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  1. Science Fiction Double Feature: Trans Liberation on Twin Earth.B. R. George & R. A. Briggs - manuscript
    What is it to be a woman? What is it to be a man? We start by laying out desiderata for an analysis of 'woman' and 'man': descriptively, it should link these gender categories to sex biology without reducing them to sex biology, and politically, it should help us explain and combat traditional sexism while also allowing us to make sense of the activist view that gendering should be consensual. Using a Putnam-style 'Twin Earth' example, we argue that none of (...)
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  2. Masculinity and the questions of “is” and “ought”: revisiting the definition of the notion of masculinity itself.Ognjen Arandjelovic - 2023 - Sexes 4 (4):448-461.
    The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) lists 1571 as the year of the first recorded use of the English word ‘masculinity’; the Ancient Greek ανδρεια (andreia), usually translated as ‘courage’, was also used to refer to manliness. The notion of manliness or masculinity is undoubtedly older still. Yet, despite this seeming familiarity, not only is the notion proving to be highly elusive, its understanding by the society being in a constant flux, but also one which is at the root of bitter (...)
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  3. Trans Women, Cis Women, Alien Women, and Robot Women Are Women: They Are All (Simply) Adults Gendered Female.Marcus Arvan - 2023 - Hypatia 38 (2):373-389.
    Alex Byrne contends that women are (simply) adult human females, claiming that this thesis has considerably greater initial appeal than the justified true belief (JTB) theory of knowledge. This paper refutes Byrne’s thesis in the same way the JTB theory of knowledge is widely thought to have been refuted: through simple counterexamples. Lessons are drawn. One lesson is that women need not be human. A second lesson is that biology and physical phenotypes are both irrelevant to whether someone is a (...)
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  4. The origin of "gender identity".Alex Byrne - 2023 - Archives of Sexual Behavior.
  5. Existentialism and Gender.Marilyn Stendera - 2023 - In Felicity Joseph, Jack Reynolds & Ashley Woodward (eds.), The Bloomsbury Handbook of Existentialism. Bloomsbury. pp. 192-200.
    The canonical texts of the existentialist tradition were written and published before it became common to differentiate between sex and gender. Nonetheless, it has long been recognized that the work of thinkers associated with existentialism – especially, of course, Simone de Beauvoir – provides us with a useful framework for thinking through the complex terrain of gender identity, and indeed for interrogating and problematizing the sex/gender distinction itself.1 The relevance of existentialism to these issues more broadly, even beyond Beauvoir’s more (...)
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  6. Why the Trans Inclusion Problem cannot be Solved.Tomas Bogardus - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (4):1639-1664.
    What is a woman? The definition of this central concept of feminism has lately become especially controversial and politically charged. “Ameliorative Inquirists” have rolled up their sleeves to reengineer our ordinary concept of womanhood, with a goal of including in the definition all and only those who identify as women, both “cis” and “trans.” This has proven to be a formidable challenge. Every proposal so far has failed to draw the boundaries of womanhood in a way acceptable to the Ameliorative (...)
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  7. What We Think We Are: Maximizing the Subjects in the Human Sciences.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2022 - Annals of Philosophy, Social and Human Disciplines 1.
    Human-sciences research often focuses on social problems to create tools for solving them. Yet, in using common prejudices in gathering and sorting data on their subjects, they risk propagating those same prejudices. This article proposes that a major subject matter of human sciences is human concepts themselves. Concepts about “what we are,” individually and as a species, are deeply embedded, if not essential. It concludes that for greater precision, practitioners in human sciences must take maximum advantage of this characteristic of (...)
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  8. Gender as Love: A Theological Account.Fellipe do Vale - 2021 - Dissertation, Southern Methodist University
    Despite its ubiquity in nearly all academic disciplines, gender has remained a contested concept, so much so that there is considerable ambiguity regarding what makes one a woman or a man and what relation such traits have with the human body. Debates typically polarize around the positions of gender essentialism and social constructionism, though both have been shown to have serious limitations. Additionally, theologians have typically approached these debates either by understanding gender as a category for sustained investigation but finding (...)
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  9. Transgender Athletes and Principles of Sport Categorization: Why Genealogy and the Gendered Body Will Not Help.Irena Martínková, Jim Parry & Miroslav Imbrišević - 2021 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 17 (1):21-33.
    This paper offers a discussion of the rationale for the creation of sports categorization criteria based on sporting genealogy and the gendered body, as proposed by Torres et al. in their article ‘Beyond Physiology: Embodied Experience, Embodied Advantage, and the Inclusion of Transgender Athletes in Competitive Sport’. The strength of their ‘phenomenological’ account lies in its complex account of human experience; but this is also what makes it impractical and difficult to operationalize. Categorization rather requires simplicity and practicability, if it (...)
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  10. The Notion of Gender in Psychiatry: A Focus on DSM-5.M. Cristina Amoretti - 2020 - Notizie di Politeia 139 (XXXVI):70-82.
    In this paper I review how the notion of gender is understood in psychiatry, specifically in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). First, I examine the contraposition between sex and gender, and argue that it is still retained by DSM-5, even though with some caveats. Second, I claim that, even if genderqueer people are not pathologized and gender pluralism is the background assumption, some diagnostic criteria still conceal a residue of gender dualism and (...)
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  11. Engineering Genders: Pluralism, Trans Identities, and Feminist Philosophy.Matthew J. Cull - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Sheffield
    This thesis is an attempt to provide an account of gender. In particular, it is an attempt to develop an ameliorative approach to gender that satisfies a number of transfeminist political goals. That is, following Sally Haslanger, I ask what do we want gender to be? In order to answer the question, I develop a novel Neurathian methodology for conceptual engineering, and a distinctively ‘activist’ take on that project. From there I criticise a number of theories of gender and suggest (...)
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  12. A Dilemma Regarding Gendered Pronouns.Jill Malry - 2020 - Philosophia 51 (1):255-259.
    My goal in this short paper is to introduce a dilemma regarding the pronouns ‘ she ’, ‘ he ’, and their various declensions. This dilemma arises from the practice, common in the English speaking world and especially the USA, of letting people choose their own pronouns. And as will become apparent at the end of this paper, I want to suggest that this dilemma might be unique to the English language.
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  13. Robert Simon and the Morality of Strategic Fouling.Miroslav Imbrisevic - 2019 - Synthesis Philosophica 34 (2):359-377.
    As sports have become more professional, winning has become more important. This emphasis on results, rather than sporting virtue and winning in style, probably explains the rising incidence of the Strategic Foul. Surprisingly, it has found some apologists among the philosophers of sport. The discussion of the Strategic Foul in the literature has produced subtle distinctions (e.g. Cesar Torres: constitutive skills versus restorative skills) as well as implausible distinctions (e.g. D’Agostino: ‘impermissible’ but ‘acceptable’ behaviour). In this paper I will review (...)
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  14. Otherness and Identity: The Aesthetics of Men Faced with Toxic Masculinity.Adrian Mróz - 2019 - Kultura I Historia 35 (1):75-90.
    The dynamism between otherness and differences with identity and equivalence provides key ideas for analyzing the process of gender individuation by artistic works. In this article I discuss the problem of artistic and aesthetic reactions to homogeneous cultural patterns of masculinity, which is characterized by the concept of "toxic masculinity" in pop-cultural, sociological, psychological and gender studies discourses. One common theme is that "toxic masculinity" encompasses harmful standards that generate antagonisms and diminish multi-figure masculinity to a singular "socially acceptable" level (...)
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  15. Feminist Gender Theory: Charlotte Witt and Gender Uniessentialism.Jonathan M. Jergens - 2018 - Dissertation, Athenaeum of Ohio
  16. The Contemporary Frankfurt School's Eurocentrism Unveiled: The Contribution of Amy Allen.Claudia Leeb, Robert Nichols, Yves Winter & Amy Allen - 2018 - Political Theory 46 (5):772-800.
    In her latest book, The End of Progress, Amy Allen embarks on an ambitious and much-needed project: to decolonize contemporary Frankfurt School Critical Theory. As with all of her books, this is an exceptionally well-written and well-argued book. Allen strives to avoid making assertions without backing them up via close and careful textual reading of the thinkers she engages in her book. In this article, I will state why this book makes a central contribution to contemporary critical theory (in the (...)
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  17. The normativity problem as a serious obstacle to modelling gender.Weston Richey - 2018 - Aporia 18 (2):1-11.
    In this paper, I explore Sally Haslanger’s (2000) proposed approach to modelling gender which she intends to overcome several problems for such a project. I specifically focus on what Haslanger calls the normativity problem, in which definitions meant to overcome oppression only reinforce oppressive norms. I argue that the normativity problem is a serious one for defining gender and that Haslanger does not successfully overcome it with her definitions of man and woman. In §§1 and 2, I offer background for (...)
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  18. The Extinction of Masculine Generics.Brian D. Earp - 2012 - Journal for Communication and Culture 2 (1):4-19.
    In English, as in many other languages, male-gendered pronouns are sometimes used to refer not only to men, but to individuals whose gender is unknown or unspecified, to human beings in general (as in ―mankind‖) and sometimes even to females (as when the casual ―Hey guys‖ is spoken to a group of women). These so-called he/man or masculine generics have come under fire in recent decades for being sexist, even archaic, and positively harmful to women and girls; and advocates of (...)
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  19. Review of Witt, Charlotte: The Metaphysics of Gender (Oxford University Press, 2011). [REVIEW]Peter Higgins - 2012 - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 12 (1):19-21.
  20. Complicating Out: The Case of Queer Femmes.Alice MacLachlan & Susanne Sreedhar - 2012 - In Kelby Harrison & Dennis Cooley (eds.), Passing/Out: Sexual Identity Veiled and Revealed. Ashgate. pp. 43-74.
    We take up questions of passing/outing as they arise for those with queer femme identities. We argue that for persons with female-identified bodies and queer, feminine (‘femme’) gender identities, the possibilities above may not exist as distinct options: for example, what it means to ‘pass’ or ‘cover’ is not always distinguishable – conceptually or in practice – from living authentically and resisting heteronormative identification: i.e. the conditions of being ‘out’. In some ways, these conflations privilege queer femmes; in others, femmes (...)
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  21. Metaphors of Being a Phi.Marilyn Frye - 2011 - In Charlotte Witt (ed.), Feminist Metaphysics: Explorations in the Ontology of Gender and the Self. Springer. pp. 85--95.
  22. Learning, Welcome, Generosity and Sexual Orientations/ Gender Identities.Barbara Russel - 2011 - Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 6:1-2.
  23. Justifying subversion: Why Nussbaum got (the better interpretation of) Butler wrong.Ori J. Herstein - 2010 - Buffalo Journal of Gender, Law and Social Policy 18:43-73.
    Deconstructive and poststructuralist theories are commonly accused of rejecting all principles of justice and therefore “collaborating with evil.” A canonical example is Martha Nussbaum’s “The Professor of Parody” on the work of Judith Butler. The merits of Nussbaum’s argument and of the “common critique” turn on choosing between two alternative interpretations of Butler’s corpus and of poststructuralism in general. First, assumed in Nussbaum’s critique, is “universal poststructuralism.” Second is “contextual poststructuralism,” which is not susceptible to the common critique. According to (...)
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  24. Feminist Metaphysics: Explorations in the Ontology of Sex, Gender and the Self.Charlotte Witt (ed.) - 2010 - Springer Verlag.
    Feminist Metaphysics is the first collection of articles addressing metaphysical issues from a feminist perspective.
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  25. Feminist perspectives on sex and gender.Mari Mikkola - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Feminism is the movement to end women’s oppression. One possible way to understand ‘woman’ in this claim is to take it as a sex term: ‘woman’ picks out human females and being a human female depends on various anatomical features (like genitalia). Historically many feminists have understood ‘woman’ differently: not as a sex term, but as a gender term that depends on social and cultural factors (like social position). In so doing, they distinguished sex (being female or male) from gender (...)
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  26. Who Pays for Gender De-Institutionalization?Shelley Wilcox - 2008 - In Ana Marta Gonzalez (ed.), Gender Identities in a Globalized World. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books. pp. 53-74.
    This chapter employs an intersectional, transnational feminist lens to examine the uneven impacts of paid domestic labor. I argue that the practice contributes to the exploitation of domestic workers by employers, migrants by US citizens, and ultimately, the global South by the global North. I recommend several policy reforms to remedy these injustices.
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  27. The Second Feminism.Nancy Bauer - 2007 - Symposia on Gender, Race, and Philosophy.
  28. Brain Gender and Transsexualism.Madeline Kilty - 2007 - Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 9 (1):31-43.
    Research by neuroscientists suggests there is a distinction in the BSTc area of the brain between males and females. In transsexual females, those considered male at birth, but who had a strong conviction that they were female, the BSTc region appears to be similar in size to the female BSTc and transsexuals considered female at birth, but who were certain they were male, had a BSTc similar to the male BSTc. This distinction leads to the conclusion that in addition to (...)
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  29. Beauvoir's Heideggerian Ontology.Nancy Bauer - 2006 - In Margaret A. Simons (ed.), The Philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir: Critical Essays. Indiana University Press.
  30. On the Government of Disability: Foucault, Power, and the Subject of Impairment.Shelley Tremain - 2006 - In Lennard J. Davis (ed.), The Disability Studies Reader. Routledge.
  31. Beyond Binary Opposition: De-gendering And Redefining Gender.Ljiljana Markovic - 2003 - Facta Universitatis, Series: Linguistics and Literature 10 (2):403-414.
    The paper gives a review of the recent linguistic research in the study of gender at the end of 20th century, particularly in the light of studying the performativity of gender , and studying to what extent and how the latest findings change the traditional definition of gender and the binary structure of society.
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  32. "Gender, Justice Within the Family, and the Commitments of Rawlsian Liberalism.".Robert F. Card - 2001 - Public Affairs Quarterly 15:155-172.
  33. The Lived Experience of Doubling: Simone de Beauvoir's Phenomenology of Old Age.Sarah Clark Miller - 2001 - In Wendy O'Brien & Lester Embree (eds.), The Existential Phenomenology of Simone de Beauvoir. Springer Verlag. pp. 127-147.
    This essay demonstrates that Beauvoir's La Vieillesse is a phenomenological study of old age indebted to Husserl's phenomenology of the body. Beauvoir's depiction of the doubling in the lived experience of the elderly--a division between outsiders' awareness of the elderly's decline and the elderly's own inner understanding of old age--serves as a specific illustration of Beauvoir's particular method of description and analysis.
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  34. Beauty Matters.Peg Zeglin Brand (ed.) - 2000 - Indiana University Press.
    Beauty has captured human interest since before Plato, but how, why, and to whom does beauty matter in today's world? Whose standard of beauty motivates African Americans to straighten their hair? What inspires beauty queens to measure up as flawless objects for the male gaze? Why does a French performance artist use cosmetic surgery to remake her face into a composite of the master painters' version of beauty? How does beauty culture perceive the disabled body? Is the constant effort to (...)
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  35. Where “Sex” Is Born(e): Intersexed Births and the Social Urgency of Heterosexuality. [REVIEW]Roger Adkins - 1999 - Journal of Medical Humanities 20 (2):117-133.
    Our beloved “genders” of the present moment are neither universal nor trans-historical presences in the world. The specific gender order which we employ today is the legacy of a particular cultural and political history, and there is still a great deal at stake in preserving it. As a graduate student I stumbled upon the topic of intersexuality a few years ago and found myself enthralled with its implications. Continuing to present itself inspite of all our scientific knowledge about the supposed (...)
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  36. The Gender Closet: Lesbian Disappearance under the Sign "Women".Cheshire Calhoun - 1995 - Feminist Studies 21 (1):7.
    Can one theorize the lesbian within a feminist frame? I argue that a difference sensitive feminist frame closets lesbians because (1) heterosexist oppression has been under-theorized and thus gender analyses fail to intersect with sexual orientation analyses, (2) feminist values and goals have worked against representing lesbian difference from heterosexual women, and (3) difference sensitive feminism requires that lesbians be representable as women with a different sexuality and not as a “third sex”, not-women, not-men, i.e., not through the very image (...)
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  37. Gender Thinking.Stephen Smith - 1992 - Temple University Press.
    This study uses a fourfold conception of the "natural" and sets up a dialectic between positive and critical gender thinking to develop answers to these questions: What sort of thing do we take femininity and masculinity to be? How is gender related to humanity? What does gender imply about embodiment? How does gender inflect ideals of personal worth? How does gender dichotomizing align genders with other dichotomized qualities? What does gender thinking assume or imply about procreation? What are noteworthy analogies (...)
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  38. Zwiefacher Verstand und die eine Natur Grundlagen der Geschlechterdifferenz.Geneviève Fraisse - 1990 - Die Philosophin 1 (2):7-16.
  39. Cinquante-six conceptions de l'androgynie.Guy Bouchard - 1989 - Dialogue 28 (4):609-.
    Le concept d'androgynie a occupé une position stratégique dans les discussions féministes sur l'identité humaine, mais il est tout aussi ambigu que les notions de masculinité et de féminité dont il tente de subvertir l'opposition tranchée. Pour y voir plus clair, l'article construit un "champ définitionnel de l'androgynie" à partir de l'analyse de 15 définitions dont les éléments génériques et spécifiques, dissociés puis combinés systématiquement, permettent d'engendrer 56 conceptions distinctes et de préciser les enjeux qu'elles recouvrent. Après une discussion des (...)
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  40. A Reply to Laura Purdy.Nancy Tuana - 1986 - Hypatia 1 (1):175 - 178.
    This essay is a response to the comments and critique of Laura Purdy to my earlier paper "Re-Fusing Nature/Nurture" (1983, 621-632). In it I re-emphasize that the traditional nature/nurture dichotomy is based upon an unacceptable ontology and briefly note the type of metaphysic that would serve as a more appropriate basis.
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