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  1. Diseño epistémico de métodos de votación: lecciones matemáticas para la democracia.Marc Jiménez-Rolland - 2021 - In Anna Estany & Mario Gensollen (eds.), Diseño institucional e innovaciones democráticas. UAA-UAB. pp. 99-121.
    Frente a problemas de decisión colectiva de cierta complejidad, distintos métodos de votación pueden considerarse igualmente democráticos. Ante esta situación, argumento que es posible investigar cuáles de esos métodos producen mejores resultados epistémicos sobre asuntos fácticos. Comienzo ilustrando la relación entre democracia y métodos de votación con un sencillo ejemplo. Muestro cómo el uso de modelos idealizados permite descubrir algunas propiedades de los métodos de votación; varios de estos descubrimientos muestran que, frente a problemas de cierta complejidad, no hay una (...)
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  2. Changing Use of Formal Methods in Philosophy: Late 2000s Vs. Late 2010s.Samuel Fletcher, Joshua Knobe, Gregory Wheeler & Brian Woodcock - 2021 - Synthese 199 (5-6):14555-14576.
    Traditionally, logic has been the dominant formal method within philosophy. Are logical methods still dominant today, or have the types of formal methods used in philosophy changed in recent times? To address this question, we coded a sample of philosophy papers from the late 2000s and from the late 2010s for the formal methods they used. The results indicate that the proportion of papers using logical methods remained more or less constant over that time period but the proportion of papers (...)
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  3. We Are Less Free Than How We Think: Regular Patterns in Nonverbal Communication.".Alessandro Vinciarelli, Anna Esposito, Mohammad Tayarani, Giorgio Roffo, Filomena Scibelli, Perrone Francesco & Dong BachVo - 2019 - In Multimodal Behavior Analysis in the Wild Advances and Challenges Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. pp. Pages 269-288.
    The goal of this chapter is to show that human behavior is not random but follows principles and laws that result into regular patterns that can be not only observed, but also automatically detected and analyzed. The word “behavior” accounts here for nonverbal behavioral cues (e.g., facial expressions, laughter, gestures, etc.) that people display, typically outside conscious awareness, during social interactions. In particular, the chapter shows that observable behavioral patterns typically account for social and psychological differences that cannot be observed (...)
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  4. Probabilities as Potentially Problematic.Nicholas Rescher - 2016 - Mind and Society 15 (1):27-32.
    Theorists of rational decision act as though probabilities were ubiquitously available for virtually every sort of possible eventuations. As they see it, the existence of probabilities is cost-free and ever-practicable. The present paper argues that—and illustrates how—this supposition can be mistaken. It shows that the postulation of probabilities can have substantive implications that can transform decision issues into something quite different from their initial situation.
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  5. Henry Albert Finch. An Explication of Counterfactuals by Probability Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 18 No. 3 , Pp. 368–378. - Richard C. Jeffrey. A Note on Finch's “An Explication of Counterfactuals by Probability Theory.”Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 20 No. 1 , P. 116. - Henry Albert Finch. Due Care in Explicating Counterfactuals: A Reply to Mr. Jeffrey. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 20 No. 1 , Pp. 117–118. [REVIEW]Robert C. Stalnaker - 1973 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 38 (1):145-146.
  6. The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy.Alan Hajek & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Probability theory is a key tool of the physical, mathematical, and social sciences. It has also been playing an increasingly significant role in philosophy: in epistemology, philosophy of science, ethics, social philosophy, philosophy of religion, and elsewhere. This Handbook encapsulates and furthers the influence of philosophy on probability, and of probability on philosophy. Nearly forty articles summarise the state of play and present new insights in various areas of research at the intersection of these two fields. The articles will be (...)
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  7. Statistical and Inductive Probabilities. Hugues Leblanc.Alex C. Michalos - 1967 - Philosophy of Science 34 (2):195-196.
  8. On Fair Countable Lotteries.Casper Storm Hansen - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (11):2787-2794.
    Two reverse supertasks—one new and one invented by Pérez Laraudogoitia —are discussed. Contra Kerkvliet and Pérez Laraudogoitia, it is argued that these supertasks cannot be used to conduct fair infinite lotteries, i.e., lotteries on the set of natural numbers with a uniform probability distribution. The new supertask involves an infinity of gods who collectively select a natural number by each removing one ball from a collection of initially infinitely many balls in a reverse omega-sequence of actions.
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  9. Towards Best Practice Framing of Uncertainty in Scientific Publications: A Review of Water Resources Research Abstracts.Joseph Guillaume, Casey Helgeson, Sondoss Elsawah, Anthony Jakeman & Matti Kummu - 2017 - Water Resources Research 53 (8).
    Uncertainty is recognized as a key issue in water resources research, amongst other sciences. Discussions of uncertainty typically focus on tools and techniques applied within an analysis, e.g. uncertainty quantification and model validation. But uncertainty is also addressed outside the analysis, in writing scientific publications. The language that authors use conveys their perspective of the role of uncertainty when interpreting a claim —what we call here “framing” the uncertainty. This article promotes awareness of uncertainty framing in four ways. 1) It (...)
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  10. Nonclassical Probability and Convex Hulls.Seamus Bradley - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (1):87-101.
    It is well known that the convex hull of the classical truth value functions contains all and only the probability functions. Work by Paris and Williams has shown that this also holds for various kinds of nonclassical logics too. This note summarises the formal details of this topic and extends the results slightly.
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  11. A Problem for Relative Information Minimizers, Continued.Bas van Fraassen - 1986 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37:453.
  12. Foundations of Probability Theory, Statistical Inference, and Statistical Theories of Science.Bernd I. Dahn - 1978 - Studia Logica 37 (2):213-219.
  13. Psychological Processes in Decision Making: Probabilities, Risk and Chance.Tadeusz Tyszka & Ola Svenson - 2014 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 45 (1):1-2.
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  14. Format Dependent Probabilities: An Eye-Tracking Analysis of Additivity Neglect.Karl Halvor Teigen, Unni Sulutvedt & Anine H. Riege - 2014 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 45 (1):12-20.
    When people are asked to estimate the probabilities of uncertain events, they often neglect the additivity principle, which requires that the probabilities assigned to an exhaustive set of outcomes should add up to 100%. Previous studies indicate that additivity neglect is dependent on response format, self-generated probability estimates being more coherent than estimates on rating scales. The present study made use of eye-tracking methodology, recording the movement, frequency and duration of fixations during the solution of ten additivity problems and two (...)
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  15. Rationality and Coordination Cambridge Studies in Probability, Induction, and Decision Theory.Cristina Bicchieri - 1993
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  16. Taking Chances.Brian Skyrms & Jordan Howard Sobel - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (3):410.
    When causal decision theory was created in the 1970s, access to Howard Sobel’s contribution was available only in a narrowly circulated mimeographed manuscript. After some time, he allowed his ideas to appear in the form of articles. Here we finally have a book length exposition on Sobel’s causal Bayesian point of view consisting of collected, revised, and amplified papers spanning a period of twenty years.
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  17. Statistical and Inductive Probabilities.Henry E. Kyburg - 1964 - Philosophical Review 73 (2):269.
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  18. “Memory of Water” Without Water: Modeling of Benveniste’s Experiments with a Personalist Interpretation of Probability.Francis Beauvais - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (3):329-345.
    Benveniste’s experiments were at the origin of a scientific controversy that has never been satisfactorily resolved. Hypotheses based on modifications of water structure that were proposed to explain these experiments were generally considered as quite improbable. In the present paper, we show that Benveniste’s experiments violated the law of total probability, one of the pillars of classical probability theory. Although this could suggest that quantum logic was at work, the decoherence process is however at first sight an obstacle to describe (...)
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  19. Simplicity, Inference and Modelling: Keeping It Sophisticatedly Simple.Arnold Zellner, Hugo A. Keuzenkamp & Michael McAleer (eds.) - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    The idea that simplicity matters in science is as old as science itself, with the much cited example of Ockham's Razor, 'entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem': entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity. A problem with Ockham's razor is that nearly everybody seems to accept it, but few are able to define its exact meaning and to make it operational in a non-arbitrary way. Using a multidisciplinary perspective including philosophers, mathematicians, econometricians and economists, this 2002 monograph examines simplicity (...)
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  20. Fuzziness and Probability.Mutsuo M. Yanase - 1985 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 6 (5):219-226.
  21. Probability as a Guide to Life.Helen Beebee & David Papineau - 1997 - Journal of Philosophy 94 (5):217.
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  22. Stacking Fault Probabilities in B.C.C. Zr-Mo Alloys.D. H. Sastry, M. J. Luton & J. J. Jonas - 1974 - Philosophical Magazine 30 (5):1187-1190.
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  23. A Statistical Theory of Ionospheric Drifts.J. P. Dougherty - 1960 - Philosophical Magazine 5 (54):553-570.
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  24. Effect of Entropy on the Dynamics of Supercooled Liquids: New Results From High Pressure Data.R. Casalini & C. M. Roland - 2007 - Philosophical Magazine 87 (3-5):459-467.
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  25. Antiquity Probability and Statistical Inference in Ancient and Medieval Jewish Literature. By Nachum L. Rabinovitch. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1973. Pp. Xiii + 205. $12.50. [REVIEW]Richard Lorch - 1977 - British Journal for the History of Science 10 (2):170-170.
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  26. PAUL M. M. KLEP and IDA H. STAMHUIS , The Statistical Mind in a Pre-Statistical Era: The Netherlands 1750–1850. Askant: Amsterdam, 2002. Pp. 374. ISBN 90-5742-0341. No Price Given. [REVIEW]M. Magnello - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (3):449-451.
  27. The History of EmergencesIan Hacking. The Emergence of Probability: A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas About Probability, Induction, and Statistical Inference. 2nd Edition. 209 Pp. + Unpaginated Introduction, Bibl., Index. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. $24.99. [REVIEW]Lorraine Daston - 2007 - Isis 98 (4):801-808.
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  28. Paul M. M. Klep;, Ida H. Stamhuis . The Statistical Mind in a Pre‐Statistical Era: The Netherlands, 1750–1850. 374 Pp., Frontis., Illus., Bibl., Indexes. Amsterdam: Aksant, 2002. $29.95. [REVIEW]Andrea Rusnock - 2004 - Isis 95 (3):508-509.
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  29. The Emergence of Probability. A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas About Probability, Induction and Statistical Inference. Ian Hacking.Mary Hesse - 1976 - Isis 67 (4):624-625.
  30. Probability and Statistical Inference in Ancient and Medieval Jewish Literature. Nachum L. Rabinovitch.Bernard R. Goldstein - 1975 - Isis 66 (3):414-415.
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  31. Decision Making: Objective Measures of Subjective Probability and Utility.Gordon M. Becker - 1962 - Psychological Review 69 (2):136-148.
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  32. Subjective Probability and Decision Under Uncertainty.N. T. Feather - 1959 - Psychological Review 66 (3):150-164.
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  33. The Concept of Statistical Significance and the Controversy About One-Tailed Tests.H. J. Eysenck - 1960 - Psychological Review 67 (4):269-271.
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  34. Directional Statistical Decisions.Henry F. Kaiser - 1960 - Psychological Review 67 (3):160-167.
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  35. A Statistical Study of Belief.Francis Bertody Sumner - 1898 - Psychological Review 5 (6):616-631.
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  36. Heterochromatic Additivity Failure.Gerald S. Wasserman - 1969 - Psychological Review 76 (2):221-223.
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  37. Support Theory: A Nonextensional Representation of Subjective Probability.Amos Tversky & Derek J. Koehler - 1994 - Psychological Review 101 (4):547-567.
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  38. Decision Theory as a Branch of Evolutionary Theory: A Biological Derivation of the Savage Axioms.William S. Cooper - 1987 - Psychological Review 94 (4):395-411.
  39. Probability as a Measure of Necessity.N. V. Khovanov - 1970 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 9 (2):141-151.
    One of the characteristic features of the dynamic development of science and technology in recent decades is the constantly rising significance of probabilistic, statistical and information-theory methods in research, both theoretical and applied. Nor is the mathematical theory of probability standing still. The internal logic of its development is leading steadily to enrichment of the traditional study of probability with new axioms and constructive formal calculi.
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  40. Probability.Darrell Patrick Rowbottom - unknown
    When a doctor tells you there’s a one percent chance that an operation will result in your death, or a scientist claims that his theory is probably true, what exactly does that mean? Understanding probability is clearly very important, if we are to make good theoretical and practical choices. In this engaging and highly accessible introduction to the philosophy of probability, Darrell Rowbottom takes the reader on a journey through all the major interpretations of probability, with reference to real–world situations. (...)
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  41. Hegel's Philosophical Psychology.Luca Corti - 2016
  42. Do Pragmatic Arguments Show Too Much?Martin Peterson - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (2):165-172.
    Pragmatic arguments seek to demonstrate that you can be placed in a situation in which you will face a sure and foreseeable loss if you do not behave in accordance with some principle P. In this article I show that for every P entailed by the principle of maximizing expected utility you will not be better off from a pragmatic point of view if you accept P than if you don’t, because even if you obey the axioms of expected utility (...)
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  43. 29. Comparing Utilities.Daniel Goldstick - 2009 - In Reason, Truth and Reality. University of Toronto Press. pp. 292-301.
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  44. Predetermination and Tense Probabilism.Stephen J. Barker - 1998 - Analysis 58 (4):290-296.
  45. A Study in Probability.D. Taylor - 1935 - Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 13 (4):290-298.
  46. Counterfactuals and Epistemic Probability.R. Otte - 2006 - Synthese 152 (1):81-93.
    Philosophers have often attempted to use counterfactual conditionals to analyze probability. This article focuses on counterfactual analyzes of epistemic probability by Alvin Plantinga and Peter van Inwagen. I argue that a certain type of counterfactual situation creates problems for these analyses. I then argue that Plantinga's intuition about the role of warrant in epistemic probability is mistaken. Both van Inwagen's and Plantinga's intuitions about epistemic probability are flawed.
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  47. Probability Dynamics.Amos Nathan - 2006 - Synthese 148 (1):229-256.
    ‘Probability dynamics’ (PD) is a second-order probabilistic theory in which probability distribution d X = (P(X 1), . . . , P(X m )) on partition U m X of sample space Ω is weighted by ‘credence’ (c) ranging from −∞ to +∞. c is the relative degree of certainty of d X in ‘α-evidence’ α X =[c; d X ] on U m X . It is shown that higher-order probabilities cannot provide a theory of PD. PD applies to (...)
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  48. The No Probabilities For Acts-Principle.Marion Ledwig - 2005 - Synthese 144 (2):171-180.
    One can interpret the No Probabilities for Acts-Principle, namely that any adequate quantitative decision model must in no way contain subjective probabilities for actions in two ways: it can either refer to actions that are performable now and extend into the future or it can refer to actions that are not performable now, but will be in the future. In this paper, I will show that the former is the better interpretation of the principle.
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  49. Foundations of Probability with Applications: Selected Papers 1974–1995.Patrick Suppes & Mario Zanotti - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is an important collection of essays dealing with the foundations of probability that will be of value to philosophers of science, mathematicians, statisticians, psychologists and educationalists. The collection falls into three parts. Part I comprises five essays on the axiomatic foundations of probability. Part II contains seven articles on probabilistic causality and quantum mechanics, with an emphasis on the existence of hidden variables. The third part consists of a single extended essay applying probabilistic theories of learning to practical questions (...)
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  50. Equilibrium and Rationality: Game Theory Revised by Decision Rules.Paul Weirich - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book represents a major contribution to game theory. It offers this conception of equilibrium in games: strategic equilibrium. This conception arises from a study of expected utility decision principles, which must be revised to take account of the evidence a choice provides concerning its outcome. The argument for these principles distinguishes reasons for action from incentives, and draws on contemporary analyses of counterfactual conditionals. The book also includes a procedure for identifying strategic equilibria in ideal normal-form games. In synthesizing (...)
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