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  1. LogiLogi: Philosophy Beyond the Paper.Wybo Wiersma - manuscript
    This paper sets out to show that philosophy has much to gain from the web, and explores what philosophy on the web might be like. We argue that philosophers usage of the web will undeniably go beyond on-line journals, and the distribution of .pdf files. The failure of historical attempts at making the web work for philosophy are investigated and explained, such as the Xanadu and Discovery projects, and plain web-forums. LogiLogi, a working prototype of a philosophical discussion platform, is (...)
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  2. Is There Any Real Substance to the Claims for a 'New Computationalism'?Alberto Hernandez-Espinosa, Hernandez-Quiroz Francisco & Zenil Hector - forthcoming - In CiE Computability in Europe 2017. Springer Verlag.
    'Computationalism' is a relatively vague term used to describe attempts to apply Turing's model of computation to phenomena outside its original purview: in modelling the human mind, in physics, mathematics, etc. Early versions of computationalism faced strong objections from many (and varied) quarters, from philosophers to practitioners of the aforementioned disciplines. Here we will not address the fundamental question of whether computational models are appropriate for describing some or all of the wide range of processes that they have been applied (...)
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  3. Representation in Models of Epistemic Democracy.Patrick Grim, Aaron Bramson, Daniel J. Singer, William J. Berger, Jiin Jung & Scott E. Page - 2020 - Episteme 17 (4):498-518.
    Epistemic justifications for democracy have been offered in terms of two different aspects of decision-making: voting and deliberation, or ‘votes’ and ‘talk.’ The Condorcet Jury Theorem is appealed to as a justification in terms votes, and the Hong-Page “Diversity Trumps Ability” result is appealed to as a justification in terms of deliberation. Both of these, however, are most plausibly construed as models of direct democracy, with full and direct participation across the population. In this paper, we explore how these results (...)
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  4. Mechanizing Principia Logico-Metaphysica in Functional Type-Theory.Daniel Kirchner, Christoph Benzmüller & Edward N. Zalta - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic 13 (1):206-218.
    Principia Logico-Metaphysica contains a foundational logical theory for metaphysics, mathematics, and the sciences. It includes a canonical development of Abstract Object Theory [AOT], a metaphysical theory that distinguishes between ordinary and abstract objects.This article reports on recent work in which AOT has been successfully represented and partly automated in the proof assistant system Isabelle/HOL. Initial experiments within this framework reveal a crucial but overlooked fact: a deeply-rooted and known paradox is reintroduced in AOT when the logic of complex terms is (...)
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  5. Computers Aren’T Syntax All the Way Down or Content All the Way Up.Cem Bozşahin - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (3):543-567.
    This paper argues that the idea of a computer is unique. Calculators and analog computers are not different ideas about computers, and nature does not compute by itself. Computers, once clearly defined in all their terms and mechanisms, rather than enumerated by behavioral examples, can be more than instrumental tools in science, and more than source of analogies and taxonomies in philosophy. They can help us understand semantic content and its relation to form. This can be achieved because they have (...)
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  6. Load Balancing of Tasks on Cloud Computing Using Time Complexity of Proposed Algorithm.V. Smrithi & B. K. Tiwari - 2018 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Engineering Trends 4 (6).
    Cloud Computing is a developing field and lean toward by numerous one at current yet it's rage is part more rely upon its execution which thusly is excessively rely upon the powerful booking algorithm and load adjusting . In this paper we address this issue and propose an algorithm for private cloud which has high throughput and for open cloud which address the issue of condition awareness likewise with execution. To enhance the throughput in private cloud SJF is utilized for (...)
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  7. Explaining Engineered Computing Systems’ Behaviour: The Role of Abstraction and Idealization.Nicola Angius & Guglielmo Tamburrini - 2017 - Philosophy and Technology 30 (2):239-258.
    This paper addresses the methodological problem of analysing what it is to explain observed behaviours of engineered computing systems, focusing on the crucial role that abstraction and idealization play in explanations of both correct and incorrect BECS. First, it is argued that an understanding of explanatory requests about observed miscomputations crucially involves reference to the rich background afforded by hierarchies of functional specifications. Second, many explanations concerning incorrect BECS are found to abstract away from descriptions of physical components and processes (...)
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  8. Hypertext. Eine Schrift für vernetzte, dynamische Schreibmaschinen (1965).Christian Vater - 2017 - In Christian Vater, Ludger Lieb, Christian Witschel & Michaela Böttner (eds.), 5300 Jahre Schrift. Heidelberg: Wunderhorn. pp. 166-169.
  9. Computing and Philosophy: Selected Papers From IACAP 2014.Vincent C. Müller (ed.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This volume offers very selected papers from the 2014 conference of the “International Association for Computing and Philosophy” (IACAP) - a conference tradition of 28 years. - - - Table of Contents - 0 Vincent C. Müller: - Editorial - 1) Philosophy of computing - 1 Çem Bozsahin: - What is a computational constraint? - 2 Joe Dewhurst: - Computing Mechanisms and Autopoietic Systems - 3 Vincenzo Fano, Pierluigi Graziani, Roberto Macrelli and Gino Tarozzi: - Are Gandy Machines really local? (...)
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  10. Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - In Stefano Borgo, Jean-Rémi Bourguet & Adrien Barton (eds.), CEUR workshop proceedings of The Joint Ontology Workshops, with the 9th International Conference of Formal Ontology for Information Systems (FOIS), Early Career Symposium. CEUR Scientific Workshops.
    A short summary paper of my Orbital Space Domain Ontology project (purl.org/space-ontology), originally conceived in 2011. Since then I've sought (without success) opportunities to realize it (either as a PhD or other degree thesis; or in an employment position) toward my original passion of entering the space sector and gaining further space education. Since then persons in the relevant space disciplines have seen the potential in it, and unfortunately some have taken advantage of my ideas yet excluded me from work. (...)
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  11. Extended Cognition and the Explosion of Knowledge.David Ludwig - 2014 - Philosophical Psychology (3):1-14.
    The aim of this article is to show that externalist accounts of cognition such as Clark and Chalmers' (1998) “active externalism” lead to an explosion of knowledge that is caused by online resources such as Wikipedia and Google. I argue that externalist accounts of cognition imply that subjects who integrate mobile Internet access in their cognitive routines have millions of standing beliefs on unexpected issues such as the birth dates of Moroccan politicians or the geographical coordinates of villages in southern (...)
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  12. Дизайн онлайн-делиберации: Выбор, критерии и эмпирические данные.Todd Davies, Reid Chandler & Anatoly Kulik - 2013 - Политическая Наука 2013 (1):83-132.
    Перевод статьи: Davies T., Chandler R. Online deliberation design: Choices, criteria, and evidence // Democracy in motion: Evaluating the practice and impact of deliberative civic engagement / Nabatchi T., Weiksner M., Gastil J., Leighninger M. (eds.). -- Oxford: Oxford univ. press, 2013. -- P. 103-131. А. Кулик. -/- Вниманию читателей предлагается обзор эмпирических исследований в области дизайна онлайн-форумов, предназначенных для вовлечения граждан в делиберацию. Размерности дизайна определены для различных характеристик делиберации: назначения, целевой аудитории, разобщенности участников в пространстве и во времени, (...)
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  13. The Use of the ‘Materiality Argument’ in the Literature on Computer Simulations.Juan M. Durán - 2013 - In Juan M. Durán & Eckhart Arnold (eds.), Computer simulations and the changing face of scientific experimentation. pp. 76-98.
  14. Single-Tape and Multi-Tape Turing Machines Through the Lens of the Grossone Methodology.Yaroslav Sergeyev & Alfredo Garro - 2013 - Journal of Supercomputing 65 (2):645-663.
    The paper investigates how the mathematical languages used to describe and to observe automatic computations influence the accuracy of the obtained results. In particular, we focus our attention on Single and Multi-tape Turing machines which are described and observed through the lens of a new mathematical language which is strongly based on three methodological ideas borrowed from Physics and applied to Mathematics, namely: the distinction between the object (we speak here about a mathematical object) of an observation and the instrument (...)
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  15. Online Deliberation Design: Choices, Criteria, and Evidence.Todd Davies & Reid Chandler - 2012 - In Tina Nabatchi, John Gastil, G. Michael Weiksner & Matt Leihninger (eds.), Democracy in Motion: Evaluating the Practice and Impact of Deliberative Civic Engagement. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 103-131.
    This chapter reviews empirical evidence bearing on the design of online forums for deliberative civic engagement. Dimensions of design are defined for different aspects of the deliberation: its purpose, the target population, the spatiotemporal distance separating participants, the communication medium, and the deliberative process to be followed. After a brief overview of criteria for evaluating different design options, empirical findings are organized around design choices. Research has evolved away from treating technology for online deliberation dichotomously (either present or not) toward (...)
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  16. A Computer Simulation of the Argument From Disagreement.Johan E. Gustafsson & Martin Peterson - 2012 - Synthese 184 (3):387-405.
    In this paper we shed new light on the Argument from Disagreement by putting it to test in a computer simulation. According to this argument widespread and persistent disagreement on ethical issues indicates that our moral opinions are not influenced by any moral facts, either because no such facts exist or because they are epistemically inaccessible or inefficacious for some other reason. Our simulation shows that if our moral opinions were influenced at least a little bit by moral facts, we (...)
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  17. Roberto Busa i humanistyczna informatyka.Robert Janusz - 2012 - Rocznik Filozoficzny Ignatianum:91-106.
    Fr. Roberto Busa was an Italian Jesuit. In this article his biography will briefly be presented, and some issues raised by his philosophy analyzed. Busa was known as a pioneer of computerized research in the humanities. With the support of IBM he constructed the Index Thomisticus, containing all the works of St. Thomas Aquinas. He believed that expressions of the human can be mathematically modeled. He was the originator of a specific conception of hypertext, in which logically structured programs are (...)
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  18. Paperless Philosophy as a Philosophical Method.David Bourget - 2010 - Social Epistemology 24 (4):363-375.
    I discuss the prospects for novel communication methods in academic research. I describe communication tools which could enhance the practice of conceptual analysis.
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  19. Online Deliberation: Design, Research, and Practice.Todd Davies & Seeta Peña Gangadharan (eds.) - 2009 - CSLI Publications/University of Chicago Press.
    Can new technology enhance purpose-driven, democratic dialogue in groups, governments, and societies? Online Deliberation: Design, Research, and Practice is the first book that attempts to sample the full range of work on online deliberation, forging new connections between academic research, technology designers, and practitioners. Since some of the most exciting innovations have occurred outside of traditional institutions, and those involved have often worked in relative isolation from each other, work in this growing field has often failed to reflect the full (...)
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  20. What a Course on Philosophy of Computing is Not.Vincent C. Müller - 2008 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 8 (1):36-38.
    Immanuel Kant famously defined philosophy to be about three questions: “What can I know? What should I do? What can I hope for?” (KrV, B833). I want to suggest that the three questions of our course on the philosophy of computing are: What is computing? What should we do with computing? What could computing do?
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  21. Object-Oriented Ontology, or Programming's Creative Fold.Aden Evens - 2006 - Angelaki 11 (1):89 – 97.
    This article asks what is creative about the act of programming. Observing that in most programming contexts, each line of code is written with a specific end in mind, it would seem as though there is little room for creativity, as the ends constrain the choices of means. However, there are many features of coding languages that open up creative possibilities. Object-oriented coding environments purport to make programming more about structures that humans might work with and less about features of (...)
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  22. Environmental Variability and the Emergence of Meaning: Simulational Studies Across Imitation, Genetic Algorithms, and Neural Nets.Patrick Grim - 2006 - In Angelo Loula & Ricardo Gudwin (eds.), Artificial Cognition Systems. Idea Group. pp. 284-326.
    A crucial question for artificial cognition systems is what meaning is and how it arises. In pursuit of that question, this paper extends earlier work in which we show that emergence of simple signaling in biologically inspired models using arrays of locally interactive agents. Communities of "communicators" develop in an environment of wandering food sources and predators using any of a variety of mechanisms: imitation of successful neighbors, localized genetic algorithms and partial neural net training on successful neighbors. Here we (...)
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  23. Threshold Phenomena in Epistemic Networks.Patrick Grim - 2006 - In Proceedings, AAAI Fall Symposium on Complex Adaptive Systems and the Threshold Effect. AAAI Press.
    A small consortium of philosophers has begun work on the implications of epistemic networks (Zollman 2008 and forthcoming; Grim 2006, 2007; Weisberg and Muldoon forthcoming), building on theoretical work in economics, computer science, and engineering (Bala and Goyal 1998, Kleinberg 2001; Amaral et. al., 2004) and on some experimental work in social psychology (Mason, Jones, and Goldstone, 2008). This paper outlines core philosophical results and extends those results to the specific question of thresholds. Epistemic maximization of certain types does show (...)
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  24. Game-Theoretic Robustness in Cooperation and Prejudice Reduction: A Graphic Measure.Patrick Grim - 2006 - In Luis M. Rocha, Larry S. Yaeger, Mark A. Bedau, Dario Floreano & Robert L. Goldstine (eds.), Artificial Life X: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems. MIT Press. pp. 445-451.
    Talk of ‘robustness’ remains vague, despite the fact that it is clearly an important parameter in evaluating models in general and game-theoretic results in particular. Here we want to make it a bit less vague by offering a graphic measure for a particular kind of robustness— ‘matrix robustness’— using a three dimensional display of the universe of 2 x 2 game theory. In a display of this form, familiar games such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma, Stag Hunt, Chicken and Deadlock appear (...)
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  25. Modeling Prejudice Reduction: Spatialized Game Theory and the Contact Hypothesis.Patrick Grim, Evan Selinger, William Braynen, Robert Rosenberger, Randy Au, Nancy Louie & John Connolly - 2005 - Public Affairs Quarterly 19 (2):95-125.
    We apply spatialized game theory and multi-agent computational modeling as philosophical tools: (1) for assessing the primary social psychological hypothesis regarding prejudice reduction, and (2) for pursuing a deeper understanding of the basic mechanisms of prejudice reduction.
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  26. Generating and Interpreting Metaphors with NETMET.Eric Steinhart - 2005 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 4 (2).
    The structural theory of metaphor (STM) uses techniques from possible worlds semantics to generate and interpret metaphors. STM is presented in detail in The Logic of Metaphor: Analogous Parts of Possible Worlds (Steinhart, 2001). STM is based on Kittay’s semantic field theory of metaphor (1987) and ultimately on Black’s interactionist theory (1962, 1979). STM uses an intensional calculus to specify truth-conditions for many grammatical forms of metaphor. The truth-conditional analysis in STM is inspired in part by Miller (1979) and Hintikka (...)
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  27. Review of Paul Humphreys, Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method[REVIEW]Paul Thagard - 2005 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (6).
  28. Reducing Prejudice: A Spatialized Game-Theoretic Model for the Contact Hypothesis.Patrick Grim - 2004 - In Jordan Pollack, Mark Bedau, Phil Husbands, Takashi Ikegami & Richard A. Watson (eds.), Artificial Life IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Life. MIT Press. pp. 244-250.
    There are many social psychological theories regarding the nature of prejudice, but only one major theory of prejudice reduction: under the right circumstances, prejudice between groups will be reduced with increased contact. On the one hand, the contact hypothesis has a range of empirical support and has been a major force in social change. On the other hand, there are practical and ethical obstacles to any large-scale controlled test of the hypothesis in which relevant variables can be manipulated. Here we (...)
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  29. The Philosophical Computer: Exploratory Essays in Philosophical Computer Modeling. [REVIEW]Nicole Wyatt - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (2):489-492.
    Grim, Mar and St. Denis frame their unusual philosophy book with a number of quotes, two of which seem particularly appropriate. The first, from Plato, illustrates nicely the degree to which the work in the book is part of a long tradition of philosophical modeling. The second, from Picasso, accurately captures the frustration which many readers will feel.
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  30. The Philosophical Computer: Exploratory Essays in Philosophical Computer Modeling.Patrick Grim, Horace Paul St, Gary Mar & Paul St. Denis - 1998 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    This book is an introduction, entirely by example, to the possibilities of using computer models as tools in phosophical research in general and in philosophical logic in particular. Topics include chaos, fractals, and the semantics of paradox; epistemic dynamics; fractal images of formal systems; the evolution of generosity; real-valued game theory; and computation and undecidability in the spatialized Prisoner's Dilemma.
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  31. NETMET: A Program for Generating and Interpreting Metaphors.Eric Steinhart - 1995 - Computers and Humanities 28 (6):383-392.
    Metaphors have computable semantics. A program called NETMET both generates metaphors and produces partial literal interpretations of metaphors. NETMET is based on Kittay's semantic field theory of metaphor and Black's interaction theory of metaphor. Input to NETMET consists of a list of literal propositions. NETMET creates metaphors by finding topic and source semantic fields, producing an analogical map from source to topic, then generating utterances in which terms in the source are identified with or predicated of terms in the topic. (...)
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  32. Beyond Proportional Analogy: A Structural Model of Analogical Mapping.Eric Steinhart - 1994 - Pragmatics and Cognition 2 (1):95-129.
    A model of analogical mapping is proposed that uses five principles to generate consistent and conflicting hypotheses regarding assignments of elements of a source domain to analogous elements of a target domain. The principles follow the fine conceptual structure of the domains. The principles are: (1) the principle of proportional analogy; (2) the principle of mereological analogy, (3) the principle of chain reinforcement; (4) the principle of transitive reinforcement; and (5) the principle of mutual inconsistency. A constraint-satisfaction network is used (...)
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  33. Generating Metaphors From Networks.Eric Steinhart & Eva Kittay - 1994 - In Approaches to Metaphor. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. pp. 41-94.
    Metaphor's peculiar property to yield cognitive insight-- often in otherwise false sentences -- has been the focus of contemporary studies of metaphor. In Metaphor: Its Linguistic Structure and Cognitive Force, Eva Kittay develops the semantic field theory of metaphor (SFTM). The task of the present work is to formalize some of the central claims of SFTM. Formalization forces us to make the central concepts of SFTM precise and operational, and it enables us to evaluate the consistency and explanatory power of (...)
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  34. New Methodologies for Quantifying Licence-Based Commons on the Web.Ben Bildstein - unknown
    Current practice in quantifying online commons lacks rigorous methodology. One example of this is in Creative Commons' own data about the growth and state of Creative Commons licensing. Closed,proprietary search engine web services are used to gather approximations to counts of web pages that link to licence URLs. While this data is a useful starting point to get some feel for the current state of Creative Commons-licensed works online, the methodology makes many implicit assumptions. These include: that every licensed work (...)
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