Chinese Philosophy

Edited by JeeLoo Liu (California State University, Fullerton)
About this topic
Summary Chinese philosophy is built on the metaphysical assumption that qi (traditionally translated as “material force” or “vital energy”) pervades the Universe and all things are composed of qi. This ontology leads to a conception of the world as an organic whole, in which everything is interconnected – from nature to the human world, from inorganic objects to sensible things. Chinese philosophers had a purely this-worldly concern; their goal was to improve on the world given. Originated in the primitive form of nature worship, ancient Chinese developed a sense of admiration and affection towards the natural world around them. This religious spirit prompted a philosophical pursuit of the order of the universe and the ontological foundation for all existence. Ancient Chinese thinkers had an intense desire to find the best way to make the right political decisions, to alleviate social problems, and to properly conduct themselves. Sociopolitical philosophy and ethics are thus the two core areas in Chinese philosophy. At the same time, since social structure, political polity and human conduct should all cohere with the cosmic order, Chinese philosophy is fundamentally rooted in its cosmology. This cosmology is manifested mostly in the philosophy of the Yijing. Chinese cosmology is built on the belief that there is a cosmic order or cosmic pattern, which serves not only as the source for all existence, but also as the governing rule for all cosmic developments. This pattern was commonly referred to as ‘Dao’ by ancient philosophers. The pursuit ofDao would become an ultimate goal shared by all Chinese philosophers. Under the holistic cosmic picture, the cosmic order also governs human affairs. Consequently, Dao takes on a normative connotation: it signifies the right way for human affairs and the normative principle for human conduct. In this sense, Daostands for the highest moral precept for human beings. There are three main branches in Chinese philosophy – Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism. Each school has its distinct answer to the quest of ultimate reality and the roles humans should play in this world. To educate others what constitutes virtue and to inspire others to act in accordance with Dao, was thus the self-assigned mission for most Chinese philosophers.
Key works The first systematic introduction to Chinese philosophy is the two-volume set Fung Yu-lan 1997, first published in the 1930s. This book is arguably the most influential introduction to the history of Chinese philosophy, even though some of Fung’s analyses are often contested by contemporary Chinese scholars. The two-volume set has been translated into English by Derk Bodde (Feng & Bodde 1937). A condensed and more accessible version of Fung’s History is also translated by Derk Bodde (Feng 1948). Among Chinese scholars, Lao 2005’s thee-volume (in four books) set is widely respected and frequently consulted. A more recent and analytic introduction to Chinese philosophy is Liu 2006. This book does not cover the history of Chinese philosophy beyond Chinese Buddhism, however. Mou 2008 has a more comprehensive coverage of all eras in the history of Chinese philosophy, but at the cost of sacrificing philosophical details. For readers who cannot read primary Chinese texts, Chan 1963 is a good source of representative selections of Chinese philosophical works.
Introductions

Chan 1963 provides a comprehensive coverage and fairly representative selections of all major philosophers or philosophical schools in Chinese history. The editor provides succinct introductions for each selection. It is a must-have sourcebook for scholars who can read only English, even though the old-fashioned Wade-Giles spelling of Chinese names in this book could create confusion for beginners.  

Feng & Bodde 1937 provides a comprehensive coverage of various schools in the history of Chinese philosophy. At times, the introduction is packed with quotes, with little analysis. It is nonetheless an authoritative introduction to this date.

Feng 1948 is not just an abridgment of Feng & Bodde 1937. Fung wrote this short history with the aim to give a complete picture of Chinese philosophical history in a nutshell. This book is far more accessible and interesting than Feng & Bodde 1937. Originally published in New York: Macmillan, 1948.

Lao Ssu-Kwang勞思光, Xinbian Zhongguo Zhexue Shi新編中國哲學史. 3 volumes. Guangxi, China: Guanxi shifandaxue chubanshe, 2005.

There is no English translation of this three-volume set. This is a revised version of Lao’s famed History of Chinese Philosophy (Zhongguo zhexue shi 中國哲學史), originally published in Hong Kong: Youlian chubanshe, 1968. Lao’s History provides detailed logical analysis of the philosophical problems and theories of all the schools covered in this book. It is widely referred to by Chinese scholars.

Liu 2006 provides an up-to-date introduction to Chinese philosophy in the analytic style. In its analysis of primary texts, it also reflects topics and discourses on Chinese philosophy in contemporary scholarship in English. The scope of this book covers classical philosophical schools and four major schools in Chinese Buddhism.

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  1. On the Meanings of Propaganda.Erica Onnis - 2019 - In Erica Onnis & Tiziana Andina (eds.), The Philosophy and Art of Wang Guangyi. London, UK: pp. 71-86.
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  2. The Philosophy and Art of Wang Guangyi.Erica Onnis & Tiziana Andina (eds.) - 2019 - London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Wang Guangyi, one of the stars of the new wave of Chinese art, has artistically addressed major philosophical trends in Western philosophy while drawing on Taoism, Marxism and Maoism. By bringing together a team of experts in the philosophy of art to discuss his work, The Philosophy and Art of Wang Guangyi presents the first philosophical exploration of Wang's art, his thought and his analysis of Chinese society. -/- From his use of words in images to his reference to the (...)
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  3. On the Contemporary Enlightenment of Confucian Social Governance Thought.婷 李 - 2022 - Advances in Philosophy 11 (3):288-292.
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  4. Discuss Why Confucius and Yan Hui Are Happy in “The Joy of Confucius”.熳俊 米 - 2022 - Advances in Philosophy 11 (3):230-235.
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  5. Metaphors in Neo-Confucian Korean Philosophy.Hannah H. Kim - forthcoming - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.
    A metaphor is an effective way to show how something is to be conceived. In this article, I look at two Neo-Confucian Korean philosophical contexts—the Four-Seven debate and Book of the Imperial Pivot—and suggest that metaphors are philosophically expedient in two further contexts: when both intellect and emotion must be addressed; and when the aim of philosophizing is to produce behavioral change. Because Neo-Confucians had a conception of the mind that closely connected it to the heart (心 xin), metaphor’s empathy-inducing (...)
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  6. An Analysis of Ecological Thought in Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism and Its Value of the Times.曼 涂 - 2022 - Advances in Philosophy 11 (3):192-197.
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  7. Modesty, Confucianism, and Active Indifference.William Sin - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-11.
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  8. KOSMISCHER VERSTAND UND KREATIVITÄT.Alexis Karpouzos - manuscript
    Wir leben in einem Universum, das aus vielen verschiedenen Perspektiven gesehen und erlebt werden kann. Deshalb müssen wir das Universum aus vielen verschiedenen Blickwinkeln betrachten. Alles und jeder ist eine Form des Universums, die sich auf eine bestimmte Weise ausdrückt. Mit anderen Worten, jeder von uns kann mit absoluter Gewissheit sagen: „Wir sind das Universum!“ Da wir das Universum sind, bietet jeder von uns eine wertvolle Perspektive, die die Beiträge aller und alles andere um uns herum ergänzt. Jeder von uns (...)
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  9. Perspectives on the Methods of Chinese Philosophy.Robert Carleo - 2018 - Journal of World Philosophy 3 (1).
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  10. The Irony of Confucius.Dimitra Amarantidou - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (6):e12839.
    Philosophy Compass, Volume 17, Issue 6, June 2022.
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  11. Sincerity ( Cheng ) as a Civic and Political Virtue in Classical Confucian Philosophy.Dawid Rogacz - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (6):e12833.
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  12. Two Models of Confucian Democracy: A Contrastive Analysis of Tang Junyi’s and Mou Zongsan’s Political Philosophy.Jana S. Rošker - forthcoming - Asian Philosophy:1-14.
    In the final decades of the 20th century, the majority of modern Sinophone scholars believed that Confucianism was an outdated and obsolete ideology that was not only unsuitable for the development...
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  13. The Challenge of Teaching Chinese Philosophy: Thoughts on Method.Andrew Lambert - 2016 - ASIANetwork Exchange 23 (2):107-23.
    In this essay I offer an alternative perspective on how to organize class material for courses in Chinese philosophy for predominately American students. Instead of selecting topics taken from common themes in Western discourses, I suggest a variety of organizational strategies based on themes from the Chinese texts themselves, such as tradition, ritual, family, and guanxi (關係), which are rooted in the Chinese tradition but flexible enough to organize a broad range of philosophical material.
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  14. Huang, Yushun 黃玉順, The Formation of Chinese Theory of Justice: A Tradition of Ethics of Institution From the Duke of Zhou to Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi 中國正義論的形成 : 周孔孟荀的制度倫理學傳統: Beijing 北京: Dongfang Chubanshe 東方出版社, 2015, 456 pages.Yiling Zhou - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):321-324.
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  15. Understanding Dao in Methodological Terms.Xinkan Zhao - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):197-211.
    The notion of dao 道 in the Daodejing 道德經 typically receives either a metaphysical interpretation or a practical one. In this essay, I survey a series of recent interpretations and show that given the gap between the two dimensions, the extant interpretations typically have the problem of attributing ambiguity to the central notion of dao, whether explicitly or implicitly. In light of this, I venture a novel reading according to which the text is interpreted also in practical terms, more specifically (...)
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  16. Confucian Education: From Conformity to Cultivating Personal Distinction.Kurtis Hagen - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):213-234.
    This article explores contrasting interpretations of early Confucian philosophy as they apply to education, focusing primarily on the Analects of Confucius, the Mencius, and the Xunzi 荀子. I first describe a common interpretation of the Confucian worldview, according to which an already perfected way is thought to have been established. This view tends to encourage thinking of education as a process of conveying the True Way and ensuring conformity to the norms that constitute it. I then describe and defend a (...)
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  17. An Empirical Argument for Mencius’ Theory of Human Nature.Ilari Mäkelä - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):235-259.
    Mencius 孟子 is famous for arguing that human nature is good. In this article, I offer a reading of Mencius’ argument which can be evaluated in terms of empirical psychology. In this reading, Mencius’ argument begins with three claims: humans naturally have prosocial inclinations, prosocial inclinations can be cultivated into mature forms of virtue, and the growth of prosocial inclinations is more natural than the growth of their alternatives. I also argue that each of these claims is well supported by (...)
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  18. Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming, ed., The Making of the Global Yijing in the Modern World: Cross-cultural Interpretations and Interactions: Singapore: Springer, 2021, xx + 221 pages.Bent Nielsen - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):325-329.
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  19. Ames, Roger T., Human Becomings: Theorizing Persons for Confucian Role Ethics: Albany: State University of New York Press, 2021, ix + 421 pages.Yuzhou Yang - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):317-320.
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  20. Wu, Genyou 吳根友, A History of Chinese Philosophy (on the Qing Period) 中國哲學通史(清代卷): Suzhou 蘇州: Jiangsu Renmin Chubanshe 江蘇人民出版社, 2021, 583 pages.Zemian Zheng - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):335-339.
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  21. Parkes, Graham, How to Think About the Climate Crisis: A Philosophical Guide to Saner Ways of Living: London, Oxford, New York, New Delhi, Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021, xiv + 272 pages.Dimitra Amarantidou - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):331-333.
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  22. Xu, Jiaxing 許家星, Scriptural Learning and Real Principle: A Study of Zhu Xi’s Scholarship on the Four Books 經學與實理: 朱子四書學研究.Shuhong Zheng - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):341-345.
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  23. Much Adwu about Nothing: A Nonrealist Reading of Wang Bi’s Dao.Joseph Suk-Hwan Dowd - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):183-195.
    In his Laozi Commentary and Structure of the Laozi’s Subtle Pointers, Wang Bi 王弼 seems to identify the Dao 道 with “absence” or “nothingness”. Despite this identification, some modern commentators regard Wang Bi’s Dao as a being. Other commentators deny that the Dao is a being but, nonetheless, seem to regard it as a reality of some kind. In contrast, I propose that Wang Bi’s Dao is literal absence and that we need not reify this absence in any way. Wang (...)
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  24. The Notion of Awareness of Self-awareness and the Problem of Infinite Regress in the Cheng Weishi Lun.Chih-Chiang Hu - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):299-316.
    This essay aims to show that the fourfold division theory of consciousness in the Cheng Weishi Lun 成唯識論 is the third way between phenomenology and the higher-order theories of consciousness. Regarding the problem of infinite regress, in particular, this theory represents an alternative between the reflexive model and the reflective model of self-consciousness. The main purpose of this essay is not to prove or to argue for the theory, but to clearly present its structure and the systematic or Abhidharmic way (...)
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  25. Chinese and Global Philosophy: Postcomparative Transcultural Approaches and the Method of Sublation.Jana S. Rošker - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):165-182.
    The essay deals with problems encountered by Western researchers working in the field of Chinese philosophy. It begins with a discussion of intercultural and transcultural methodologies and illuminates some of the most common issues inherent in traditional intercultural comparisons in the field of philosophy. Taking into account the current state of the so-called postcomparative discourses in the field of transcultural philosophy and starting from the notion of culturally divergent frames of reference, it focuses upon semantic aspects of the Chinese philosophical (...)
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  26. “Heteronomous Morality So Called by Kant” and Kant’s Heteronomous Morality? —On Mou Zongsan’s Confucian Reading of Kant’s Ethics.Weimin Shi - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (2):261-281.
    Mou Zongsan 牟宗三 is well known for his Kantian interpretation of Confucianism, while his understanding of Kant’s ethics is itself colored very much by Confucianism. Mou not only coined the idea “heteronomous morality” ; he also maintained that Kant’s ethics actually espouses heteronomous morality. In this essay, I will first analyze Mou’s idea of heteronomy and his criticism of heteronomous morality and point out that, characterizing Zhu Xi’s 朱熹 philosophy as ethics of heteronomy, Mou gives up a fundamental element in (...)
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  27. The Dialogue Between Confucianism and its Translations.Jyrki Kallio - forthcoming - Diogenes.
    Using the translation of Confucian classics as an example, this article discusses the possibility for translations to serve as two-way bridges between two cultures. While translating is often seen...
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  28. The Interpretation of Love and its Educational Realization: A Comparative Analysis of Nel Noddings’ Caring and Confucius’ Ren.Chuanbao Tan - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-7.
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  29. On Globes, the Earth and the Cybernetics of Grace.Claudia Westermann - 2021 - Technoetic Arts 19 (1):29-47.
    The article presents an enquiry into conceptions of ‘global’ that began at the American Society for Cybernetics 2020 Global Conversation conference. Following the traces of Margaret Mead’s statement that emphasized that the first photographic images of the Earth from space presented notions of fragility, the article contextualizes the recent critique of the dominant representation of the Earth as a globe that emerged in conjunction with the discourse on the Anthropocene. It analyses the globe as an image and the sentiments that (...)
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  30. The Confucian Concept of “Governance” and its Contemporary Value.Dong Xu, Jun Wang & Weidong Zhao - 2022 - Trans/Form/Ação 45 (spe2):15-36.
    : Governance means the policy and strategy adopted in the process of running a country. In the long history of more than two thousand years, Confucianism had become the cultural core and political doctrine of the imperial autocracy, and the theory of “governance of the whole country” contained in it had become an important category in traditional Chinese culture. We should dig deep into the rich connotation of Confucian governance thought, and build a national governance system that suits society, the (...)
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  31. Confucian Harmony and the Idea of Sustainable Development in Modern Society.Fuxing Ren, Jun Wang & Wenming Lv - 2022 - Trans/Form/Ação 45 (spe2):37-58.
    : Youzi, Confucius’ disciple, proposed the thought of “Harmony is Valued”, which was also the value pursuit of Confucius. They interpreted the implication of “Harmony” from practicing the rules of propriety. “He” means “harmony”. Mencius called the harmony between people “Support of the People”, and he discussed the harmonious coexistence between the revolutionaries and the public from the perspective of “Benevolent Policy” and “Good Nature”. Xunzi explained the institution, normalization and impartiality necessary for society from the aspect of “Harmony”, which (...)
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  32. Dao Companion to Chinese Philosophy of Logic: Edited by Yiu-Ming Fung, 1st Ed., Cham, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2020, Xii+556pp., $24.99, ISBN 978-3-030-29031-3.Yuan Ren - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 43 (2):196-198.
    The Dao Companion to Chinese Philosophy of Logic is the first general overview of Chinese logical philosophy in English, presumably providing students and researchers of Chinese thought in the Engl...
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  33. Resurgence of Confucian Education in Contemporary China: Parental Involvement, Moral Anxiety, and the Pedagogy of Memorisation.Canglong Wang - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Education:1-18.
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  34. The Philosophical Influences of Mao Zedong.Robert Allinson - 2019 - London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.
    This philosophical Mao is a fresh portrait of the mind of the ruler who changed the face of China in the twentieth century. The book traces the influences of both traditional Chinese and traditional pre-Marxist Western philosophy on the early Mao and how these influences guided the development of his thought. It reveals evidence of the creative dimensions of Mao's thinking and how he wove the yin/yang pattern of change depicted in the Yijing, the Chinese Book of Changes, into the (...)
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  35. Epistemological Issues in Classical Chinese Philosophy (Review). [REVIEW]Robert Allinson - 1994 - China Review International 1:167-173.
    The stated intent of the volume is "to broaden the exposure of Chinese Studies outside America and Great Britain" (p. vii). In this respect, the book succeeds admirably, as one of its distinctive features is the introduction of German scholarly approaches to an Anglo-American audience. As this fills a lacuna in Chinese studies, this volume is to be welcomed.
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  36. Heidegger, Taoism, and the Question of Metaphysics.Joan Stambaugh - 1987 - In Graham Parkes (ed.), Heidegger and Asian Thought. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 79-92.
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  37. The Ethics of Head Transplant From the Confucian Perspective of Human Virtues.Jianhui Li & Yaming Li - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):230-239.
    Head transplantation has ignited intense discussions about whether it should be done scientifically and ethically. This paper examines the ethics of head transplantation from a Confucian perspective and offers arguments against the permissibility of head transplantation. From a Confucian point of view, human beings are the most precious organisms in the world, and ren and li are the basic moral principles of human beings. As long as head transplant technology remains underdeveloped, this procedure should not be done because it will (...)
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  38. Who Would the Person Be After a Head Transplant? A Confucian Reflection.Lin Bian & Ruiping Fan - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):210-229.
    This essay draws on classical Confucian intellectual resources to argue that the person who emerges from a head transplant would be neither the person who provided the head, nor the person who provided the body, but a new, different person. We construct two types of argument to support this conclusion: one is based on the classical Confucian metaphysics of human life as qi activity; the other is grounded in the Confucian view of personal identity as being inseparable from one’s familial (...)
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  39. Material Objects in Confucian and Aristotelian Metaphysics: The Inevitability of Hylomorphism.James Dominic Rooney - 2022 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Hylomorphism is a metaphysical theory that accounts for the unity of the material parts of composite objects by appeal to a structure or ‘form’ characterizing those parts. I argue that hylomorphism is not merely a plausible or appealing solution to problems of material composition, but a position entailed by any coherent metaphysics of ordinary material objects. In fact, not only does hylomorphism have Aristotelian defenders, but it has had independent lives in both East and West. -/- I review three contemporary (...)
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  40. Confucian Free Expression and the Threat of Disinformation.David Elstein - 2022 - Sage Publications Ltd: Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (4):568-579.
    Philosophy & Social Criticism, Volume 48, Issue 4, Page 568-579, May 2022. At present, there is a wide divergence in attitudes toward free speech in countries strongly influenced by Confucianism. Japan, Korea, and Taiwan have fairly robust rights of free expression. Mainland China does not, strongly restricting speech that the government judges threatens State interests. I argue that although traditional Confucian scholars supported many restrictions on expression, Confucian philosophers actually have good reason to want to protect expression about values. Subsequently, (...)
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  41. The Moral Significance of Human Likeness in Sex Robots: A Confucian Perspective.Lawrence Y. Y. Yung - 2021 - In Ruiping Fan & Mark J. Cherry (eds.), Sex Robots: Social Impact and the Future of Human Relations. Springer. pp. 115-127.
    There is a moral significance to transferring human likeness to a sex robot. Once the robot has been crafted with a human likeness, the representational contents of human-robot sex must be understood as the same as sex with a human. As a result, sex with a child-like sex robot, for example, is a representation of sex with an underage child. Sex with a robot modelled on a particular person is a representation of sex with that person objectified. Human likeness plays (...)
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  42. What Kinds of Use of Sex Robots Can Be Morally Allowed? A Confucian Perspective.Hanhui Xu - 2021 - In Ruiping Fan & Mark J. Cherry (eds.), Sex Robots: Social Impact and the Future of Human Relations. Springer. pp. 129-142.
    Generally speaking, sex robots are artificial entities designed to be humanlike in appearance and behavior, and which are primarily used for sexual purposes. In the literature on robot ethics, most work is influenced by either deontology or utilitarianism. In this article, I address some issues concerning sex robots from a Confucian standpoint. The first question that will be raised is whether sex robots can be morally permitted. Intuitively, such machines might not be morally acceptable for Confucianism since Confucians seem to (...)
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  43. Flowers in a Mirror: Critique of ‘Confucianization of Law’.Kang Sun - forthcoming - Asian Philosophy:1-23.
    The theory of ‘Confucianization of law’ put forward by T’ung-tsu Ch’ü in his book titled Law and Society in Traditional China has a great academic influence in the world. However, ‘Confucianization...
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  44. Political Authority and Resistance to Injustice: A Confucian Perspective.Kevin K. W. Ip - forthcoming - Sage Publications Ltd: Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Philosophy & Social Criticism, Ahead of Print. Those who bear the burdens of injustice and oppression are entitled to act in ways contrary to existing laws and institutions to secure their own entitlements and those of others. This article aims to articulate a Confucian perspective on resistance against injustice. There are reasons for thinking that the notion of resistance is fundamentally at odds with Confucian political thought. In this article, I move beyond this simple conflict/compatibility model and explore the complex (...)
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  45. Dao Companion to Chinese Philosophy of Logic.Yuan Ren - forthcoming - Tandf: History and Philosophy of Logic:1-3.
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  46. Confucian Free Expression and the Threat of Disinformation.David Elstein - 2022 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (4):568-579.
    At present, there is a wide divergence in attitudes toward free speech in countries strongly influenced by Confucianism. Japan, Korea, and Taiwan have fairly robust rights of free expression. Mainland China does not, strongly restricting speech that the government judges threatens State interests. I argue that although traditional Confucian scholars supported many restrictions on expression, Confucian philosophers actually have good reason to want to protect expression about values. Subsequently, I consider how to address the problem of disinformation while preserving this (...)
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  47. On the Modern Value of the Thought of Confucian Social Governance Thought.鑫 向 - 2022 - Advances in Philosophy 11 (2):114-118.
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  48. Confucian Sentimental Representation: A New Approach to Confucian Democracy.Kyung Rok Kwon - 2021 - Routledge.
    Kwon conceptualizes a unique mode of political representation in East Asian society, which derives its moral foundation from Confucian virtue politics. Kwon analyses how affective accountability forms the basis for political representation in these societies and how this can be reconciled with liberal democracy.
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  49. Neo-Confucianism and Science in Korea: Humanity and Nature, 1706-1814.Sang-ho Ro - 2021 - Routledge.
    Historians of late premodern Korea have tended to regard it as a hermit kingdom, isolated from its neighbours and the wider world. In fact, as Ro argues in this book, Korean intellectuals were heavily influenced by both Chinese Neo-Confucianism and the European Enlightenment in the late 18th and 19th centuries. In the late Choson period the regime felt threatened by the new, more empirical, approaches to knowledge emerging from both the East and the West. For this reason many Korean intellectuals (...)
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  50. A History of Classical Chinese Thought.Li Zehou & Andrew Lambert - 2019 - Routledge.
    Translated, with a philosophical introduction.
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