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42 found
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  1. Responsibility Gaps and Retributive Dispositions: Evidence from the US, Japan and Germany.Markus Kneer & Markus Christen - manuscript
    Danaher (2016) has argued that increasing robotization can lead to retribution gaps: Situation in which the normative fact that nobody can be justly held responsible for a harmful outcome stands in conflict with our retributivist moral dispositions. In this paper, we report a cross-cultural empirical study based on Sparrow’s (2007) famous example of an autonomous weapon system committing a war crime, which was conducted with participants from the US, Japan and Germany. We find that (i) people manifest a considerable willingness (...)
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  2. Legal reviews of in situ learning in autonomous weapons.Zena Assaad & Tim McFarland - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-10.
    A legal obligation to conduct weapons reviews is a means by which the international community can ensure that States assess whether the use of new types of weapons in armed conflict would raise humanitarian concerns. The use of artificial intelligence in weapon systems greatly complicates the process of conducting reviews, particularly where a weapon system is capable of continuing to ‘learn’ on its own after being deployed on the battlefield. This paper surveys current understandings of the weapons review challenges presented (...)
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  3. Bridging the civilian-military divide in responsible AI principles and practices.Rachel Azafrani & Abhishek Gupta - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (2):1-5.
    Advances in AI research have brought increasingly sophisticated capabilities to AI systems and heightened the societal consequences of their use. Researchers and industry professionals have responded by contemplating responsible principles and practices for AI system design. At the same time, defense institutions are contemplating ethical guidelines and requirements for the development and use of AI for warfare. However, varying ethical and procedural approaches to technological development, research emphasis on offensive uses of AI, and lack of appropriate venues for multistakeholder dialogue (...)
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  4. Value Sensitive Design for autonomous weapon systems – a primer.Christine Boshuijzen-van Burken - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-14.
    Value Sensitive Design (VSD) is a design methodology developed by Batya Friedman and Peter Kahn (2003) that brings in moral deliberations in an early stage of a design process. It assumes that neither technology itself is value neutral, nor shifts the value-ladennes to the sole usage of technology. This paper adds to emerging literature onVSD for autonomous weapons systems development and discusses extant literature on values in autonomous systems development in general and in autonomous weapons development in particular. I identify (...)
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  5. A Comparative Defense of Self-initiated Prospective Moral Answerability for Autonomous Robot harm.Marc Champagne & Ryan Tonkens - 2023 - Science and Engineering Ethics 29 (4):1-26.
    As artificial intelligence becomes more sophisticated and robots approach autonomous decision-making, debates about how to assign moral responsibility have gained importance, urgency, and sophistication. Answering Stenseke’s (2022a) call for scaffolds that can help us classify views and commitments, we think the current debate space can be represented hierarchically, as answers to key questions. We use the resulting taxonomy of five stances to differentiate—and defend—what is known as the “blank check” proposal. According to this proposal, a person activating a robot could (...)
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  6. A Moral Bind? — Autonomous Weapons, Moral Responsibility, and Institutional Reality.Bartek Chomanski - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36.
    In “Accepting Moral Responsibility for the Actions of Autonomous Weapons Systems—a Moral Gambit” (2022), Mariarosaria Taddeo and Alexander Blanchard answer one of the most vexing issues in current ethics of technology: how to close the so-called “responsibility gap”? Their solution is to require that autonomous weapons systems (AWSs) may only be used if there is some human being who accepts the ex ante responsibility for those actions of the AWS that could not have been predicted or intended (in such cases, (...)
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  7. Reasons to Punish Autonomous Robots.Zac Cogley - 2023 - The Gradient 14.
    I here consider the reasonableness of punishing future autonomous military robots. I argue that it is an engineering desideratum that these devices be responsive to moral considerations as well as human criticism and blame. Additionally, I argue that someday it will be possible to build such machines. I use these claims to respond to the no subject of punishment objection to deploying autonomous military robots, the worry being that an “accountability gap” could result if the robot committed a war crime. (...)
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  8. Autonomous Military Systems: collective responsibility and distributed burdens.Niël Henk Conradie - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-14.
    The introduction of Autonomous Military Systems (AMS) onto contemporary battlefields raises concerns that they will bring with them the possibility of a techno-responsibility gap, leaving insecurity about how to attribute responsibility in scenarios involving these systems. In this work I approach this problem in the domain of applied ethics with foundational conceptual work on autonomy and responsibility. I argue that concerns over the use of AMS can be assuaged by recognising the richly interrelated context in which these systems will most (...)
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  9. Faire évoluer les virus vers des formes plus pathogènes, est-ce vraiment raisonnable ?Antoine Danchin - 2023 - Raison Présente 228 (4):35-43.
    Anticiper les épidémies est le souhait le plus vif de toutes les institutions qui veillent sur la santé publique. Un raisonnement naïf permet de penser qu’il suffit de faire évoluer en laboratoire un organisme potentiellement pathogène pour savoir comment sa descendance pourra devenir plus virulente pour l’homme. Il est alors facile de faire croître cet organisme sur des cellules humaines, qu’il infecte mal pour commencer, puis de retenir ses descendants au fur et à mesure qu’ils deviennent plus infectieux. La vision (...)
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  10. La guerre biologique au temps de la biologie synthétique.Antoine Danchin - 2023 - Raison Présente 225 (1):47-56.
    Dans un monde dominé par les conflits, il arrive qu’il faille se défendre. L’invention des armes a évolué en parallèle avec le savoir technique, puis scientifique, et il est même arrivé que la recherche d’applications militaires ait joué un rôle moteur dans la découverte scientifique. Lorsque les armes ne servent pas à attaquer d’autres nations, leur fabrication et leur commerce se justifient morale- ment. Il faut cependant qu’elles ne puissent échapper à ceux qui les construisent et doivent en contrôler la (...)
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  11. Ethics of AI-Enabled Weapons and Just Preparation for War.Jovana Davidovic - 2023 - Babl Ai Reports and Stockdale Debates.
  12. The Weaponization of Artificial Intelligence: What The Public Needs to be Aware of.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2023 - Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence 6 (1154184):1-6..
    Technological progress has brought about the emergence of machines that have the capacity to take human lives without human control. These represent an unprecedented threat to humankind. This paper starts from the example of chemical weapons, now banned worldwide by the Geneva protocol, to illustrate how technological development initially aimed at the benefit of humankind has, ultimately, produced what is now called the “Weaponization of Artificial Intelligence (AI)”. Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS) fail the so-called discrimination principle, yet, the wider public (...)
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  13. Why a treaty on autonomous weapons is necessary and feasible.Daan Kayser - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (2):1-5.
    Militairy technology is developing at a rapid pace and we are seeing a growing number of weapons with increasing levels of autonomy being developed and deployed. This raises various legal, ethical, and security concerns. The absence of clear international rules setting limits and governing the use of autonomous weapons is extremely concerning. There is an urgent need for the international community to work together towards a treaty not only to safeguard ethical and legal norms, but also for our shared security. (...)
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  14. Space War and Property Rights.Stephen Kershnar - 2023 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (1):65-85.
    Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. It involves ground-to-space, space-to-ground, and space-to-space violence between nations or peoples. The violence can involve kinetic weapons, directed energy weapons, or electronic destruction. International law, specifically, the Outer Space Treaty and SALT I, currently bans weapons of mass destruction from being put into space, although one wonders if one country were to violate the ban whether others would follow suit. In this paper, I argue that that if there is a (...)
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  15. Role of emotions in responsible military AI.José Kerstholt, Mark Neerincx, Karel van den Bosch, Jason S. Metcalfe & Jurriaan van Diggelen - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-4.
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  16. Responsible reliance concerning development and use of AI in the military domain.Dustin A. Lewis & Vincent Boulanin - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-5.
    In voicing commitments to the principle that the adoption of artificial-intelligence (AI) tools by armed forces should be done responsibly, a growing number of states have referred to a concept of “Responsible AI.” As part of an effort to help develop the substantive contours of that concept in meaningful ways, this position paper introduces a notion of “responsible reliance.” It is submitted that this notion could help the policy conversation expand from its current relatively narrow focus on interactions between an (...)
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  17. Military artificial intelligence as power: consideration for European Union actorness.Justinas Lingevicius - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-13.
    The article focuses on the inconsistency between the European Commission’s position on excluding military AI from its emerging AI policy, and at the same time EU policy initiatives targeted at supporting military and defence elements of AI on the EU level. It leads to the question, what, then, does the debate on military AI suggest to the EU’s actorness discussed in the light of Europe as a power debate with a particular focus on Normative Power Europe, Market Power Europe, and (...)
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  18. African Reasons Why Artificial Intelligence Should Not Maximize Utility (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2023 - In Aribiah Attoe, Samuel Segun, Victor Nweke & John-Bosco Umezurike (eds.), Conversations on African Philosophy of Mind, Consciousness and AI. Springer. pp. 139-152.
    Reprint of a chapter first appearing in African Values, Ethics, and Technology: Questions, Issues, and Approaches (2021).
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  19. Governing (ir)responsibilities for future military AI systems.Liselotte Polderman - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-4.
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  20. The irresponsibility of not using AI in the military.M. Postma, E. O. Postma, R. H. A. Lindelauf & H. W. Meerveld - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-6.
    The ongoing debate on the ethics of using artificial intelligence (AI) in military contexts has been negatively impacted by the predominant focus on the use of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) in war. However, AI technologies have a considerably broader scope and present opportunities for decision support optimization across the entire spectrum of the military decision-making process (MDMP). These opportunities cannot be ignored. Instead of mainly focusing on the risks of the use of AI in target engagement, the debate about (...)
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  21. Killer Robots and Inauthenticity: A Heideggerian Response to the Ethical Challenge Posed by Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems.Ashley Roden-Bow - 2023 - Conatus 8 (2):477-486.
    This paper addresses the ethical challenges raised by the use of lethal autonomous weapons systems. Using aspects of the philosophy of Martin Heidegger, the paper demonstrates that lethal autonomous weapons systems create ethical problems because of the lack of moral agency in an autonomous system, and the inauthentic nature of the deaths caused by such a system. The paper considers potential solutions for these issues before arguing that from a Heideggerian standpoint they cannot be overcome, and thus the development and (...)
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  22. Model of a military autonomous device following International Humanitarian Law.Tom van Engers, Jonathan Kwik & Tomasz Zurek - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-12.
    In this paper we introduce a computational control framework that can keep AI-driven military autonomous devices operating within the boundaries set by applicable rules of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) related to targeting. We discuss the necessary legal tests and variables, and introduce the structure of a hypothetical IHL-compliant targeting system.
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  23. Prospects for the global governance of autonomous weapons: comparing Chinese, Russian, and US practices.Tom F. A. Watts, Guangyu Qiao-Franco, Anna Nadibaidze, Hendrik Huelss & Ingvild Bode - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-15.
    Technological developments in the sphere of artificial intelligence (AI) inspire debates about the implications of autonomous weapon systems (AWS), which can select and engage targets without human intervention. While increasingly more systems which could qualify as AWS, such as loitering munitions, are reportedly used in armed conflicts, the global discussion about a system of governance and international legal norms on AWS at the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (UN CCW) has stalled. In this article we argue for the (...)
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  24. Autonomous weapon systems and responsibility gaps: a taxonomy.Nathan Gabriel Wood - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-14.
    A classic objection to autonomous weapon systems (AWS) is that these could create so-called responsibility gaps, where it is unclear who should be held responsible in the event that an AWS were to violate some portion of the law of armed conflict (LOAC). However, those who raise this objection generally do so presenting it as a problem for AWS as a whole class of weapons. Yet there exists a rather wide range of systems that can be counted as “autonomous weapon (...)
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  25. AWS compliance with the ethical principle of proportionality: three possible solutions.Maciek Zając - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-13.
    The ethical Principle of Proportionality requires combatants not to cause collateral harm excessive in comparison to the anticipated military advantage of an attack. This principle is considered a major (and perhaps insurmountable) obstacle to ethical use of autonomous weapon systems (AWS). This article reviews three possible solutions to the problem of achieving Proportionality compliance in AWS. In doing so, I describe and discuss the three components Proportionality judgments, namely collateral damage estimation, assessment of anticipated military advantage, and judgment of “excessiveness”. (...)
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  26. The need for and nature of a normative, cultural psychology of weaponized AI (artificial intelligence).Qin Zhu, Ingvild Bode & Rockwell Clancy - 2023 - Ethics and Information Technology 25 (1):1-6.
    The use of AI in weapons systems raises numerous ethical issues. To date, work on weaponized AI has tended to be theoretical and normative in nature, consisting in critical policy analyses and ethical considerations, carried out by philosophers, legal scholars, and political scientists. However, adequately addressing the cultural and social dimensions of technology requires insights and methods from empirical moral and cultural psychology. To do so, this position piece describes the motivations for and sketches the nature of a normative, cultural (...)
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  27. Varieties of Artificial Moral Agency and the New Control Problem.Marcus Arvan - 2022 - Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 15 (42):225-256.
    This paper presents a new trilemma with respect to resolving the control and alignment problems in machine ethics. Section 1 outlines three possible types of artificial moral agents (AMAs): (1) 'Inhuman AMAs' programmed to learn or execute moral rules or principles without understanding them in anything like the way that we do; (2) 'Better-Human AMAs' programmed to learn, execute, and understand moral rules or principles somewhat like we do, but correcting for various sources of human moral error; and (3) 'Human-Like (...)
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  28. Sobre a eficiência da ética como ferramenta de governança da inteligência artificial.Nicholas Kluge Corrêa, Nythamar Fernandes de Oliveira & Diogo Fernando Massmann - 2022 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 67 (1):e42584.
    A 4ª Revolução Industrial é o culminar da era digital. Atualmente, tecnologias como robótica, nanotecnologia, genética e inteligência artificial prometem transformar nosso mundo e a maneira como vivemos. O campo da Segurança e da Ética da Inteligência Artificial são áreas de pesquisa emergentes que vêm ganhando popularidade nos últimos anos. Diversas organizações de cunho privado, público e não governamentais têm publicado diretrizes propondo princípios éticos para a regulamentação do uso e desenvolvimento de sistemas inteligentes autônomos. Meta-análises do campo de pesquisa (...)
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  29. Artificial intelligence and responsibility gaps: what is the problem?Peter Königs - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3):1-11.
    Recent decades have witnessed tremendous progress in artificial intelligence and in the development of autonomous systems that rely on artificial intelligence. Critics, however, have pointed to the difficulty of allocating responsibility for the actions of an autonomous system, especially when the autonomous system causes harm or damage. The highly autonomous behavior of such systems, for which neither the programmer, the manufacturer, nor the operator seems to be responsible, has been suspected to generate responsibility gaps. This has been the cause of (...)
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  30. Problems of Using Autonomous Military AI Against the Background of Russia's Military Aggression Against Ukraine.Oleksii Kostenko, Tyler Jaynes, Dmytro Zhuravlov, Oleksii Dniprov & Yana Usenko - 2022 - Baltic Journal of Legal and Social Sciences 2022 (4):131-145.
    The application of modern technologies with artificial intelligence (AI) in all spheres of human life is growing exponentially alongside concern for its controllability. The lack of public, state, and international control over AI technologies creates large-scale risks of using such software and hardware that (un)intentionally harm humanity. The events of recent month and years, specifically regarding the Russian Federation’s war against its democratic neighbour Ukraine and other international conflicts of note, support the thesis that the uncontrolled use of AI, especially (...)
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  31. Autonomous Weapon Systems in Just War Theory perspective. Maciej - 2022 - Dissertation,
    Please contact me at [email protected] if you are interested in reading a particular chapter or being sent the entire manuscript for private use. -/- The thesis offers a comprehensive argument in favor of a regulationist approach to autonomous weapon systems (AWS). AWS, defined as all military robots capable of selecting or engaging targets without direct human involvement, are an emerging and potentially deeply transformative military technology subject to very substantial ethical controversy. AWS have both their enthusiasts and their detractors, prominently (...)
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  32. Preventing another Mosul Unmanned Weapon Platforms as the Solution to the Tragedy of a Hostage Siege. Maciej - 2022 - In Dragan Stanar and Kristina Tonn (ed.), The Ethics of Urban Warfare City and War. pp. 153-171.
    The 2016-17 Iraqi offensive that recaptured the city of Mosul from the Islamic State have demonstrated the inability of contemporary armed forces to retake urban areas from a determined and ruthless enemy without either suffering debilitating casualties or causing thousands of civilian deaths and virtually destroying the city itself. The enemy’s willingness to refuse civilian evacuation via a humanitarian corridor and effectively take the inhabitants hostage is all it takes to impose this tragic dilemma on an attacking force. The civilian (...)
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  33. Designed for Death: Controlling Killer Robots.Steven Umbrello - 2022 - Budapest: Trivent Publishing.
    Autonomous weapons systems, often referred to as ‘killer robots’, have been a hallmark of popular imagination for decades. However, with the inexorable advance of artificial intelligence systems (AI) and robotics, killer robots are quickly becoming a reality. These lethal technologies can learn, adapt, and potentially make life and death decisions on the battlefield with little-to-no human involvement. This naturally leads to not only legal but ethical concerns as to whether we can meaningful control such machines, and if so, then how. (...)
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  34. Beyond Deadlock: Low Hanging Fruit and Strict yet Available Options in AWS Regulation.Maciej Zając - 2022 - Journal of Ethics and Emerging Technologies 2 (32):1-14.
    Efforts to ban Autonomous Weapon Systems were both unsuccessful and controversial. Simultaneously the need to address the detrimental aspects of AWS development and proliferation continues to grow in scope and urgency. The article presents several regulatory solutions capable of addressing the issue while simultaneously respecting the requirements of military necessity and so attracting a broad consensus. Two much stricter solutions – regional AWS bans and adoption of a no first use policy – are also presented as fallback strategies in case (...)
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  35. Not Even Close to a (Fair) Fight: Technology and the Future of War.Jennifer Kling - 2021 - Philosophical Journal of Conflict and Violence 5 (1):1-17.
    The exponential expansion and advancement of wartime technology has the potential to wipe out ‘war’ as a meaningful category. Assuming that the creation of new wartime technologies continues to accelerate, it could soon be the case that there will no longer be wars, but rather mass killings, slaughters, or genocides. This is because the concept of ‘war’ entails that opposing sides either will, or are able to, fight back against one another to some recognizable degree. In fact, this is one (...)
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  36. The Automation of Authority: Discrepancies with Jus Ad Bellum Principles.Donovan Phillips - 2021 - In Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Re-Examining the Law and Ethics of Robotic Warfare. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 159-172.
    This chapter considers how the adoption of autonomous weapons systems (AWS) may affect jus ad bellum principles of warfare. In particular, it focuses on the use of AWS in non-international armed conflicts (NIAC). Given the proliferation of NIAC, the development and use of AWS will most likely be attuned to this specific theater of war. As warfare waged by modernized liberal democracies (those most likely to develop and employ AWS at present) increasingly moves toward a model of individualized warfare, how, (...)
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  37. Künstliche Intelligenz: Fluch oder Segen?Jens Kipper - 2020 - Metzler.
    Künstliche Intelligenz (KI) ist heute schon ein fester Bestandteil unseres Lebens, auch wenn sie oft im Verborgenen wirkt. Wo wird diese Entwicklung hinführen und was wird das für uns bedeuten? Jens Kipper erklärt, wie moderne KI funktioniert, was sie heute schon kann und welche Auswirkungen ihre Verwendung in Waffensystemen, in der Medizin und Wissenschaft, im Arbeitsleben und anderswo haben wird. Kipper argumentiert dafür, dass die Entwicklung von KI zu großen gesellschaftlichen Umwälzungen führen wird. Er erläutert zudem, wovon es abhängt, dass (...)
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  38. Towards broadening the perspective on lethal autonomous weapon systems ethics and regulations.Diego Andres Salcedo, Bianca Ximenes & Geber Ramalho - 2020 - In Rio Seminar on Autonomous Weapons Systems. Brasília: Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation. pp. 133-158.
    Our reflections on LAWS issues are the result of the work of our research group on AI and ethics at the Informatics Center in partnership with the Information Science Department, both from the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil. In particular, our propositions and provocations are tied to Bianca Ximenes’s ongoing doctoral thesis, advised by Prof. Geber Ramalho, from the area of computer science, and co-advised by Prof. Diego Salcedo, from the humanities. Our research group is interested in answering two tricky (...)
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  39. No Right To Mercy - Making Sense of Arguments From Dignity in the Lethal Autonomous Weapons Debate.Maciej Zając - 2020 - Etyka 59 (1):134-55.
    Arguments from human dignity feature prominently in the Lethal Autonomous Weapons moral feasibility debate, even though their exists considerable controversy over their role and soundness and the notion of dignity remains under-defined. Drawing on the work of Dieter Birnbacher, I fix the sub-discourse as referring to the essential value of human persons in general, and to postulated moral rights of combatants not covered within the existing paradigm of the International Humanitarian Law in particular. I then review and critique dignity-based arguments (...)
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  40. Machine Ethics and Robot Ethics.Wendell Wallach & Peter Asaro - 2016 - Routledge.
    Once the stuff of science fiction, recent progress in artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning means that these rapidly advancing technologies are finally coming into widespread use within everyday life. Such rapid development in these areas also brings with it a host of social, political and legal issues, as well as a rise in public concern and academic interest in the ethical challenges these new technologies pose. This volume is a collection of scholarly work from leading figures in the development (...)
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  41. Intending to err: the ethical challenge of lethal, autonomous systems. [REVIEW]Mark S. Swiatek - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (4):241-254.
    Current precursors in the development of lethal, autonomous systems (LAS) point to the use of biometric devices for assessing, identifying, and verifying targets. The inclusion of biometric devices entails the use of a probabilistic matching program that requires the deliberate targeting of noncombatants as a statistically necessary function of the system. While the tactical employment of the LAS may be justified on the grounds that the deliberate killing of a smaller number of noncombatants is better than the accidental killing of (...)
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  42. The cubicle warrior: the marionette of digitalized warfare. [REVIEW]Rinie van Est - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):289-296.
    In the last decade we have entered the era of remote controlled military technology. The excitement about this new technology should not mask the ethical questions that it raises. A fundamental ethical question is who may be held responsible for civilian deaths. In this paper we will discuss the role of the human operator or so-called ‘cubicle warrior’, who remotely controls the military robots behind visual interfaces. We will argue that the socio-technical system conditions the cubicle warrior to dehumanize the (...)
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