About this topic
Summary In the late 19th and early 20th Century, many psychologists posited group minds to explain the behavior of crowds and states, as well as the emergence of norms and societal facts. In a world populated by powerful labor unions, anarchist collectives, and radical workers’ parties, each resisting the unfair demands of powerful corporate agents, it seemed reasonable to assume that powerful psychological forces were at play in the production of collective behavior. But these theories of collective mentality relied on such implausibly weak forms of functionalism and such excessively inflationary ontologies that they shared little in common with the theories of mental states that emerged in other parts of philosophy and the cognitive sciences. In the current age of popular uprisings, failing political parties, and increasing corporate power, it come s as no surprise that philosophers, psychologists, and cognitive scientists have once again developed an interest in collective behavior. A number of popular books have attempted to resuscitate claims about collective intelligence and collective decision-making; and there is a rapidly growing philosophical literature on issues of collaboration, collective intentionality, collective decision-making, and collective responsibility. Research on collective mentality spans a wide range of philosophical topics that pertaining to group minds and collective mental states. Like the philosophy of mind more broadly, the investigation of collective mentality overlaps in rich and important ways with the philosophy of action and the philosophy of cognitive science.  On the one hand, there is a long tradition of analyzing the nature and possibility of collective intentionality (this research is mainly catalogued under the 'collective action', 'collective intentionality', and 'collective responsibility' subcategories). On the other hand, there is a more recent field of investigation, grounded in the scientific study of distributed cognition. This research has targeted everything from issues of cognitive architecture, to questions about the possibility of collective consciousness and the possibility of collective mental representation. 
Key works The literature on collective intentionality and collective responsibility is expansive, and key works for each of these areas should be found under those subheadings. From a perspective more heavily grounded in the philosophy of cognitive science, Clark 1994 argues that a Dennettian account of mentality can be extended to cover some types of groups, and Hutchins 1995 develops a framework for studying collective and distributed cognition based on Marr 1982Perron Tollefsen 2003 and Rovane 1997 develop an approach to collective personhood based on the reactive attitudes. Theiner et al 2010 and Tollefsen 2006 develop defenses of the group mind in line with the more familiar extended mind hypothesis (Clark & Chalmers 1998). Sutton et al 2010 builds an empirical and theoretical foundation for the study of collective remembering. Wilson 2001 offers a critical appraisal of the collective psychology tradition that emerged in the late 19th Century, and develops the Social Manifestation Hypothesis as an alternative to positing group minds. Rupert 2005 develops a compelling set of objections to models of collective mentality that depend on appeals to intentionality, while Rupert 2011 offers a critical appraisal of empirical work on collective mentality. Finally, Huebner 2013 offers a sustained defense of the group mind hypothesis that builds on these resources and responds to the most common objections to the hypothesis of collective mentality.
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  1. Construcción teórica de la posmodernidad: enfoque progresista desde la deslegitimación.Jesús Miguel Delgado Del Aguila - 2021 - Helios 5 (2):475-486.
    Este artículo fundamenta la condición histórica de la posmodernidad, con la intención de dilucidar los enclaves dicotómicos, heterogéneos, irracionales y relativistas que la conforman. Esta se caracteriza por la propalación de paradigmas ambivalentes y polémicos en función de epistemologías estáticas provenientes de las culturas tradicionales y ortodoxas. Por ende, el objetivo es contrastar la configuración de esta etapa al incluir lo intercultural como proyecto social, que postula Beatriz Sarlo, que tiene como propósito enriquecer y resguardar las manifestaciones artísticas, lingüísticas y (...)
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  2. The We-Perspective on the Racing Sailboat.Frances Egan - forthcoming - In Roberto Casati (ed.), The Sailing Mind. Springer.
    Successful sports teams are able to adopt what is known as the 'we-perspective,' forming intentions and making decisions, somewhat as a unified mind does, to achieve their goals. In this paper I consider what is involved in establishing and maintaining the we-perspective on a racing sailboat. I argue that maintaining the we-perspective contributes to the success of the boat in at least two ways: (1) it facilitates the smooth execution of joint action; and (2) it increases the chance that individual (...)
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  3. Publicity and Commitment to Believe.Robert Williams - forthcoming - Erkenntnis.
    Information can be public among a group. Whether or not information is public matters, for example, for accounts of interdependent rational choice, of communication, and of joint intention. A standard analysis of public information identifies it with (some variant of) common belief. The latter notion is stipulatively defined as an infinite conjunction: for p to be commonly believed is for it to believed by all members of a group, for all members to believe that all members believe it, and so (...)
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  4. A Multifaceted Approach to Emotional Sharing.G. Thonhauser - 2020 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 27 (9-10):202-227.
    This article aims to explicate the concept of emotional sharing against the background of interactive and situated approaches to affectivity, and to contextualize emotional sharing within the broader context of emotion research. It brings together research on situated affectivity with the debate on collective emotion. Emotional sharing is defined via four requirements and distinguished from other phenomena in the broad field of collective emotion, especially from mechanisms of emotional convergence and other forms of affective we-experience. The paper makes use of (...)
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  5. Phenomenal Relations and Collective Essence.Yannic Kappes - 2020 - Philosophical Quarterly 70 (281):800-808.
    Antonin Broi argues that the thesis of phenomenal revelation is in tension with the best available accounts of similarity and certain other relations between phenomenal properties and should hence be rejected. In the following, I investigate Broi’s argument, show how the notion of collective essence can be used to withstand it, and consider a corresponding “collective” version of the revelation thesis.
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  6. In Defence of the Hivemind Society.John Danaher & Steve Petersen - 2020 - Neuroethics 14 (2):253-267.
    The idea that humans should abandon their individuality and use technology to bind themselves together into hivemind societies seems both farfetched and frightening – something that is redolent of the worst dystopias from science fiction. In this article, we argue that these common reactions to the ideal of a hivemind society are mistaken. The idea that humans could form hiveminds is sufficiently plausible for its axiological consequences to be taken seriously. Furthermore, far from being a dystopian nightmare, the hivemind society (...)
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  7. AS SOMBRAS CEGAS DE NARCISO (um estudo psicossocial sobre o imaginário coletivo).Roberto Thomas Arruda (ed.) - 2020 - Terra à Vista.
    No presente trabalho, vamos abordar algumas das questões essenciais sobre o imaginário coletivo e suas relações com a realidade e a verdade. Devemos encarar esse assunto em uma estrutura conceptual, seguida pela análise factual correspondente às realidades comportamentais demonstráveis. Adotaremos não apenas a metodologia, mas principalmente os princípios e proposições da filosofia analítica, que com certeza serão evidentes ao longo do estudo e podem ser identificados pelos recursos descritos por Perez[1] : Rabossi (1975) defende a ideia de que a filosofia (...)
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  8. Entitativity and Implicit Measures of Social Cognition.Ben Phillips - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    I argue that in addressing worries about the validity and reliability of implicit measures of social cognition, theorists should draw on research concerning “entitativity perception.” In brief, an aggregate of people is perceived as highly “entitative” when its members exhibit a certain sort of unity. For example, think of the difference between the aggregate of people waiting in line at a bank versus a tight-knit group of friends: the latter seems more “groupy” than the former. I start by arguing that (...)
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  9. Group Minds as Extended Minds.Keith Raymond Harris - 2020 - Philosophical Explorations 23 (3):1-17.
    Despite clear overlap between the study of extended minds and the study of group minds, these research programs have largely been carried out independently. Moreover, whereas proponents of the extended mind thesis straightforwardly advocate the view that there are, literally, extended mental states, proponents of the group mind thesis tend to be more circumspect. Even those who advocate for some version of the thesis that groups are the subjects of mental states often concede that this thesis is true only in (...)
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  10. The Blind Shadows of Narcissus - a Psychosocial Study on Collective Imaginary.Roberto Thomas Arruda (ed.) - 2020 - Terra à vista.
    In this work, we will approach some of the essential questions about the collective imaginary and their relations with reality and truth. We should face this subject in a conceptual framework, followed by the corresponding factual analysis of demonstrable behavioral realities. We will adopt not only the methodology, but mostly the tenets and propositions of the analytic philosophy, which for sure will be apparent throughout the study, and may be identified by the features described by Perez : Rabossi (1975) defends (...)
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  11. КАТЕГОРИИ СОЦИАЛЬНОЙ ИНТЕГРАЦИИ И ДИФФЕРЕНЦИАЦИИ В КАТЕГОРИАЛЬНОМ АППАРАТЕ ФИЛОСОФИИ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ.Sophia Polyankina - 2013 - Вестник Пермского Университета 2 (14):66-74.
    Рассмотрены процессуальные категории социальной интеграции и дифференциации применительно к описанию эволюции отечественной образовательной системы и выявлена их диалектическая взаимосвязь. Показано место исследуемых понятий среди таких философских категорий, как «единичное –особенное – множественное», «единое – множество», «целостность – фрагментарность», «универсальность – партикулярность». Образование понимается в первую очередь как система, развитию которой присущи тенденции интеграции и дифференциации на различных ее уровнях, что позволяет объединить социально-функциональный и философско-антропологичский взгляды на онтологическую сущность и цели образования.
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  12. L'epistemologia junghiana e il Libro Rosso.Donato Santarcangelo - manuscript
    Nel Liber Novus la risonanza dei campi archetipici, che si esplica nel primato dell’imago e dell’immaginale, esplode in tutta la sua “patica” evidenza. L’archetipo junghiano sembra contenere in sé il riverbero dell’onnipresente telos che percorre la coincidentia oppositorum, e qui il pensiero va alla concezione di Nicola Cusano. Nella sua concezione, l'entità divina è al di là del principio di identità e di non contraddizione, Dio è l'unità degli opposti, in Lui luce e tenebre, sostanza e non sostanza e tutti (...)
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  13. Joint Actions, Commitments and the Need to Belong.Víctor Fernandez Castro & Elisabeth Pacherie - 2020 - Synthese (8):1-30.
    This paper concerns the credibility problem for commitments. Commitments play an important role in cooperative human interactions and can dramatically improve the performance of joint actions by stabilizing expectations, reducing the uncertainty of the interaction, providing reasons to cooperate or improving action coordination. However, commitments can only serve these functions if they are credible in the first place. What is it then that insures the credibility of commitments? To answer this question, we need to provide an account of what motivates (...)
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  14. Group Flow.Tom Cochrane - 2017 - In Micheline Lesaffre, Pieter-Jan Maes & Marc Leman (eds.), The Routledge Companion of Embodied Music Interaction. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 133-140.
    In this chapter I analyse group flow: a state in which performers report intense interpersonal absorption with the music and each other. I compare group flow to individual flow, and argue that the same essential structure can be discerned. I argue that group flow does not justify an anti-representationalist enactivist interpretation. However, I claim that the cognitive task in which the music is produced is irreducibly collective.
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  15. Schooling for Critical Consciousness: Engaging Black and Latinx Youth in Analyzing, Navigating, and Challenging Racial Injustice.Scott Seider & Daren Graves - 2020 - Harvard Education Press.
    __Schooling for Critical Consciousness_ addresses how schools can help Black and Latinx youth resist the negative effects of racial injustice and challenge its root causes._ Scott Seider and Daren Graves draw on a four-year longitudinal study examining how five different mission-driven urban high schools foster critical consciousness among their students. The book presents vivid portraits of the schools as they implement various programs and practices, and traces the impact of these approaches on the students themselves. The authors make a unique (...)
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  16. Palestinian Political Forgiveness: Agency, Permissibility, and Prospects.Glen Pettigrove & Nigel Parsons - 2010 - Social Theory and Practice 4 (36):661-688.
    The Israel-Palestine conflict stands at the heart of tensions in the Middle East and, more than that, at the heart of tensions between the West and the Islamic world. It is sometimes suggested that the resolution of this conflict will require forgiveness on the part of both Palestine and Israel. However, what such forgiveness would involve has not been adequately explored. Our aim is to remedy this gap in the discussion. Our consideration of Palestinian political forgiveness will address three principal (...)
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  17. Altered States of Consciousness, Spirit Mediums, and Predictive Processing: A Cultural Cognition Model of Spirit Possession.R. Fischer & S. Tasananukorn - 2018 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 25 (11-12):179-203.
    Spirit possessions, trance, and other forms of altered states of consciousness are fascinating manifestations of brain states that are often seen as alien or exotic in Western media and discourse. Yet, these experiences are very common for a large number of humans around the world. In this paper we use a predictive processing perspective to examine spirit possession in Taoist rituals in Southern Thailand. These rituals involve tens of thousands of spirit mediums that enter into trance and perform various acts (...)
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  18. Consciousness in Classical Sociological Theories.F. Duina - 2018 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 25 (9-10):99-124.
    The concept of 'consciousness' appears in the works of all major classical sociological figures. Curiously, to date, no systematic effort exists toward a comparative assessment of its use. We are accordingly unable to appreciate the importance of that concept for the foundations of sociological thought, or to understand fully how each theorist is positioned within that tradition. This article turns to five foundational theorists-- Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Mead, and Du Bois -- and puts forth four propositions. First, the entire theoretical (...)
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  19. The Habitual Body and its Role in Collective Memory Formation.C. Tewes - 2018 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 25 (7-8):135-157.
    In recent decades many facets of habitual body memory have been explored in ever greater depth in the field of phenomenological research. As a result, one can regard this type of memory as an important exemplification of the strong embodiment thesis, i.e. the thesis that the body plays not only a causal but also a constitutive role with regard to cognitive processes. However, it is still an open research question how, in particular, to evaluate the significance of the habitual body (...)
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  20. The Constitution of the 'We' Between Connectedness and Differentiation: Clinical Implications: Comment on Zahavi's 'You, Me, and We: The Sharing of Emotional Experience'.L. Galbusera - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (1-2):107-111.
  21. Collective Affectivity as a Flux of You, Me, and We: Comment on Zahavi's 'You, Me, and We: The Sharing of Emotional Experience'.Z. O. Guney - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (1-2):102-106.
  22. Intentions and Synergies: The Cases of Control and Speed: Comment on Di Paolo's 'Interactive Time Travel'.S. Wallot - 2015 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 22 (1-2):80-83.
    In the following, I want to add to the examples and arguments presented by Di Paolo, and argue that his description of virtual tendencies is not just a viable solution for a more coherent conception of intentions in the realmof social-embodied interactions, but that it is closely linked to the concept of motor-synergies that are necessary in order to enable movement control. Two aspects about the human body, the degrees of freedom that it has available to move, and the speed (...)
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  23. Human Life Is Group Life: Deliberative Democracy for Realists.Simone Chambers - 2018 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 30 (1-2):36-48.
    ABSTRACTSkepticism about citizen competence is a core component of Christopher H. Achen and Larry M. Bartels’s call, in Democracy for Realists, for rethinking our model of democracy. In this paper I suggest that the evidence for citizen incompetence is not as clear as we might think; important research shows that we are good group problem solvers even if we are poor solitary truth seekers. I argue that deliberative democracy theory has a better handle on this fundamental fact of human cognition (...)
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  24. Goods and Groups: Thomistic Social Action and Metaphysics.James Dominic Rooney - 2016 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 90:287-297.
    Hans Bernhard Schmid has argued that contemporary theories of collective action and social metaphysics unnecessarily reject the concept of a “shared intentional state.” I will argue that three neo-Thomist philosophers, Jacques Maritain, Charles de Koninck, and Yves Simon, all seem to agree that the goals of certain kinds of collective agency cannot be analyzed merely in terms of intentional states of individuals. This was prompted by a controversy over the nature of the “common good,” in response to a perceived threat (...)
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  25. Collective Attitudes and the Sense of Us: Feeling of Commitment and Limits of Plural Self-Awareness.Katja Crone - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (1):76-90.
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  26. How Our Collective Representations Affect the Future of the European Union.Jan Berting - 2016 - International Journal of Social Quality 6 (1).
  27. Cultural Property and Collective Identity.Elizabeth Burns Coleman - 2006 - In Michael Higgins & Stefan Herbrechter (eds.), Returning (to) Communities: Theory, Culture and Political Practice of the Communal. Brill.
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  28. "God of Many Names: Play, Poetry, and Power in Hellenic Thought From Homer to Aristotle", by Mihail I. Spariosu. [REVIEW]Robert S. Garland - 1994 - Ancient Philosophy 14 (1):200.
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  29. Who Do We Think We Are?Lorraine Code - 2016 - Social Philosophy Today 32:29-44.
    This paper begins to develop a conception of ecological subjectivity and hence of social-political practice that can promote social justice across diverse populations and situations. It urges a provocative posing of the question “who do we think we are?” to direct attention to often unspoken assumptions about subjectivity and agency that tend silently to inform current philosophical inquiry. Drawing attention to the often-unconscious processes of “we-saying.” it aims to highlight and to prompt contestation of the silent assumptions that tend to (...)
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  30. Shifting Imaginaries in the War on Terror.Werner Binder - 2016 - Social Imaginaries 2 (1):119-150.
    Th is analysis employs the concept of social imaginary to account for recent shifts in the imagination, discourse and practice of torture. It is motivated by a broader ambition to highlight the importance of the imaginary vis-a-vis the symbolic, which still dominates theoretical debates in cultural sociology. Culture does not only consist of codes and symbols, but also encompasses collectively shared imaginary significations. Only by paying tribute to the imaginary dimension of culture, we are able to understand how codes and (...)
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  31. On the Social Benefits of Knowledge.Vihren Bouzov - 2016 - Analele Universitatii Din Craiova, Seria Filosofie 37 (1).
    Knowledge is one of the most important factors determining the development of global economy and overcoming the present existing inequalities. Humankind needs a fair distribution of the potential of knowledge because its big social problems and difficulties today are due to the existence of deep‐going differences in its possession and use. This paper is an attempt to analyze and present certain philosophical arguments and conceptions justifying cooperative decision‐making in the searching for fair distribution of the benefits of knowledge in the (...)
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  32. Individualism, Collective Agency and The “Micro–Macro Relation”.Alban Bouvier - 2011 - In Ian Jarvie Jesus Zamora Bonilla (ed.), The Sage Handbook of the Philosophy of Social Sciences. pp. 199.
  33. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. Gustave Le BonThe Psychology of Peoples. Gustave Le Bon.H. Bosanquet - 1899 - International Journal of Ethics 9 (4):521-523.
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  34. Where Are Collectives in Collectivism? Toward Conceptual Clarification of Individualism and Collectivism.Marilynn B. Brewer & Ya-Ru Chen - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (1):133-151.
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  35. Rhetoric and the Public Sphere.Simone Chambers - 2009 - Political Theory 37 (3):323-350.
    The pathologies of the democratic public sphere, first articulated by Plato in his attack on rhetoric, have pushed much of deliberative theory out of the mass public and into the study and design of small scale deliberative venues. The move away from the mass public can be seen in a growing split in deliberative theory between theories of democratic deliberation (on the ascendancy) which focus on discrete deliberative initiatives within democracies and theories of deliberative democracy (on the decline) that attempt (...)
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  36. As We May Be Doing Philosophy: Informationalism – A New Regime for Philosophy?Daniel Apollon - 2008 - In Herbert Hrachovec & Alois Pichler (eds.), Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Information: Proceedings of the 30th International Ludwig Wittgenstein-Symposium in Kirchberg, 2007. De Gruyter. pp. 241-260.
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  37. Conceptions of Cognition for Cognitive Engineering.Olle Blomberg - 2011 - International Journal of Aviation Psychology 21 (1):85-104.
    Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes presented as part of the development of a new understanding of what cognition is and where the boundaries of cognitive systems are. Cognition, it is claimed, is not just situated or embedded, but extended and (...)
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  38. Two Modes of Collective Belief.Christopher McMahon - 2003 - ProtoSociology 18:347-362.
    Margaret Gilbert has defended the view that there is such a thing as genuine collective belief, in contrast to mere collective acceptance. I argue that even if she is right, we need to distinguish two modes of collective belief. On one, a group’s believing something as a body is a matter of its relating to a proposition, as a body, in the same way that an individual who has formed a belief on some matter relates to the proposition believed. On (...)
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  39. Vincent Descombes, Philosophie des Représentations Collectives. Un Article Publié Dans Revue Scientifique, History of the Human Sciences, Vol. 13, No 1, 2000. [REVIEW]Jean-Marie Tremblay - 2000 - History of the Human Sciences 13 (1).
  40. The Banned Books of England and Other Countries.Cyril Bibby - 1963 - The Eugenics Review 54 (4):221.
  41. Collectivity, Human Fulfilment and the ‘Force of Life’: Wilfred Trotter’s Concept of the Herd Instinct in Early 20th-Century Britain.Gillian Swanson - 2014 - History of the Human Sciences 27 (1):21-50.
    The article traces the origination of the psychological concept of the ‘herd instinct’, popularized by British surgeon Wilfred Trotter, locating this in a distinctive moment of dialogue between the natural and human sciences. It challenges the incorrect association of Trotter’s model with the crowd theory of Gustave Le Bon and negative commentaries on mass culture. In contrast, it shows that Trotter’s model rests on imitation and suggestion not as the sign of a derogated culture but as the ground of associated (...)
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  42. Shared Memory, Odours and Sociotransmitters Or: "Save the Interaction!".Joël Candau - 2010 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 12 (2):29-42.
    Collective memory, social memory, professional memory: although these notions are in current use when we name the shared (or assumed to be shared) representations of the past, they are very ambiguous. The point at issue is to show how memories can become common to some or to all members of a group . In this paper, I shall base my arguments on the simplest situation imaginable: The sharing of a memory of an olfactory experience by two individuals, namely one of (...)
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  43. Memory and Identity of Europe.Remo Bodei - 2009 - Iris. European Journal of Philosophy and Public Debate 1 (1):19-25.
    How can the European Union comprehend and receive millions of persons without losing its identity? An identity that, moreover, is itself multiple, expansive, clustered. The European Community has recently been enriched by twelve new members – ten eastern and central European and two Mediterranean states. This enlargement, on the one hand, will serve to heal a historical wound, closing the rift that divided the soil of Europe with the so-called “Iron Curtain”; on the other, it will open even more intense (...)
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  44. The Philosophy of Collective Representations.Vincent Descombes - 2000 - History of the Human Sciences 13 (1):37-49.
    The mental and the social are ‘two sides of the same coin’. In other words, ‘social relations are internal relations’. In showing how this was the point of Wittgenstein’s discussion of the practice of ‘following a rule’, Peter Winch has made an important contribution to social philosophy.
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  45. Facets of Sociality (Philosophische Analyse/Philosophical Analysis, Volume 15).Wolfgang Detel - 2007 - Heusenstamm Bei Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.
  46. Modern Social Imaginaries.Charles Blattberg - 2006 - Dialogue 45 (1):183-185.
  47. Should Collective Bargaining and Labor Relations Be Less Adversarial?Norman E. Bowie - 1985 - Journal of Business Ethics 4 (4):283 - 291.
    In this paper I argue that the poker analogy is unsuitable as a model for collective bargaining negotiations. Using the poker game analogy is imprudent, its use undermines trust and ignores the cooperative features of business, and its use fails to take into account the values of dignity and fairness which should characterize labor-management negotiations. I propose and defend a model of ideal family decision-making as a superior model to the poker game.
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  48. Why I Am Not an Individualist.Anthony King - 2007 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (2):211–219.
    In his defence of emergence, David Elder-Vass assumes that my hermeneutic position represents a form of individualism. Although a common reading of my position, the claim that I am in individualist is incorrect; I, too, recognize the centrality of collective phenomena to social reality. In fact, there is a close convergence between emergence and the hermeneutic sociology I advocate. However, there also remains an important divide between us. Despite his care to avoid reification, Edler-Vass descends into ontological dualism, conceptualizing society (...)
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Collective Mentality, Misc
  1. A Pathology of Group Agency.Matthew Rachar - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
    Pathologies of agency affect both groups and individuals. I present a case study of agential pathology in a group, in which supposedly rogue members of a group act in light of what they take the group’s interests and attitudes to be, but in a way that goes against the group’s explicitly stated agential point of view. I consider several practical concerns brought out by rogue member action in the context of a group agent, focusing in particular on how it undermines (...)
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  2. Collective Memory: Metaphor or Real?Premjit Laikhuram - forthcoming - Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science.
    Collective memory researchers predominantly in the cultural and social sciences have commonly understood the concept of collective memory as a mere metaphor, as something not existing in itself as memory but useful only as a tool for referring to the way groups construct shared representations of their past. Few have however addressed the question of whether it is a metaphor or literal in its own right. This paper looks at the plausibility of the claim that collective memory is a mere (...)
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