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Summary Chrysippus of Soli was the third and probably most important head of the Athenian Stoa. He is credited with systematizing early Stoic philosophy and was famed in antiquity as a logician, rivaled only by Aristotle. He is reported to have written 705 books, all of which are lost save for quotations from later authors and a few papyrus fragments recovered from Herculaneum.
Key works The standard collection of the ancient evidence for Chrysippus remains von Arnim 1903-24. For logical fragments see Hülser 1987.
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  1. Rational Impressions and the Stoic Philosophy of Mind.Vanessa de Harven - forthcoming - In John Sisko (ed.), History of Philosophy of Mind: Pre-Socratics to Augustine. Acumen Publishing.
    This paper seeks to elucidate the distinctive nature of the rational impression on its own terms, asking precisely what it means for the Stoics to define logikē phantasia as an impression whose content is expressible in language. I argue first that impression, generically, is direct and reflexive awareness of the world, the way animals get information about their surroundings. Then, that the rational impression, specifically, is inherently conceptual, inferential, and linguistic, i.e. thick with propositional content, the way humans receive incoming (...)
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  2. The Starting-Points for Knowledge: Chrysippus on How to Acquire and Fortify Insecure Apprehension.Simon Shogry - forthcoming - Phronesis: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy.
    This paper examines some neglected Chrysippean fragments on insecure apprehension (κατάληψις). First, I present Chrysippus’ account of how non-Sages can begin to fortify their insecure apprehension and upgrade it into knowledge (ἐπιστήμη). Next, I reconstruct Chrysippus’ explanation of how sophisms and counter-arguments lead one to abandon one’s insecure apprehension. One such counter-argument originates in the sceptical Academy and targets the Stoic claim that insecure apprehension can be acquired on the basis of custom (συνήθεια). I show how Chrysippus could defend the (...)
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  3. Determinism, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility.Susanne Bobzien - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Determinism, Freedom, and Moral Responsibility brings together nine substantial essays on determinism, freedom, and moral responsibility in antiquity by Susanne Bobzien. The essays present the main ancient theories on these subjects, ranging historically from Aristotle followed by the Epicureans, the early Stoics, several later Stoics, and up to Alexander of Aphrodisias in the third century CE. -/- The author discusses questions about rational and autonomous human agency and their compatibility with a large range of important philosophical issues, including their compatibility (...)
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  4. The Soul and Personal Identity in Early Stoicism: Two Theories?Aiste Celkyte - 2020 - Apeiron 53 (4):463-486.
    Apeiron Issue: Ahead of print. This paper is dedicated to exploring the alleged difference between Cleanthes’ and Chrysippus’ accounts of the post-mortal survival of the souls and the conceptions of personal identity that these accounts underpin. I argue that while Cleanthes conceptualised the personal identity as grounded in the rational soul, Chrysippus conceptualised it as an embodied rational soul. I also suggest that this difference between the two early Stoics might have been due to Chrysippus' metaphysical commitments arising from his (...)
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  5. Ancient Theories of Freedom and Determinism.Tim O'Keefe - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:00-00.
    A fairly long (~15,000 word) overview of ancient theories of freedom and determinism. It covers the supposed threat of causal determinism to "free will," i.e., the sort of control we need to have in order to be rightly held responsible for our actions. But it also discusses fatalistic arguments that proceed from the Principle of Bivalence, what responsibility we have for our own characters, and god and fate. Philosophers discussed include Aristotle, Epicurus, the Stoics, Carneades, Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Plotinus. (...)
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  6. Chrysippus on Imagination in Aetius 4.12.Pavle Stojanović - 2020 - Classical Quarterly 70 (1):332-346.
    According to Diogenes Laertius, the concept of ‘appearance’ played a central role in Stoic philosophy. As staunch corporealists, the Stoics believed that appearances are physical structures in our corporeal soul which provide the foundation for all our thoughts. One of the crucial features of appearance is that it is a representational mental state that has the ability to provide us with accurate awareness of the world through causal interaction between our senses and external objects, and thus supply the means for (...)
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  7. A Note on Τὸ Παρ’ Ἡμᾶς and Τὸ Ἐφ’ Ἡμῖν in Chrysippus.Paulo Fernando Tadeu Ferreira - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 2 (3):63-66.
    The present paper draws a contrast between the notions of τὸ παρ’ ἡμᾶς and τὸ ἐφ’ ἡμῖν to the effect that, according to Chrysippus, each has a different role to play and different requirements to meet, the former being especially tailored to suit the exigencies of praise and blame taken as exhortations, the latter those of desert and justice in praising and blaming as well as honoring and punishing.
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  8. The Stoic Definition of Beauty as Summetria.Aiste Celkyte - 2017 - Classical Quarterly 67 (1).
    The Stoa might be not the first philosophical school that comes to mind when considering the most important ancient contributions to aesthetics, yet multiple extant fragments show that the Stoics had a non-marginal theoretical interest in aesthetic properties. Probably the most important piece of evidence for the Stoic attempts to theorize beauty is the definition of beauty as summetria of parts with each other and with the whole. In the first half of this article, I present and analyse the main (...)
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  9. Chrysippus’s Elemental Theory.Ian Hensley - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (2):361-385.
  10. Ambivalence for Cognitivists: A Lesson From Chrysippus?Bill Wringe - 2017 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):147-156.
    Ambivalence—where we experience two conflicting emotional responses to the same object, person or state of affairs—is sometimes thought to pose a problem for cognitive theories of emotion. Drawing on the ideas of the Stoic Chrysippus, I argue that a cognitivist can account for ambivalence without retreating from the view that emotions involve fully-fledged evaluative judgments. It is central to the account I offer that emotions involve two kinds of judgment: one about the object of emotion, and one about the subject's (...)
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  11. Necessity, Possibility and Determinism in Stoic Thought.Vanessa de Harven - 2016 - In Max Cresswel, Edwin Mares & Adriane Rini (eds.), Logical Modalities from Aristotle to Carnap: The Story of Necessity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 70-90.
    At the heart of the Stoic theory of modality is a strict commitment to bivalence, even for future contingents. A commitment to both future truth and contingency has often been thought paradoxical. This paper argues that the Stoic retreat from necessity is successful. it maintains that the Stoics recognized three distinct senses of necessity and possibility: logical, metaphysical and providential. Logical necessity consists of truths that are knowable a priori. Metaphysical necessity consists of truths that are knowable a posteriori, a (...)
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  12. Stoic Trichotomies.Daniel Nolan - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 51:207-230.
    Chrysippus often talks as if there is a third option when we might expect that two options in response to a question are exhaustive. Things are true, false or neither; equal, unequal, or neither; the same, different, or neither.. and so on. There seems to be a general pattern here that calls for a general explanation. This paper offers a general explanation of this pattern, preserving Stoic commitments to excluded middle and bivalence, arguing that Chrysippus employs this trichotomy move when (...)
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  13. The Stoics on Fate and Freedom.Tim O'Keefe - 2016 - In Meghan Griffith, Neil Levy & Kevin Timpe (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Free Will. Routledge. pp. 236-246.
    Overview of the Stoic position. Looks at the roots of their determinism in their theology, their response to the 'lazy argument' that believing that all things are fated makes action pointless, their analysis of human action and how it allows actions to be 'up to us,' their rejection of the Principle of Alternate Possibilities, their rejection of anger and other negative reactive attitudes, and their contention that submission to god's will brings true freedom.
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  14. How Nothing Can Be Something: The Stoic Theory of Void.Vanessa de Harven - 2015 - Ancient Philosophy 35 (2):405-429.
    Void is at the heart of Stoic metaphysics. As the incorporeal par excellence, being defined purely in terms of lacking body, it brings into sharp focus the Stoic commitment to non-existent Somethings. This article argues that Stoic void, far from rendering the Stoic system incoherent or merely ad hoc, in fact reflects a principled and coherent physicalism that sets the Stoics apart from their materialist predecessors and atomist neighbors.
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  15. Aspects and Problems of Chrysippus’ Conception of Space.Michele Alessandrelli - 2014 - In Christoph Horn, Christoph Helmig & Graziano Ranocchia (eds.), Space in Hellenistic Philosophy: Critical Studies in Ancient Physics. De Gruyter. pp. 53-68.
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  16. The Stoic Account of Apprehension.Tamer Nawar - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14:1-21.
    This paper examines the Stoic account of apprehension (κατάληψις) (a cognitive achievement similar to how we typically view knowledge). Following a seminal article by Michael Frede (1983), it is widely thought that the Stoics maintained a purely externalist causal account of apprehension wherein one may apprehend only if one stands in an appropriate causal relation to the object apprehended. An important but unanswered challenge to this view has been offered by David Sedley (2002) who offers reasons to suppose that the (...)
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  17. Chrysippus on Retribution and Rehabilitation.Paulo Fernando Tadeu Ferreira - 2013 - Doispontos 10 (2):109-34.
    The present article argues that Chrysippus' reply to the objection that Fate does away with that which is up to us (and therefore with justice in honor and punishments) consists in shifting the notion of that which is up to us from one in terms of ultimate origination to one in terms of self-sufficient causation—and thus in shifting the very notion of justice in honor and punishments from one in retributive terms to one in rehabilitative terms.
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  18. Cicero's Reflections on Chrysippus' Theory Peri Sympatheias in His De Fato (IV, 7-V, II).Peter Frano - 2013 - Filozofia 68 (2):93-104.
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  19. Bodies, Predicates, and Fated Truths: Ontological Distinctions and the Terminology of Causation in Defenses of Stoic Determinism by Chrysippus and Seneca.Jula Wildberger - 2013 - In Francesca Guadelupe Masi & Stefano Maso (eds.), Fate, Chance, Fortune in Ancient Thought. Amsterdam: Hakkert. pp. 103-123.
    Reconstructs the original Greek version of the confatalia-argument that Cicero attributes to Chrysippus in De fato and misrepresent in crucial ways. Compares this argument with Seneca's discussion of determinism in the Naturales quaestiones. Clarifies that Seneca makes a different distinction from that attested in Cicero's De fato. Argues that problems with interpreting both accounts derive from disregarding terminological distinctions harder to spot in the Latin versions and, related to this, insufficient attention to the ontological distinction between bodies (such as Fate) (...)
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  20. Stoic Ethics Jedan Stoic Virtues. Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics. Pp. Xii + 230. London and New York: Continuum, 2009. Cased, £65. ISBN: 978-1-4411-1252-1. [REVIEW]Henry Dyson - 2012 - The Classical Review 62 (2):423-425.
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  21. Is Diogenianus A Source for Chrysippus' Reply to the Idle Argument?Paulo Ferreira - 2012 - Dissertatio 36:343-364.
    This text analyzes Diogenianus’ testimony (apud Eus., Praep. Ev. VI 8) as a source for Chrysippus’ reply to an objection leveled against Stoic Fate-determinism. I argue that the objection addressed by Chrysippus in the testimony bears relation to the Idle Argument as reported by both Cicero and Origen but, unlike the Idle Argument, deals with the notions of “that which depends on us” (τὸ παρ’ ἡμᾶς), “that which proceeds from us” (τὸ ἐξ ἡμῶν), and the issue of accountability.
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  22. Excessivness and Our Natural Development.Rosalind Hursthouse - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy:171-196.
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  23. Chysippus and the Action Theory of Aristo of Chios.Anna Maria Ioppolo - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy:197-222.
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  24. Chrysippus Confronts the Liar: The Case for Stoic Cassationism.Michael Papazian - 2012 - History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (3):197-214.
    The Stoic philosopher Chrysippus wrote extensively on the liar paradox, but unfortunately the extant testimony on his response to the paradox is meager and mainly hostile. Modern scholars, beginning with Alexander Rüstow in the first decade of the twentieth century, have attempted to reconstruct Chrysippus? solution. Rüstow argued that Chrysippus advanced a cassationist solution, that is, one in which sentences such as ?I am speaking falsely? do not express propositions. Two more recent scholars, Walter Cavini and Mario Mignucci, have rejected (...)
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  25. Reading Between the Lies: Plutarch and Chrysippus on the Use of Poetry.Daivd Blank - 2011 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 40:237-264.
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  26. Reading Between the Lies: Plutarch and Chrysippus on the Uses of Poetry.David Blank - 2011 - In Michael Frede, James V. Allen, Eyjólfur Kjalar Emilsson, Wolfgang-Rainer Mann & Benjamin Morison (eds.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 40--237.
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  27. The Combinatorics of Stoic Conjunction.Susanne Bobzien - 2011 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 40:157-188.
    ABSTRACT: The 3rd BCE Stoic logician "Chrysippus says that the number of conjunctions constructible from ten propositions exceeds one million. Hipparchus refuted this, demonstrating that the affirmative encompasses 103,049 conjunctions and the negative 310,952." After laying dormant for over 2000 years, the numbers in this Plutarch passage were recently identified as the 10th (and a derivative of the 11th) Schröder number, and F. Acerbi showed how the 2nd BCE astronomer Hipparchus could have calculated them. What remained unexplained is why Hipparchus’ (...)
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  28. Two Points Regarding Chrysippean Theology.Rory Goggins - 2011 - Ancient Philosophy 31 (2):339-350.
  29. Chrysippus.Jeremy Kirby - 2011 - In James Fieser & Bradley Dowden (eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  30. Die Erfindung kosmopolitaner Politik durch die Stoiker.Eric Brown - 2010 - In Matthias Lutz-Bachmann, Andreas Niederberger & Philipp Schink (eds.), Kosmopolitanismus: Zur Geschichte und Zukunft eines umstrittenen Ideals. Weilerswist, Germany: Velbrück Wissenschaft. pp. 9-24.
    This lecture explores the political import of Chrysippus' account of why and how one should live as a citizen of the cosmos, and it makes a case for seeing this account as the invention of political cosmopolitanism. (The preprint uploaded here is the final English draft on which the German translation was based.).
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  31. Chrysippus on Physical Elements.John M. Cooper - 2009 - In Ricardo Salles (ed.), God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Oxford University Press.
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  32. Chrysippus' Dog as a Case Study In.M. Iehael Reseorla - 2009 - In Robert W. Lurz (ed.), The Philosophy of Animal Minds. Cambridge University Press.
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  33. Stoic Virtues: Chrysippus and the Religious Character of Stoic Ethics.Christoph Jedan - 2009 - Continuum.
    The book argues that the theological motifs in Stoic philosophy are pivotal to our understanding of Stoic ethics. Part One offers an introductory overview of the religious world view of the Stoics. Part Two examines the Stoic characterizations of virtue and the virtues. Part Three deals with Stoic theories of how human beings can become virtuous. Part Four studies the practices of Stoic ethics. It shows inter alia how the Chrysippean table of virtues is still an (unacknowledged) influence behind Panaetius’ (...)
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  34. The Chrysippus Intuition and Contextual Theories of Truth.Jay Newhard - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 142 (3):345-352.
    Contextual theories of truth are motivated primarily by the resolution they provide to paradoxical reasoning about truth. The principal argument for contextual theories of truth relies on a key intuition about the truth value of the proposition expressed by a particular utterance made during paradoxical reasoning, which Anil Gupta calls “the Chrysippus intuition.” In this paper, I argue that the principal argument for contextual theories of truth is circular, and that the Chrysippus intuition is false. I conclude that the philosophical (...)
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  35. Chrysippus' Dog as a Case Study in Non-Linguistic Cognition.Michael Rescorla - 2009 - In Robert W. Lurz (ed.), The Philosophy of Animal Minds. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52--71.
    I critique an ancient argument for the possibility of non-linguistic deductive inference. The argument, attributed to Chrysippus, describes a dog whose behavior supposedly reflects disjunctive syllogistic reasoning. Drawing on contemporary robotics, I urge that we can equally well explain the dog's behavior by citing probabilistic reasoning over cognitive maps. I then critique various experimentally-based arguments from scientific psychology that echo Chrysippus's anecdotal presentation.
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  36. Chrysippus on Conflagration and the Indestructibility of the Cosmos.Ricardo Salles - 2009 - In God and Cosmos in Stoicism. Oxford University Press.
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  37. Logic for Dogs.Andrew Aberdein - 2008 - In Steven D. Hales (ed.), What Philosophy Can Tell You About Your Dog. Open Court. pp. 167-181.
    Imagine a dog tracing a scent to a crossroads, sniffing all but one of the exits, and then proceeding down the last without further examination. According to Sextus Empiricus, Chrysippus argued that the dog effectively employs disjunctive syllogism, concluding that since the quarry left no trace on the other paths, it must have taken the last. The story has been retold many times, with at least four different morals: (1) dogs use logic, so they are as clever as humans; (2) (...)
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  38. Chrysippus on Achilles: The Evidence of Galen de Placitis Hippocratis Et Platonis 4.6–7.Helen Cullyer - 2008 - Classical Quarterly 58 (2):537-.
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  39. In Defence of the Dialectical School.Theodor Ebert - 2008 - In Francesca Alesse (ed.), Anthropine Sophia. Studi di filologia e storiografia filosofica in memoria di Gabriele Giannantoni. Bibliopolis. pp. 275-293.
    In this paper I defend the existence of a Dialectical school proper against criticisms brought forward by Klaus Döring and by Jonathan Barnes. Whereas Döring claims that there was no Dialectical school separate from the Megarians, Barnes takes issue with my claim (argued for in “Dialektiker und frühe Stoiker bei Sextus Empiricus”) that most of the reports in Sextus on the dialecticians refer to members of the Dialectical school. Barnes contends that these dialecticians are in fact Stoic logicians. As against (...)
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  40. Seneca e Galeno sulla struttura proposizionale delle passioni in Crisippo.Pierluigi Donini - 2007 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 3.
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  41. Chrysippus on Nature and Soul in Animals.Anna Eunyoung Ju - 2007 - Classical Quarterly 57 (01):97-.
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  42. Aristotle and Chrysippus on the Psychology of Human Action: Criteria for Responsibility.Priscilla K. Sakezles - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (2):225 – 252.
    This Article doDespite obvious differences in the Aristotelian and Stoic theories of responsibility, there is surprisingly a deeper structural similarity between the two. The most obvious difference is that Aristotle is (apparently) a libertarian and the Stoics are determinists. Aristotle holds adults responsible for all our "voluntary" actions, which are defined by two criteria: the "origin" or cause of the action must be "in us" and we must be aware of what we are doing. An "involuntary" action, for which we (...)
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  43. Ricardo Salles: Los estoicos y el problema de la libertad, México: UNAM 2006, 192pp. [REVIEW]Daniel Vázquez - 2007 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 32:229-235.
  44. Les Kynica du Stoïcisme.R. Bracht Branham - 2006 - Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):443-447.
  45. Les Kynica du Stoïcisme, by Marie-Odile Goulet-Cazé.R. Bracht Branham - 2006 - Ancient Philosophy 26 (2):443-447.
  46. Stoic Gunk.Daniel P. Nolan - 2006 - Phronesis 51 (2):162-183.
    The surviving sources on the Stoic theory of division reveal that the Stoics, particularly Chrysippus, believed that bodies, places and times were such that all of their parts themselves had proper parts. That is, bodies, places and times were composed of gunk. This realisation helps solve some long-standing puzzles about the Stoic theory of mixture and the Stoic attitude to the present.
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  47. Chrysippus on Psychology T. Tieleman: Chrysippus' On Affections. Reconstruction and Interpretation . (Philosophia Antiqua 94.) Pp. Xii + 346. Leiden: Brill, 2003. Cased. ISBN: 90-04-12998-. [REVIEW]Christopher Gill - 2005 - The Classical Review 55 (02):449-.
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  48. The Theodicy Of Chrysippus.Joanna Jarzebiak - 2005 - Existentia 15 (1-2):113-125.
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  49. Stoics and Cynics: M.-O. Goulet-Cazé: Les Kynica du Stoïcisme. [REVIEW]John Sellars - 2005 - The Classical Review 55 (01):69-.
  50. Galen & Chrysippus on the Soul: Argument and Refutation in the De Placitis, Books II-III. [REVIEW]Gretchen J. Reydams-Schils - 2004 - Ancient Philosophy 24 (2):510-519.
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