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  1. The Problem of Evil.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    The existence of evil, pain and suffering is considered by many philosophers to be the most vexed question concerning the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient and morally perfect deity. Why would a loving God permit wanton acts of cruelty and misery on the scale witnessed throughout human history? In this essay, Leslie Allan evaluates four common theistic responses to this problem, highlighting the benefits and challenges faced by each approach. He concludes with a critical examination of a theistic defence designed (...)
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  2. God is NOT Hidden.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    In this paper I argue that there is no problem of Divine Hiddenness for Christians and offer an alternate explanation for the widespread claim that God's existence is hidden based on the Christian doctrine of Original Sin.
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  3. The asymmetry in Tobia's modal arguments.Jude Arnout Durieux - manuscript
    In Tobia (2016), Kevin P. Tobia tests for bias using two ontological arguments claimed to be symmetrical and of equal strength. We show they are neither.
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  4. The End of the Teapot Argument for Atheism (and All Its Tawdry Imitators).Mark Sharlow - manuscript
    Atheists sometimes use Bertrand Russell's teapot argument, and its variants with other objects in place of the teapot, to argue for the rationality of atheism. In this paper I show that this use of the teapot argument and its variants is unacceptably circular. The circularity arises because there is indirect evidence against the objects invoked in the arguments.
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  5. Should Atheists Wish That There Were No Gratuitous Evil?Guy Kahane - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy.
    Many atheists argue that because gratuitous evil exists, God (probably) doesn’t. But doesn’t this commit atheists to wishing that God did exist, and to the protheist view that the world would have been better had God existed? This doesn’t follow. I argue that if all that evil still remains but is just no longer gratuitous, then, from an atheist perspective, that wouldn’t have been better. And while a counterfactual from which that evil is literally absent would have been impersonally better, (...)
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  6. Why It Is Difficult To Defend the Plantinga‐Type Ontological Argument.Jacobus Erasmus - 2022 - Heythrop Journal 63 (2):196-209.
    The Heythrop Journal, Volume 63, Issue 2, Page 196-209, March 2022.
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  7. Bringing Good Even Out of Evil: Thomism and the Problem of Evil.B. Kyle Keltz - 2022 - New York, NY, USA: Lexington Books.
    The question of whether the existence of evil in the world is compatible with the existence of an all-knowing, all-powerful, all-good God has been debated for centuries. Many have addressed classical arguments from evil, and while recent scholarship in analytic philosophy of religion has produced newer formulations of the problem, most of these newer formulations rely on a conception of God that is not held by all theists. In Bringing Good Even Out of Evil: Thomism and the Problem of Evil, (...)
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  8. Against the Fundamental‐Reading of Anselm's Account of Omnipresence.Matthew James Collier - 2021 - Heythrop Journal 62 (4):680-690.
  9. No-Fault Unbelief.Roberto Di Ceglie - 2021 - Sophia 60 (1):91-101.
    ‘No-fault unbelief’ can be named the view that there are those who do not believe in God through no moral or intellectual fault of their own. This view opposes a more traditional one, which can be named ‘flawed unbelief’ view, according to which religious unbelief signals a cognitive or moral flaw in the non-believer. Since this charge of mental or moral flaw causes a certain uneasiness, I oppose the former view, i.e. ‘no-fault unbelief’, with a strategy that has nothing to (...)
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  10. Aspirational theism and gratuitous suffering.Jimmy Alfonso Licon - 2021 - Religious Studies 57 (2):287-300.
    Philosophers have long wondered whether God exists; and yet, they have ignored the question of whether we should hope that He exists – call this stance aspirational theism. In this article, I argue that we have a weighty pro tanto reason to adopt this stance: theism offers a metaphysical guarantee against gratuitous suffering. On the other hand, few atheist alternatives offer such a guarantee – and even then, there are reasons to worry that they are inferior to the theistic alternative. (...)
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  11. The intoxicating effects of conciliatory omniscience.David McElhoes - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (7):2151-2167.
    The coherence of omniscience is sometimes challenged using self-referential sentences like, “No omniscient entity knows that which this very sentence expresses,” which suggest that there are truths which no omniscient entity knows. In this paper, I consider two strategies for addressing these challenges: The Common Strategy, which dismisses such self-referential sentences as meaningless, and The Conciliatory Strategy, which discounts them as quirky outliers with no impact on one’s status as being omniscient. I argue that neither strategy succeeds. The Common Strategy (...)
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  12. Is There a God?: A Debate.Kenneth L. Pearce & Graham Oppy - 2021 - Little Debates About Big Questions.
    Each author first presents his own side, and then they interact through two rounds of objections and replies. Pedagogical features include standard form arguments, section summaries, bolded key terms and principles, a glossary, and annotated reading lists.
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  13. The Void of God, or The Paradox of the Pious Atheism: From Scholem to Derrida.Agata Bielik-Robson - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (2):109-132.
    My essay will take as its point of departure the paragraph from Gershom Scholem’s “Reflections on Jewish Theology,” in which he depicts the modern religious experience as the one of the "void of God" or as "pious atheism". I will first argue that the "void of God" cannot be reduced to atheistic non-belief in the presence of God. Then, I will demonstrate the further development of the Scholemian notion of the ‘pious atheism’ in Derrida, especially in his Lurianic treatment of (...)
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  14. Day shift God, night shift God.Marc Champagne - 2020 - Think 19 (54):81-88.
    It is usually thought that only one being can be all-knowing, all-powerful, and all-loving. Challenging this monotheist conviction, I propose a universe ruled by two deities: ‘day shift God’ oversees the events that occur while the sun is up, whereas ‘night shift God’ oversees the events that occur while the sun is down. I survey objections to this proposal and conclude that the real obstacle is not an argument, but an aesthetic preference.
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  15. Time Travel: Probability and Impossibility.Nikk Effingham - 2020 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    Time travel is metaphysically possible. Nikk Effingham contends that arguments for the impossibility of time travel are not sound. Focusing mainly on the Grandfather Paradox, Effingham explores the ramifications of taking this view, discusses issues in probability and decision theory, and considers the potential dangers of travelling in time.
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  16. What ontological arguments don’t show.Mylan Engel - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):97-114.
    Daniel Dombrowski contends that: a number of versions of the ontological argument [OA] are sound; the deity whose existence is most well established by the OA is the deity picked out by Hartshorne’s neoclassical concept of God; skeptics who insist that the OA only shows that “if God exists, then God exists necessarily” are contradicting themselves, and the OA is worth a great deal since it effectively demonstrates the rationality of theism. I argue that theses and are clearly false and (...)
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  17. Is there a problem of creatio ex nihilo? A reply to Pao-Shen Ho.Jacobus Erasmus - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (2):215-218.
    Pao-Shen Ho attempts to argue that the Christian doctrine of creatio ex nihilo violates modal logic and is necessarily false. More precisely, Ho argues that, if God creates the universe out of nothing, then the non-existence of the universe is both possible and impossible, which is logically incoherent. I point out, however, that Ho commits the modal scope fallacy by confusing the scope of necessity in the argument and, therefore, Ho's argument is unsound.
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  18. Is the God Hypothesis Improbable? A Response to Dawkins.Logan Paul Gage - 2020 - In Kevin Vallier & Joshua Rasmussen (eds.), A New Theist Response to the New Atheists. New York: Routledge. pp. 59-76.
    In this chapter, Logan Paul Gage examines the only real attempt to disprove God’s existence by a New Atheist: Richard Dawkins’s “Ultimate 747 Gambit.” Central to Dawkins’s argument is the claim that God is more complex than what he is invoked to explain. Gage evaluates this claim using the main extant notions of simplicity in the literature. Gage concludes that on no reading does this claim survive scrutiny. Along the way, Dawkins claims that there are no good positive arguments for (...)
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  19. Evil and divine sovereignty.Jeff Jordan - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (3):273-286.
    Since at least the tenth century, some theists have argued that God’s sovereignty as creator exempts God from moral evaluation, and so any argument employing moral principles or the idea of God as morally perfect is fallacious. In particular, any argument contending that the occurrence of pointless evil presents strong evidence against the existence of God is flawed, as God morally owes his creation nothing. This appeal to divine sovereignty, however, fails to rescue any theistic tradition proclaiming that God loves (...)
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  20. Problems for the Argument from Logic: a Response to the Lord of Non-Contradiction.Alex Malpass - 2020 - Sophia 60 (2):239-253.
    James Anderson and Greg Welty have resurrected an argument for God’s existence, which we will call the argument from logic. We present three lines of response against the argument, involving the notion of necessity involved, the notion of intentionality involved, and then we pose a dilemma for divine conceptualism. We conclude that the argument faces substantial problems.
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  21. Pestilent Popes or a Pestilent Church? Judaism, Catholicism, and Skeptical Theism.Tyler Dalton McNabb - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (4):671-676.
  22. God-Intoxicated Man: The Philosopher who denied the World.Yitzhak Melamed & Clare Carlisle - 2020 - TLS: The Times Literary Supplement.
  23. Meeting the Evil God challenge.Ben Page & Max Baker-Hytch - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 3 (101):297-317.
    The evil God challenge is an argumentative strategy that has been pursued by a number of philosophers in recent years. It is apt to be understood as a parody argument: a wholly evil, omnipotent and omniscient God is absurd, as both theists and atheists will agree. But according to the challenge, belief in evil God is about as reasonable as belief in a wholly good, omnipotent and omniscient God; the two hypotheses are roughly epistemically symmetrical. Given this symmetry, thesis belief (...)
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  24. Meeting the Evil God Challenge.Ben Page & Max Baker-Hytch - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (3):489-514.
    The evil God challenge is an argumentative strategy that has been pursued by a number of philosophers in recent years. It is apt to be understood as a parody argument: a wholly evil, omnipotent and omniscient God is absurd, as both theists and atheists will agree. But according to the challenge, belief in evil God is about as reasonable as belief in a wholly good, omnipotent and omniscient God; the two hypotheses are roughly epistemically symmetrical. Given this symmetry, thesis belief (...)
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  25. Against the Theistic Multiverse.Sara L. Uckelman - 2020 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 34 (4):1-14.
    We argue that Kraay's "theistic multiverse" response to the objections to theism [Kraay 2011] is unsuccessful as it simply shifts the problems leveled against theism from the level of possible worlds to the level of possible universes. Furthermore, when we restate the objections at the level of possible universes, we can show how Kraay's conclusion about the uniqueness of the theistic multiverse is undermined.
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  26. A Grotesque in the Garden, by Hud Hudson. [REVIEW]Matthew A. Benton - 2019 - Faith and Philosophy 36 (2):271-275.
  27. C. G. Jung and Hans Urs von Balthasar: God and Evil: a Critical Comparison. By Les Oglesby. Pp. xiv, 217, London: Routledge, 2014, $54.95. [REVIEW]Jason Paul Bourgeois - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (5):807-807.
  28. Guest Editors’ Introduction.Andrei Buckareff & Yujin Nagasawa - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (2):i.
  29. Loke’s Preconscious Christ.Oliver D. Crisp - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (1):39-47.
    In several recent articles and a monograph, Andrew Loke has outlined a particular model of the Incarnation, which he calls the Divine Preconscious Model. In this article I provide a critique of this model, drawing on recent work by James Arcadi in order to show that there are serious theological costs involved in adopting the DPM.
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  30. Editorial preface.R. L. Hall - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 86 (1):1-2.
  31. ‘The question in each and every thing’: Nietzsche and Weil on affirmation.Stuart Jesson - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 86 (2):131-155.
    This paper identifies and offers commentary upon a previously un-remarked consonance between Nietzsche and Weil when it comes to the idea of a universal love of the world. The discussion focuses on five features of the Nietzschean account of affirmation, which are as follows: that the possibility of affirmation has the form of a fundamental question at the heart of human life, which has an all-or-nothing character ; that genuine affirmation is rare, difficult or traumatic in an existentially revealing way, (...)
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  32. Theodicy in a Suffering World: Glory and Longing. By Christopher Southgate. Pp. ix, 281, Cambridge University Press, 2018. [REVIEW]Terrance Klein - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (5):809-810.
  33. Causation and Sufficient Reason (Atheism).Felipe Leon - 2019 - In Joseph W. Koterski & Graham Oppy (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. MacMillan Reference.
    This chapter provides an overview and critical discussion of cosmological arguments for theism, with special focus on the Kalam argument and arguments from contingency.
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  34. A Priori (Atheism).Felipe Leon - 2019 - In Joseph W. Koterski & Graham Oppy (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. MacMillan Reference.
    The primary aim of this chapter is to evaluate whether considerations about a priori domains and abstract objects favor atheism over theism.
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  35. Anti-Theism, Pro-Theism, and Gratuitous Evil.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - Philosophia Christi 21 (2):355-369.
    Ebrahim Azadegan recently argues that personal anti-theism, the view that it’s rational for a particular individual to prefer that God not exist, is a form of gratuitous evil. He justifies this evil by arguing that the anti-theist is uniquely positioned to bargain, implore, and plea to God. I argue that Azadegan faces a paradox. Once the anti-theist recognizes that God plus anti-theism makes the world better, she should convert to pro-theism. But then there can be no reflective anti-theists who could (...)
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  36. The Common Consent Argument.Tiddy Smith - 2019 - The Philosophers' Magazine 86:80-86.
  37. Religious Diversity (atheism).Tiddy Smith - 2019 - In Graham Oppy & Joseph Koterski (eds.), Theism and Atheism: Opposing Viewpoints in Philosophy. Farmington Hills, MI, USA: pp. 243-257.
    On what grounds can religious belief be maintained when the chances that one has happenedupon the one true religion are so very low and when it seems that all believers have an equallystrong sense that they are justified in their own beliefs? In answer to the problem, three popularapologetic strategies have often been presented, and in their simplest forms they run as follows:1. All religions are basically right.2. All religions are partly right.3. My religion is right, and the others are (...)
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  38. Who Mourns for Adonais? Or, Where Have All the Gods Gone?Necip Fikri Alican - 2018 - Analysis and Metaphysics 17:38–94.
    Belief in God is a steady epistemic state sustaining an ancient social institution. Not only is it still with us, it is still the same as it ever was. It rests on the same inspiration it did thousands of years ago, commanding the same attention with the same motivation. Deities come and go but the belief stays the same. That is the thesis of this paper. It is more specifically a study of classical Greek polytheism as a paradigm for our (...)
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  39. Does the Purpose Theory of the Meaning of Life Entail an Irrational God?Elliott R. Crozat - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):401-413.
    In this essay, I address an objection to purpose theory. PT holds that fulfilling the purpose God has assigned for humans is a way for human life to be objectively meaningful. According to the objection, PT entails the absurdity that God is irrational. There are at least two versions. I refer to them as Irrationality Objection-1, raised elsewhere by Thaddeus Metz, and Irrationality Objection-2, which I raise in this essay. I summarize IO-1 and replies to it by Metz. I then (...)
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  40. The Atheistic Argument from Outrageousness.Bryan Frances - 2018 - Think 17 (48):107-116.
    When pressed, many atheists offer three reasons why they reject theism: there is strong evidence against theism, there is no strong evidence for theism, and theism is so outrageous that it needs a great deal of support in order for us to believe it in a reasonable manner. I examine the third reason, arguing that it fails.
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  41. Introduction to the American Academy of Religion Panel Forum on Erik Wielenberg’s Robust Ethics.Adam Lloyd Johnson - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (2):331-332.
    Erik Wielenberg is the most important contemporary critic of theistic metaethics. Wielenberg maintains that God is unnecessary for objective morality because moral truths exist as brute facts of the universe that have no, and need no, foundation. At times his description of these brute facts make them sound like abstract objects or Platonic forms. At the American Academy of Religion’s annual meeting in Boston in November of 2017, we organized an Evangelical Philosophical Society panel to discuss Erik Wielenberg’s book Robust (...)
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  42. Religious Disagreement and Divine Hiddenness.Jon Matheson - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (1):215-225.
    In this paper, I develop and respond to a novel objection to Conciliatory Views of disagreement. Having first explained Conciliationism and the problem of divine hiddenness, I develop an objection that Conciliationism exacerbates the problem of divine hiddenness. According to this objection, Conciliationism increases God’s hiddenness in both its scope and severity, and is thus incompatible with God’s existence (or at least make God’s existence quite improbable). I respond to this objection by showing that the problem of divine hiddenness is (...)
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  43. The X-claim argument against religious belief offers nothing new.Justin McBrayer & Weston Ellis - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 84 (2):223-232.
    Stephen Law has recently offered an argument against the rationality of certain religious beliefs that he calls the X-claim argument against religious beliefs. The argument purports to show that it is irrational to believe in the existence of extraordinary beings associated with religions. However, the X-claim argument is beset by certain ambiguities that, once resolved, leave the argument undifferentiated from two other common objections to the rationality of religious belief: the objection from religious diversity and the objection from unreliable sources. (...)
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  44. Atheism and Agnosticism.Graham Oppy - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a Cambridge *Element*, on the topic of atheism and agnosticism. It contains four main parts. First, there is an introduction in which atheism and agnosticism are explained. Second, a theoretical background to assessment. Third, a case for preferring atheism to theism. Fourth, a case for preferring agnosticism to theism.
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  45. Mink & Brace’s Accidental Conference.Mark Piper - 2018 - Philosophy Now 125:57-58.
    An examination, in dialogue form, of one of the core weaknesses of the design argument for God's existence.
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  46. Si la contingence est absolue, le désespoir aussi. Critique de la divinologie de Q. Meillassoux.Yann Schmitt - 2018 - Cahiers Critiques de Philosophie 1 (19).
    Dans cette contribution, j'examinerai l'argument qui renvoie dos à dos le théisme et l'athéisme et qui structure la présentation de l'alternative que constitue le Dieu à venir. N'étant ni adhérant, ni sympathisant du réalisme spéculatif, je ne proposerai pourtant pas de critique externe de la philosophie de la religion proposée par Meillassoux. De manière heuristique, je vais tenir pour acquis Après la finitude et je montrerai ce qui me semble être les faiblesses de l'argument, critiques rendant finalement peu crédible l'affirmation (...)
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  47. Is supernatural belief unreliably formed?Hans Van Eyghen - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 85 (2):125-148.
    I criticize 5 arguments for the conclusion that religious belief is unreliably formed and hence epistemically tainted. The arguments draw on scientific evidence from Cognitive Science of Religion. They differ considerably as to why the evidence points to unreliability. Two arguments conclude to unreliability because religious belief is shaped by evolutionary pressures; another argument states that the mechanism responsible for religious belief produces many false god-beliefs; a similar argument claims that the mechanism produces incompatible god-beliefs; and a final argument states (...)
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  48. The Retreat Argument.Hans Van Eyghen - 2018 - Heythrop Journal (3):497-508.
    Some philosophers and scientists argue that as science progresses the religious domain shrinks ever more. They see the advance of science as an argument against religion and for naturalism. In what follows I construct the argument that is tacit in this line of reasoning and criticize it.
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  49. New Developments in the Cognitive Science of Religion - The Rationality of Religious Belief.Hans van Eyghen, Rik Peels & Gijsbert van den Brink (eds.) - 2018 - Dordrecht: Springer.
    It is widely thought that the cognitive science of religion may have a bearing on the epistemic status of religious beliefs and on other topics in philosophy of religion. Epistemologists have used theories from CSR to argue both for and against the rationality of religious beliefs, or they have claimed that CSR is neutral vis-à-vis the epistemic status of religious belief. However, since CSR is a rapidly evolving discipline, a great deal of earlier research on the topic has become dated. (...)
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  50. A Variety of Moral Sources in a Secular Age.Damian Barnat - 2017 - Diametros 54:161-173.
    The aim of my paper is to assess in a critical way the views presented by Graeme Smith in his book A Short History of Secularism as well as in his paper Talking to Ourselves: An Investigation into the Christian Ethics Inherent in Secularism. According to Smith, secular Western societies are underpinned by Christian ethics. An example of a moral norm that – in Smith’s opinion – derives from medieval Christianity and shapes the moral condition of the members of contemporary (...)
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