficiency of internal circulation by affecting the compartmentalization of the gut and the location of major ciliary tracts. This functional design principle is (...)
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  30. Developmental constraints on theories of synesthesia.Lawrence E. Marks & Eric C. Odgaard - 2005 - In Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.), Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
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  31. Synesthesia: Perspectives From Cognitive Neuroscience. Robertson, C. L. & N. Sagiv (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    The research presented in this volume demonstrates that it is no longer reasonable to ask whether or not synesthesia is real--we must now ask how we can account ...
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  32. Long Live the Genome! So Should the Gene.Raphael Falk - 2004 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26 (1):105 - 121.
    Developments in the sequencing of whole genomes and in simultaneously surveying many thousands of transcription and translation products of specific cells have ushered in a conceptual revolution in genetics that rationally introduces top-down, holistic analyses. This emphasized the futility of attempts to reduce genes to structurally discrete entities along the genome, and the need to return to Johannsen's definition of a gene as 'something' that refers to an invariant entity of inheritance and development. We may view genes either as generic (...)
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  33. The developmental systems perspective: Organism-environment systems as units of development and evolution.Paul E. Griffiths & Russell D. Gray - 2004 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Katherine A. Preston (eds.), Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press. pp. 409-431.
    Developmental systems theory is an attempt to sum up the ideas of a research tradition in developmental psychobiology that goes back at least to Daniel Lehrman’s work in the 1950s. It yields a representation of evolution that is quite capable of accommodating the traditional themes of natural selection and also the new results that are emerging from evolutionary developmental biology. But it adds something else - a framework for thinking about development and evolution without the distorting dichotomization of biological processes (...)
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  34. The developmental systems perspective: Organism-environment systems as units of development and evolution.Paul E. Griffiths & Russell D. Gray - 2004 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Katherine A. Preston (eds.), Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press. pp. 409--431.
    Developmental systems theory is an attempt to sum up the ideas of a research tradition in developmental psychobiology that goes back at least to Daniel Lehrman’s work in the 1950s. It yields a representation of evolution that is quite capable of accommodating the traditional themes of natural selection and also the new results that are emerging from evolutionary developmental biology. But it adds something else - a framework for thinking about development and evolution without the distorting dichotomization of biological processes (...)
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  35. Evolvability, stabilizing selection, and the problem of stasis.Thomas F. Hansen & David Houle - 2004 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Katherine A. Preston (eds.), Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press.
  36. Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes.Massimo Pigliucci & Katherine A. Preston (eds.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    A new voice in the nature-nurture debate can be heard at the interface between evolution and development. Phenotypic integration is a major growth area in research.
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  37. Anti‐cancer selection as a source of developmental and evolutionary constraints.Frietson Galis & Johan A. J. Metz - 2003 - Bioessays 25 (11):1035-1039.
    Recently at least two papers1,2have appeared that look at cancer from an evolutionary perspective. That cancer has a negative effect on fitness needs no argument. However, cancer origination is not an isolated process, but the potential for it is linked in diverse ways to other genetically determined developmental events, complicating the way selection acts on it, and through it on the evolution of development. The two papers take a totally different line. Kavanagh argues that anti‐cancer selection has led to developmental (...)
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  38. Towards a morphogenetic perspective on cancer.Armando Aranda-Anzaldo - 2002 - Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 95:35-62.
    The purpose of this paper is to present a critique of the current view that reduces cancer to a cellular problem caused by specific gene mutations and to propose, instead, that such a problem might become more intelligible, if it is understood as a phenomenon that results from the breakdown of the morphological plan or Gestalt of the organism. Such and organism, in Aristotelian terms, is characterized for presenting a specific morphe or logos (form) and for having a telos (end) (...)
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  39. Author's Response: Developmental structure in brain evolution.Barbara L. Finlay, Richard B. Darlington & Nicholas Nicastro - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):298-304.
    First, we clarify the central nature of our argument: our attempt is to apportion variation in brain size between developmental constraint, system-specific change, and change, underlining the unexpectedly large role of developmental constraint, but making no case for exclusivity. We consider the special cases of unusual hypertrophy of single structures in single species, regressive nervous systems, and the unusually variable cerebellum raised by the commentators. We defend the description of the cortex (or any developmentally-constrained structure) as a potential spandrel, and (...)
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  40. The internalization of physical constraints from a developmental perspective.Horst Krist - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):681-682.
    Shepard's internalization concept is defended against Hecht's criticisms. By ignoring both Shepard's evolutionary perspective and the fact that internalization does not preclude modularization, Hecht advances inconclusive evidence. Developmental research supports Shepard's conclusion that kinematic geometry may be more deeply internalized than physical dynamics. This research also suggests that the internalization concept should be broadened to include representations acquired during ontogeny. [Hecht; Shepard].
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  41. A clock‐work somite.Kim J. Dale & Olivier Pourquié - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (1):72-83.
    Somites are transient structures which represent the most overt segmental feature of the vertebrate embryo. The strict temporal regulation of somitogenesis is of critical developmental importance since many segmental structures adopt a periodicity based on that of the somites. Until recently, the mechanisms underlying the periodicity of somitogenesis were largely unknown. Based on the oscillations of c-hairy1 and lunatic fringe RNA, we now have evidence for an intrinsic segmentation clock in presomitic cells. Translation of this temporal periodicity into a spatial (...)
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  42. Innateness is canalization: In defense of a developmental account of innateness.Andre Ariew - 1999 - In Philosophy of Science. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. pp. S19-S27.
    Lorenz proposed in his (1935) articulation of a theory of behavioral instincts that the objective of ethology is to distinguish behaviors that are “innate” from behaviors that are “learned” (or “acquired”). Lorenz’s motive was to open the investigation of certain “adaptive” behaviors to evolutionary theorizing. Accordingly, since innate behaviors are “genetic”, they are open to such investigation. By Lorenz’s light an innate/acquired or learned dichotomy rested on a familiar Darwinian distinction between genes and environments. Ever since Lorenz, ascriptions of innateness (...)
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  43. Innateness is canalization: In defense of a developmental account of innateness.Andre Ariew - 1999 - In Philosophy of Science. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Lorenz proposed in his (1935) articulation of a theory of behavioral instincts that the objective of ethology is to distinguish behaviors that are “innate” from behaviors that are “learned” (or “acquired”). Lorenz’s motive was to open the investigation of certain “adaptive” behaviors to evolutionary theorizing. Accordingly, since innate behaviors are “genetic”, they are open to such investigation. By Lorenz’s light an innate/acquired or learned dichotomy rested on a familiar Darwinian distinction between genes and environments. Ever since Lorenz, ascriptions of innateness (...)
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  44. The function of vestigial in Drosophila wing development: How are tissue‐specific responses to signalling pathways specified?Jose F. de Celis - 1999 - Bioessays 21 (7):542-545.
  45. La complejidad y la forma.Armando Aranda-Anzaldo - 1997 - Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
    This book deals with embryology although it is not a book on embryology. It is in itself like a developing embryo and at a difference of textbooks it does not pretend to be an introduction to any particular scientific discipline. This work was born from a fascination about forms and it is the draft of a morphological process: the account of a form coming into being, the form of an as yet unnamed but emerging science. A new science of qualities (...)
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  46. Understanding Ageing By Robin Holliday.B. Hannigan - 1996 - Bioessays 18:852-852.
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  47. Les attracteurs inedits de l'hominisation.Anne Dambricourt Malassé - 1995 - Acta Biotheoretica 43 (1-2):113-125.
    The recent discovery of a phenomenon of craniofacial growth, called craniofacial contraction, throws a new light on the process of hominization. The main interest of this discovery lies in a growth principle combining the different craniofacial units, that is to say, the neurocranium, the chondrocranium and the splanchnocranium. Until recent years, these different parts were considered as neighbouring element without any morphogenic or morphodynamic connection. But now, we know that the morphogenesis of the base of the skull governs that of (...)
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  48. Two concepts of constraint: Adaptationism and the challenge from developmental biology.Ron Amundson - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (4):556-578.
    The so-called "adaptationism" of mainstream evolutionary biology has been criticized from a variety of sources. One, which has received relatively little philosophical attention, is developmental biology. Developmental constraints are said to be neglected by adaptationists. This paper explores the divergent methodological and explanatory interests that separate mainstream evolutionary biology from its embryological and developmental critics. It will focus on the concept of constraint itself; even this central concept is understood differently by the two sides of the dispute.
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  49. The vertebrate limb: A model system to study the Hox/hom gene network during development and evolution.Denis Duboule - 1992 - Bioessays 14 (6):375-384.
    The potential of the vertebrate limb as a model system to study developmental mechanisms is particularly well illustrated by the analysis of the Hox gene network. These genes are probably involved in the establishment of patterns encoding positional information. Their functional organisation during both limb and trunk development are very similar and seem to involve the progressive activation in time, along the chromosome, of a battery of genes whose products could differentially instruct those cells where they are expressed. This process (...)
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  50. Roots: Ontogeny and phylogeny – revisited and reunited.Stephen Jay Gould - 1992 - Bioessays 14 (4):275-279.
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