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  1. Processing adjunct control: Evidence on the use of structural information and prediction in reference resolution.Jeffrey J. Green, Michael McCourt, Ellen Lau & Alexander Williams - 2020 - Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics 5 (1):1-33.
    The comprehension of anaphoric relations may be guided not only by discourse, but also syntactic information. In the literature on online processing, however, the focus has been on audible pronouns and descriptions whose reference is resolved mainly on the former. This paper examines one relation that both lacks overt exponence, and relies almost exclusively on syntax for its resolution: adjunct control, or the dependency between the null subject of a non-finite adjunct and its antecedent in sentences such as Mickey talked (...)
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  2. Linguistic Luck beyond Loar Cases.Axel Barceló - manuscript
  3. Who Is Afraid of Truth Gaps? Wittgenstein and Kripke on the Standard Meter.Jakub Mácha - 2023 - In Martin Gustafsson, Oskari Kuusela & Jakub Mácha (eds.), Engaging Kripke with Wittgenstein: The Standard Meter, Contingent Apriori, and Beyond. New York: Routledge. pp. 127-140.
  4. Conant, James and Chakraborty, Sanjit (eds.), Engaging Putnam. Berlin: De Gruyter 2022, pp. viii + 372. [REVIEW]Pietro Salis - 2023 - Argumenta (17):217-222.
  5. Truth and Imprecision.Josh Armstrong - forthcoming - Analytic Philosophy.
    Our ordinary assertions are often imprecise, insofar as the way we represent things as being only approximates how things are in the actual world. The phenomenon of assertoric imprecision raises a challenge to standard accounts of both the norm of assertion and the connection between semantics and the objects of assertion. After clarifying these problems in detail, I develop a framework for resolving them. Specifically, I argue that the phenomenon of assertoric imprecision motivates a rejection of the widely held belief (...)
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  6. Apulian Qualitative Binominal Noun Phrases.Angelapia Massaro - 2023 - Italian Journal of Linguistics 35.
    We investigate the morphosyntax of qualitative binominal constructions (QBCs) in a Southern Italo-Romance language from the Apulian town of San Marco in Lamis. QBCs are complex noun phrases like ‘a jewelN1 of a villageN2’, appearing here prepositionally (with the preposition də, ‘of’, allowing definites, indefinites, and demonstratives) and non-prepositionally (only allowing definites with definite articles and not proper names). We propose that in the latter, a categorial match in the determiner layer, which we call ‘match D’, relates N1 and N2. (...)
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  7. Referential Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
  8. Arbitrary reference, numbers, and propositions.Michele Palmira - 2018 - European Journal of Philosophy 26 (3):1069-1085.
    Reductionist realist accounts of certain entities, such as the natural numbers and propositions, have been taken to be fatally undermined by what we may call the problem of arbitrary identification. The problem is that there are multiple and equally adequate reductions of the natural numbers to sets (see Benacerraf, 1965), as well as of propositions to unstructured or structured entities (see, e.g., Bealer, 1998; King, Soames, & Speaks, 2014; Melia, 1992). This paper sets out to solve the problem by canvassing (...)
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  9. A puzzle about demonstratives and semantic competence.Jeff Speaks - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (3):709-734.
    My aim in this paper is to lay out a number of theses which are very widely held in contemporary philosophy of language and linguistics, and to argue that, given some extra theses for which I’ll argue, they are inconsistent. Some of this will involve going through some very well-trodden territory—my hope is that presenting this familiar ground in the way that I do will help to make plain the problem that I aim to identify.
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  10. Sainsbury on Thinking about an Object.Tim Crane - 2008 - Critica 40 (120):85-95.
    R.M. Sainsbury's account of reference has many compelling and attractive features. But it has the undesirable consequence that sentences of the form "x is thinking about y" can never be true when y is replaced by a non-referring term. Of the two obvious ways to deal with this problem within Sainsbury's framework, I reject one and endorse the other. This endorsement is also within the spirit of Sainsbury's account of reference. /// La explicación que ofrece R.M. Sainsbury de la referencia (...)
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  11. Rigid Designation and Anaphoric Theories of Reference.Michael P. Wolf - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 130 (2):351-375.
    Few philosophers today doubt the importance of some notion of rigid designation, as suggested by Kripke and Putnam for names and natural kind terms. At the very least, most of us want our theories to be compatible with the most plausible elements of that account. Anaphoric theories of reference have gained some attention lately, but little attention has been given to how they square with rigid designation. Although the differences between anaphoric theories and many interpretations of the New Theory of (...)
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  12. Rigid Designators for Properties.Joseph LaPorte - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 130 (2):321-336.
    Here I defend the position that some singular terms for properties are rigid designators, responding to Stephen P. Schwartz’s interesting criticisms of that position. First, I argue that my position does not depend on ontological parsimony with respect to properties – e.g., there is no need to claim that there are only natural properties – to get around the problem of “unusual properties.” Second, I argue that my position does not confuse sameness of meaning across possible worlds with sameness of (...)
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  13. Précis of Beyond Rigidity.Scott Soames - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 128 (3):645-654.
    Beyond Rigidity is divided into two parts. Part 1 is devoted to the semantics and pragmatics of names, and the sentences, including attitude ascriptions, that contain them. In part 2, the model developed in part 1 is extended to natural kind terms, and simple predicates in which they occur. The model is then used to explain the necessity of certain aposteriori statements containing such predicates.
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  14. Rigid Application.Michael Devitt - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 125 (2):139-165.
    Kripke defines a rigid designator as one that designates the same object in every possible world in which that object exists. He argues that proper names are rigid. So also, he claims, are various natural kind terms. But we wonder how they could be. These terms are general and it is not obvious that they designate at all. It has been proposed that these kind terms rigidly designate abstract objects. This proposal has been criticized because all terms then seem to (...)
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  15. Property Designators, Predicates, and Rigidity.Benjamin Sebastian Schnieder - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 122 (3):227-241.
    The article discusses an idea of how to extend the notion of rigidity to predicates, namely the idea that predicates stand in a certain systematic semantic relation to properties, such that this relation may hold rigidly or nonrigidly. The relation (which I call signification) can be characterised by recourse to canonical property designators which are derived from predicates (or general terms) by means of nominalization: a predicate signifies that property which the derived property designator designates. Whether signification divides into rigid (...)
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  16. Reference And Anaphora.R. M. Sainsbury - 2002 - Noûs 36 (s16):43-71.
  17. Proto-Rigidity.Jussi Haukioja - 2006 - Synthese 150 (2):155-169.
    What is it for a predicate or a general term to be a rigid designator? Two strategies for answering this question can be found in the literature, but both run into severe difficulties. In this paper, it is suggested that proper names and the usual examples of rigid predicates share a semantic feature which does the theoretical work usually attributed to rigidity. This feature cannot be equated with rigidity, but in the case of singular terms this feature entails their rigidity, (...)
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  18. Reassessing Referential Indeterminacy.Christian Nimtz - 2005 - Erkenntnis 62 (1):1-28.
    Quine and Davidson employ proxy functions to demonstrate that the use of language (behaviouristically conceived) is compatible with indefinitely many radically different reference relations. They also believe that the use of language (behaviouristically conceived) is all that determines reference. From this they infer that reference is indeterminate, i.e. that there are no facts of the matter as to what singular terms designate and what predicates apply to. Yet referential indeterminacy yields rather dire consequences. One thus does wonder whether one can (...)
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  19. Reference and Reflexivity.John Perry - 2001 - Stanford, Calif.: Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
    Following his recently expanded _The Problem of the Essential Indexical and Other Essays,_ John Perry develops a reflexive-referential' account of indexicals, demonstratives and proper names. On these issues the philosophy of language in the twentieth century was shaped by two competing traditions, descriptivist and referentialist. Oddly, the classic referentialist texts of the 1970s by Kripke, Donnellan, Kaplan and others were seemingly refuted almost a century earlier by co-reference and no-reference problems raised by Russell and Frege. Perry's theory, borrowing ideas from (...)
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  20. A Unified Treatment of (Pro-) Nominals in Ordinary English.Jessica Pepp, Joseph Almog & Nichols Paul - 2015 - In Andrea Bianchi (ed.), On Reference. Oxford University Press.
  21. Simple Sentences, Substitutions, and Mistaken Evaluations.David Braun & Jennifer Saul - 2002 - Philosophical Studies 111 (1):1 - 41.
    Many competent speakers initially judge that (i) is true and (ii) isfalse, though they know that (iii) is true. (i) Superman leaps more tallbuildings than Clark Kent. (ii) Superman leaps more tall buildings thanSuperman. (iii) Superman is identical with Clark Kent. Semanticexplanations of these intuitions say that (i) and (ii) really can differin truth-value. Pragmatic explanations deny this, and say that theintuitions are due to misleading implicatures. This paper argues thatboth explanations are incorrect. (i) and (ii) cannot differ intruth-value, yet (...)
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  22. Dąmbska, Quine, and the So-Called Empty Names.Michele Marsonet - 1998 - In Katarzyna Kijania-Placek & Jan Woleński (eds.), The Lvov-Warsaw School and Contemporary Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 191--198.
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  23. Referentialism and empty names.Anthony Everett - 2000 - In T. Hofweber & A. Everett (eds.), Empty Names, Fiction, and the Puzzles of Non-Existence. CSLI Publications. pp. 37--60.
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  24. Semantic realism, rigid designation, and dynamic semantics.Alice G. B. ter Meulen - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):85-86.
    Semantic realism fits Millikan's account of kind terms in its focus on information-theoretic abilities and strategic ways of gathering information in human communication. Instead of the traditional logical necessity, we should interpret rigid designation in a dynamic semantics as a legislative act to constrain possible ways in which our belief may change.
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  25. Crossover Situations.Daniel Büring - 2004 - Natural Language Semantics 12 (1):23-62.
    Situation semantics as conceived in Kratzer (1989) has been shown to be a valuable companion to the e-type pronoun analysis of donkey sentences (Heim 1990, and recently refined in Elbourne 2001b), and more generally binding out of DP (BOOD; Tomioka 1999; Büring 2001). The present paper proposes a fully compositional version of such a theory, which is designed to capture instances of crossover in BOOD.
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  26. Two types of donkey sentences.Lisa L. S. Cheng & C. T. James Huang - 1996 - Natural Language Semantics 4 (2):121-163.
    Mandarin Chinese exhibits two paradigms of conditionals with indefinite wh-words that have the semantics of donkey sentences, represented by ‘bare conditionals’ on the one hand and ruguo- and dou-conditionals on the other. The bare conditionals require multiple occurrences of wh-words, disallowing the use of overt or covert anaphoric elements in the consequent clause, whereas the ruguo- and dou-conditionals present a completely opposite pattern. We argue that the bare conditionals are cases of unselective binding par excellence (Heim 1982, Kamp 1981) while (...)
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  27. Spanish Imperfecto and Pretérito: Truth Conditions and Aktionsart Effects in a Situation Semantics. [REVIEW]Alicia Cipria & Craige Roberts - 2000 - Natural Language Semantics 8 (4):297-347.
    Spanish verbs display two past-tense forms, the pret´rito and the imperfecto. We offer an account of the semantics of these forms within a situation semantics, addressing a number of theoretically interesting questions about how to realize a semantics for tense and events in that type of framework. We argue that each of these forms is unambiguous, and that the apparent variety of readings attested for them derives from interaction with other factors in the course of interpretation. The meaning of the (...)
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  28. Quantification and Fictional Discourse.Peter van Inwagen - 2000 - In Empty Names, Fiction and the Puzzles of Non-Existence.
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  29. Ontology, Reference, and the Qua Problem: Amie Thomasson on Existence.Andrea Sauchelli - 2013 - Axiomathes 23 (3):543-550.
    I argue that Amie Thomasson’s recent theory of the methodology to be applied to find the truth-conditions for claims of existence faces serious objections. Her account is based on Devitt and Sterelny’s solution to the qua problem for theories of reference fixing; however, such a solution cannot be also applied to analyze existential claims.
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  30. Frege's Paradox of Reference and Castañeda's Guise Theory.Jig-Chuen Lee - 1984 - Philosophical Studies 46 (3):403 - 415.
  31. Logic and natural language: On plural reference and its semantic and logical significance, by Hanoch Ben-Yami (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004).Hans-Johann Glock - 2007 - Language and Communication 27 (1):28-40.
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  32. Reference without Referents, by R. M. Sainsbury. [REVIEW]Peter Hanks - 2006 - Disputatio 1 (20):368-374.
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  33. On Reference and Predication.Ronald Scales - 1975 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 1 (1):87-100.
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  34. Nazwy puste u Tadeusza Kotarbińskiego.Aleksandra Horecka - 2007 - Filozofia Nauki 1.
    The paper deals with the concept of empty name in the theory of Tadeusz Kotarbiński - one of the representatives of Lvov-Warsaw School. The aim of the article is to reconstruct Kotarbinski's definition of empty names, his thesis concerning structure and connotation of empty names, his interpretation of categorical sentence with empty names and to point out problems which arise in consequence of these theories. Only same expressions regarded traditionally as empty names are empty names according to Kotarbinski, e.g. "son (...)
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  35. Wright and Casalegno on Meaning and Assertibility.Timothy Williamson - 2012 - Dialectica 66 (2):267-271.
    In Crispin Wright's ‘Meaning and Assertibility’, the main point of disagreement with Paolo Casalegno's critique of verificationist semantics in ‘The Problem of Non-conclusiveness’ concerns Wright's diagnosis of one of Casalegno's arguments as depending on an over-estimation of the proper explanatory task of a semantic theory. The present note argues that there is no such dependence.
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  36. Objectivity Without Objects.Eli Hirsch - 2000 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 5:189-197.
    We can describe languages in which no words refer to objects. Such languages may contain sentences equivalent to any sentences of English, and hence may allow for as much objectivity as English does. It is wrong to try to deal with such languages by claiming that there are more objects than those accepted by common sense ontology. The correct move is rather to acknowledge a sense in which the concept of an object might have been different. A consequence of this (...)
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  37. Gödel, Escher, Bach. [REVIEW]J. Benardete - 1979 - Review of Metaphysics 33 (1):181-182.
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  38. Underspecification of Cognitive Status in Reference Production: Some Empirical Predictions.Jeanette K. Gundel, Nancy Hedberg & Ron Zacharski - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):249-268.
    Within the Givenness Hierarchy framework of Gundel, Hedberg, and Zacharski (1993), lexical items included in referring forms are assumed to conventionally encode two kinds of information: conceptual information about the speaker’s intended referent and procedural information about the assumed cognitive status of that referent in the mind of the addressee, the latter encoded by various determiners and pronouns. This article focuses on effects of underspecification of cognitive status, establishing that, although salience and accessibility play an important role in reference processing, (...)
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  39. To Name or to Describe: Shared Knowledge Affects Referential Form.Daphna Heller, Kristen S. Gorman & Michael K. Tanenhaus - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):290-305.
    The notion of common ground is important for the production of referring expressions: In order for a referring expression to be felicitous, it has to be based on shared information. But determining what information is shared and what information is privileged may require gathering information from multiple sources, and constantly coordinating and updating them, which might be computationally too intensive to affect the earliest moments of production. Previous work has found that speakers produce overinformative referring expressions, which include privileged names, (...)
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  40. Alignment in Interactive Reference Production: Content Planning, Modifier Ordering, and Referential Overspecification.Martijn Goudbeek & Emiel Krahmer - 2012 - Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (2):269-289.
    Psycholinguistic studies often look at the production of referring expressions in interactive settings, but so far few referring expression generation algorithms have been developed that are sensitive to earlier references in an interaction. Rather, such algorithms tend to rely on domain-dependent preferences for both content selection and linguistic realization. We present three experiments showing that humans may opt for dispreferred attributes and dispreferred modifier orderings when these were primed in a preceding interaction (without speakers being consciously aware of this). In (...)
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  41. Analyticity and direct reference.Jeff Speaks - manuscript
    Comments on one of the main lines of argument in Gillian Russell's excellent _Truth in Virtue of Meaning_.
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  42. Calling names.J. Biro - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):285-293.
    Many who agree with Kripke that ‘sloppy, colloquial speech’ often confuses use and mention would deem ‘ a is called N’ an example of such confusion, insisting on ‘ a is called "N"’ as the properly philosophical, un-sloppy, way of saying what is usually intended. Delia Graff Fara demurs – in my view, rightly. But the reasons she gives for doing so are, I think, themselves questionable and in any case do not go to the heart of the mistake on (...)
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  43. Reply to Forbes.K. Gluer & P. Pagin - 2012 - Analysis 72 (2):298-303.
    In earlier work (Glüer, K. and P. Pagin. 2006. Proper names and relational modality. Linguistics & Philosophy 29: 507–35; Glüer, K. and P. Pagin. 2008. Relational modality. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17: 307–22), we developed a semantics for (metaphysical) modal operators that accommodates Kripkean intuitions about proper names in modal contexts even if names are not rigid designators. Graeme Forbes (2011. The problem of factives for sense theories. Analysis 71: 654–62.) criticizes our proposal. He argues that our semantics (...)
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  44. Description, Disagreement, and Fictional Names.Peter Alward - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (3):423-448.
    In this paper, a theory of the contents of fictional names — names of fictional people, places, etc. — will be developed.1 The fundamental datum that must be addressed by such a theory is that fictional names are, in an important sense, empty: the entities to which they putatively refer do not exist.2 Nevertheless, they make substantial contributions to the truth conditions of sentences in which they occur. Not only do such sentences have truth conditions, sentences differing only in the (...)
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  45. Ontological Commitments, Thick and Thin.Harold T. Hodes - 1990 - In George Boolos (ed.), Method, Reason and Language: Essays in Honor of Hilary Putnam. Cambridge University Press. pp. 235-260.
    Discourse carries thin commitment to objects of a certain sort iff it says or implies that there are such objects. It carries a thick commitment to such objects iff an account of what determines truth-values for its sentences say or implies that there are such objects. This paper presents two model-theoretic semantics for mathematical discourse, one reflecting thick commitment to mathematical objects, the other reflecting only a thin commitment to them. According to the latter view, for example, the semantic role (...)
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  46. Impure reference: A way around the concept horse paradox.Fraser MacBride - 2011 - Philosophical Perspectives 25 (1):297-312.
    This paper provides a new solution to the concept horse paradox. Frege argued no name co-refers with a predicate because no name can be inter-substituted with a predicate. This led Frege to embrace the paradox of the concept horse. But Frege got it wrong because predicates are impurely referring expressions and we shouldn’t expect impurely referring expressions to be intersubstitutable even if they co-refer, because the contexts in which they occur are sensitive to the extra information they carry about their (...)
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  47. Referring, Demonstrating, and Intending.Rod Bertholet - 1986 - Philosophy Research Archives 12:251-260.
    Demonstratives have been thought to provide counterexamples to theories which analyze the notion of speaker reference in terms of the intentions of the speaker. This paper is a response to three attempts to undermine my efforts to defend such theories against these putative counterexamples. It is argued that the efforts of Howard Wettstein, M. J. More and John L. Biro to show that my own attempt to defuse the putative counterexamples offered by David Kaplan fails, are themselves unsuccessful. The competing (...)
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  48. Inostensible Reference and Conceptual Curiosity.Ilhan Inan - 2010 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):21-41.
    A lot has been said about how the notion of reference relates to the notion of knowledge; not much has been said, however, on how the notion of referencerelates to our ability to become aware of what we do not know that allows us to be curious. In this essay I attempt to spell out a certain type of reference I call ‘inostensible’ that I claim to be a fundamental linguistic tool which allows us to become curious of what we (...)
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  49. On Phrasal Pragmatics and What is Descriptively Referred to.Esther Romero & Belén Soria - 2010 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):63-84.
    In this paper, we discuss contextualism, a philosophical position that some pragmatists have endorsed as a result of the philosophical reflection on pragmatics as a science. In particular, we challenge, from the results on phrasal pragmatics, the contextualist approach on incomplete definite descriptions and referential metonymy according to which optional pragmatic processes of interpretation are required (an optional pragmatic process of recovering unarticulated constituents for incompleteness and an optional pragmatic process of transfer for metonymy). By contrast, we argue from the (...)
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  50. Multiple Groundings and Deference.Antonio Rauti - 2012 - Philosophical Quarterly 62 (247):317-336.
    The idea that reference is multiply grounded allows causal-historical theories of reference to account for reference change. It also threatens the stability of reference in light of widespread error and confusion. I describe the problem, so far unrecognised, and provide a solution based on the phenomenon of semantic deference, which I differentiate from reference-borrowing. I conclude that deference has an authentic foundational semantic role to play.
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