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  1. Practical and Theoretical Reason in Modern Philosophy.Roberto Casales García (ed.) - 2024 - Delaware: Vernon Press.
  2. Why Transparency has Little (if Anything) to do with the Age of Enlightenment.Emmanuel Alloa - 2022 - In This Obscure Thing Called Transparency. Politics and Aesthetics of a Contemporary Metaphor. University Press Leuven. pp. 167-188.
  3. The Modern Guise of the Good.Francesco Orsi (ed.) - 2024 - Routledge.
    This book is the first-ever collection dedicated to the guise of the good in early modern and later Western philosophy. It spans three centuries from Thomas Hobbes to Henry Sidgwick and features original contributions by some of the finest scholars. -/- One of the staple items of Western philosophy is the idea that we can only desire, or pursue, something under the guise of the good: if we see nothing good about it, we cannot want it. After enjoying its heydays (...)
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  4. Malebranche on Space, Time, and Divine Simplicity.Torrance Fung - 2023 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 94 (3):257-280.
    Not much attention has been paid to Malebranche’s philosophy of time. Scholars who have written on it have typically written about it only in passing, and by and large discuss it only in relation to his philosophy of religion. This is appropriate insofar as Malebranche doesn’t discuss his views of time in isolation from his religious metaphysics. I argue that Malebranche’s conception of how created beings have their properties commits him to saying that God is omnitemporal rather than atemporal. For (...)
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  5. Women in Early Modern Science: Du Châtelet and the Bologna Academy.Aaron Wells - forthcoming - In Marius Stan (ed.), The History and Philosophy of Science, 1450 to 1750. Bloomsbury.
  6. Cesalpino, Andrea.Andrea Strazzoni - 2022 - Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy.
    Andrea Cesalpino is an important figure in the history of science. He demonstrated that blood circulates into heart from veins and from the heart to arteries, paving the way to Harvey’s complete description of blood circulation. Moreover, he was the founder of botany as a systematic discipline, which he based, rather than on the observation of accidental similarities of plants, on the discovery of their vegetative-generative principle. In philosophy, he attempted to conciliate the immortality of the soul (i.e., the form (...)
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  7. Reading Descartes. Consciousness, Body, and Reasoning.Andrea Strazzoni & Marco Sgarbi (eds.) - 2023 - Florence: Firenze University Press.
    This volume takes cue from the idea that the thought of no philosopher can be understood without considering it as the result of a constant, lively dialogue with other thinkers, both in its internal evolution as well as in its reception, re-use, and assumption as a starting point in addressing past and present philosophical problems. In doing so, it focuses on a feature that is crucially emerging in the historiography of early modern philosophy and science, namely the complexity in the (...)
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  8. Il viaggio sulla Luna. Storia di un sogno, tra letteratura e nuova scienza.Marco Ghione - 2017 - Genova: Città del Silenzio.
    Visitare il “pianeta d’argento”, conquistare il silenzioso globo che rischiara ogni notte, è stato il sogno dell’uomo di età moderna. Tra Cinque e Settecento, infatti, dall’epoca delle grandi scoperte geografiche al secolo dei Lumi, scrittori, scienziati, uomini di fede e di cultura hanno tentato in ogni modo di concretizzare questa inafferrabile visione. Grazie a un lungo e minuzioso lavoro di ricerca, Marco Ghione racconta la loro storia e illustra le soluzioni tecniche che tanti, eccezionali cittadini della Repubblica delle Lettere hanno (...)
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  9. Why Research and Teach Early Modern Women Philosophers?Hope Sample - 2023 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 61 (1):257-274.
    This paper makes explicit some issues of gender that have been implicitly raised in recent discussions concerning the recovery of European women's contributions to the history of seventeenth‐ and eighteenth‐century philosophy. A useful way to bring these issues to light is to distinguish between the project of recovering women's contributions and the project of justifying their inclusion. The former project is an important effort to provide a more accurate understanding of the history of philosophy. Within the latter project, there is (...)
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  10. Teorijska filozofija na Zagrebačkoj akademiji 1776-1850 [Theoretic philosophy at the Zagreb Academy 1776-1850].Srećko Kovač - 1990 - Prilozi Za Istrazivanje Hrvatske Filozofske Baštine 16 (1-2):23-39.
    The Zagreb Royal Academy, the successor of the former Jesuit Neoacademy, was founded in 1776 as the central institution of higher education in Croatia as part of the educational reform in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After presenting the basic characteristics of the reform concept, the paper deals with the teaching of theoretical philosophy at the Zagreb Academy. Philosophy was taught by E. Raffay, A. Minković, G. Valičić, S. Čučić, S. Pogledić, S. Moyses, and S. Muzler until the abolition of the Academy (...)
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  11. David Hume, essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, T. Beauchamp & M. Box, eds. [REVIEW]Paul Russell - 2023 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    The new two volume edition of Hume’s Essays, Moral, Political and Literary, edited by Tom Beauchamp and Mark Box, is the first critical edition.[3] What primarily distinguishes a critical edition is that it collates the copy-text with all other editions and provides a complete record of variations in the texts. Beauchamp and Box provide readers with detailed, informative notes and annotations that describe the variations and revisions that have been made to the Essays published within Hume’s lifetime. They also provide (...)
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  12. Aesthetics in Motion. On György Szerdahely’s Dynamic Aesthetics.Botond Csuka - 2018 - In Anthropologische Ästhetik in Mitteleuropa (1750–1850). Anthropological Aesthetics in Central Europe (1750–1850). (Bochumer Quellen und Forschungen zum achtzehnten Jahrhundert, 9). Hannover, Németország: pp. 153-180.
    György Alajos Szerdahely, the first professor of aesthetics in Pest, publishes his Aesthetica in 1778, a work, written in Latin, that not only engages with the eclectic university aesthetics of late-18th-century Germany and Central Europe, but also marks the beginning of the Hungarian aesthetic tradition. Szerdahely proposes aesthetics as the doctrine of taste, a philosophical discipline that can polish our manners and social conduct through a sensual-affective Bildung offered by art experiences. Highlighting his sources in both British criticism and German (...)
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  13. Playing with the Ancients: The Cosmology of Gilles Personne de Roberval.Ovidiu Babeş - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (6):950-981.
    This contribution explores Gilles Personne de Roberval’s 1644 Aristarchi Samii de mundi systemate, partibus, & motibus eiusdem, libellus. I focus on the complex circumstances of publication, the intellectual context of the polemics of Copernicanism within the scientific community, as well as the natural philosophy of the treatise. Roberval’s strategy of publication provides a very sophisticated example of authorship in early modern natural philosophy. The strategy lies at the conflux of certain specific motivations. I contextualize these motivations by accounting for the (...)
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  14. Dignity and Credibility in the Age of Information.Joshua Duclos - 2020 - The Principal Post.
    Self-authorship is fundamental to respecting the dignity of persons, and epistemic credibility depends upon impartial review. While these claims may seem obviously true, they arguments for them are rarely given. In a supposedly "post-truth" world in which respect for individual rights is under attack, the obvious must be argued for and reiterated. To that end, I mine sources from the European Enlightenment (Bacon, Hume, Kant, and Mill) to make the case for self-authorship and impartial review.
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  15. Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.Dana Jalobeanu & Charles T. Wolfe (eds.) - 2020 - Springer.
    This Encyclopedia offers a fresh, integrated and creative perspective on the formation and foundations of philosophy and science in European modernity. Combining careful contextual reconstruction with arguments from traditional philosophy, the book examines methodological dimensions, breaks down traditional oppositions such as rationalism vs. empiricism, calls attention to gender issues, to ‘insiders and outsiders’, minor figures in philosophy, and underground movements, among many other topics. In addition, and in line with important recent transformations in the fields of history of science and (...)
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  16. Dem wissenschaftlichen Determinismus auf der Spur. Von der klassischen Mechanik zur Entstehung der Quantenphysik.Donata Romizi - 2019 - Freiburg im Breisgau, Deutschland: Karl Alber.
    The book deals with the changing nature and with the history of the concept of scientific determinism from the classical mechanics until the time immediately preceding quantum mechanics: such a historical-philosophical reconstruction is aimed at (1) signalizing and overcoming the deficiencies of the received opinion on the topic and (2) understanding better a concept which has influenced science from the beginning. -/- Before dealing with historical matters I develop in the first Chapter a kind of new, three-dimensional “measurement system” for (...)
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  17. "Ever Thus": Review of THE PHILOSOPHERS’ QUARREL by Robert Zaretsky and John T. Scott. [REVIEW]Paul Russell - 2010 - The Times Literary Supplement 5616:29.
    ... The Philosophers’ Quarrel is an enjoyable tour through the salons, great cities and country retreats of the Enlightenment, in the company of some of its brightest stars. Although much of the tale turns on some tedious details of the various intrigues of Hume and Rousseau, together with their friends and collaborators, Zaretsky and Scott manage to provide their account with a number of interesting and valuable insights into the character of the thinkers involved and the social and cultural life (...)
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  18. Review of Karin de Boer, Kant’s Reform of Metaphysics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020. [REVIEW]Corey W. Dyck - 2022 - Philosophical Review 131 (3):369-373.
    In this engaging, provocative, and highly original study, Karin de Boer offers an interpretation of key parts of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason as a preparation for an anticipated (and positive) system of metaphysics that is broadly Wolffian in character. In contrast to the lopsided scholarly focus on the negative results of Kant’s project—its “all-crushing” effect on traditional metaphysics—de Boer contends that the Critique is in fact the outgrowth of a longstanding ambition on Kant’s part to make metaphysics into a (...)
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  19. Fictions of Systematicity: Maimon's Quest for a Scientific Method in Philosophy.Jelscha Schmid - 2021 - Philosophers' Imprint 21 (36).
    This paper argues that Maimon’s metaphilosophy presents a distinctive view on what the scientific role and method of philosophy should consist in: in the production of fictions of systematicity. It shows how Maimon’s philosophy of science links to metaphilosophical views, and ultimately leads him to adopt the so-called “method of fictions” to transform philosophy into a proper science. By connecting his remarks on scientific fictions and their methodological role with Kant’s doctrine of regulative ideas and the latter’s conception of systematicity, (...)
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  20. Philosophy of Religion in Modern European Thought 1600-1800.Brendan Kolb & Andrew Chignell - 2021 - The Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Religion.
    The early modern period (roughly, 1600–1800 ce) in Europe brought tremendous changes in intellectual, political, and cultural life. It was a period in which philosophical debates were inevitably bound up with questions about the nature and sources of religious truth. A chronological examination of some of the period’s major thinkers highlights two issues that were central to the development of philosophy of religion in the period. The first concerns the relations between God, the soul, and the body; the other concerns (...)
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  21. Standardni narativ rane moderne filozofije: Glavni nedostaci i Kantov uticaj.Milica Smajevic Roljic - 2021 - Theoria: Beograd 64 (3):113-126.
    Tokom dvadesetog veka na engleskom govornom području uspostavljen je standardni narativ rane moderne filozofije prema kome se svi autori ovog perioda dele u dve škole mišljenja: racionalističku i empirističku. Glavni cilj postavljen u ovom tekstu jeste da se ispitivanjem centralnih odlika ovog narativa pokaže njegova nepot- punost i neadekvatnost u prikazivanju filozofskih odnosa koji su postojali među figu- rama sedamnaestog i osamnaestog veka. Videćemo da su u poslednjih nekoliko dece- nija iznete ubedljive kritike ove teorije, kojima se predočavaju njeni glavni (...)
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  22. A Letter of Peter Hartzing to Gerhard Wolter Molanus.Andrea Strazzoni - 2020 - Noctua 7 (1):158-181.
    This contribution provides a transcription and translation of, and a commentary on, a letter of the German-Dutch-Japanese polymath Peter Hartzing to Gerhard Wolter Molanus, abbot of Loccum and famous collector of coins and medals. In the commentary, a survey of the life and intellectual endeavours of Hartzing is provided.
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  23. Animism, Aristotelianism, and the Legacy of William Gilbert’s De Magnete.Jeff Kochan - 2021 - Perspectives on Science 29 (2):157-188.
    William Gilbert’s 1600 book, De magnete, greatly influenced early modern natural philosophy. The book describes an impressive array of physical experiments, but it also advances a metaphysical view at odds with the soon to emerge mechanical philosophy. That view was animism. I distinguish two kinds of animism – Aristotelian and Platonic – and argue that Gilbert was an Aristotelian animist. Taking Robert Boyle as an example, I then show that early modern arguments against animism were often effective only against Platonic (...)
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  24. Christian Platonism in Early Modernity.Derek A. Michaud Derek A. Michaud - 2020 - In Alexander J. B. Hampton & John Peter Kenney (eds.), Christian Platonism: A History. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. 280-302.
  25. Myśl europejska w poszukiwaniu definicji obywatela. Rzecz o koncepcjach statusu jednostki w państwie przed przełomem rewolucji francuskiej. Kontekst historyczny, podobieństwa i różnice, znaczenie.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2006 - Przegląd Humanistyczny 50 (3):59-81.
    Na długo przed rewolucją francuską oraz jej pierworodną Deklaracją Praw Człowieka i Obywatela w europejskiej myśli politycznej członek państwa przedzierzgnięty został z poddanego w obywatela. Ta fundamentalna zmiana w definiowaniu stanowiska jednostki w państwie korespondowała z humanistycznym postrzeganiem rozumu ludzkiego nie tylko jako instrumentu poznawania świata, ale też narzędzia głębokiej refleksji i krytycznej oceny mechanizmów światem rządzących. Siła rozumu kojarzona była przez oświeceniowych filozofów z porządkiem naturalnym, który jawił się przeciwwagą dla społecznych i politycznych realiów absolutnego władztwa monarszego. W XVIII (...)
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  26. Het conflict tussen Galileo Galilei en de katholieke kerk.Maarten Van Dyck - manuscript
  27. The Christian Philosophy of Miracle: Ideas of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.Valentin Yakovlev - 2019 - TSU Publishing House.
    The author of the monograph is a Candidate of Culturology, Associate Professor of Tyumen State University. The monograph tests approaches to the understanding of the essence of Hobbes’s and Locke’s ideas about miracles that are more flexible than a formational-evolutionist approach. The monograph presents the main characteristics of these ideas as Christian philosophical ones, shows their general Christian direction and the historiographic perspective of studying these ideas primarily in line with Christian philosophy. The monograph is intended for experts in the (...)
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  28. Hermeneutics and Nature.Dalia Nassar - 2018 - In Michael N. Forster & Kristin Gjesdal (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Hermeneutics. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 37-74.
    This paper contributes to the on-going research into the ways in which the humanities transformed the natural sciences in the late Eighteenth and early Nineteenth Centuries. By investigating the relationship between hermeneutics -- as developed by Herder -- and natural history, it shows how the methods used for the study of literary and artistic works played a crucial role in the emergence of key natural-scientific fields, including geography and ecology.
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  29. G.W. Leibniz: Sign and the Problem of Expression.Dimitri A. Bayuk & Olga B. Fedorova - 2020 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 57 (1):146-165.
    The disciplinary differentiation of sciences attracted Leibniz’s attention for a long period of time. From nowadays prospects it looks very well grounded as soon as in Leibniz’s manuscripts a modern scholar finds clue ideas of any research field which would tempt him to consider Leibniz as one of the founders of this particular discipline. We argue that this is possible only in retrospection and would significantly distort the essence of Leibniz’s epistemology. Our approach implies, in contrary, the investigation of the (...)
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  30. Leibniz on Spontaneity, The Eduction of Substantial Forms, and Creaturely Interaction: A Tension.Davis Kuykendall - 2019 - Studia Neoaristotelica 16 (2):229-274.
    Leibniz argued that (i) substantial forms only begin to exist via Divine creation; (ii) created substances cannot transeuntly cause accidents in distinct substances; and yet (iii) created substances immanently produce their accidents. Some of Leibniz’s support for (i) came from his endorsement of a widely-made argument against the eduction of substantial forms. However, in defense of eduction, Suárez argued that if creatures cannot produce substantial forms, they also cannot produce accidents, threatening the consistency of (i) and (iii). In this paper, (...)
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  31. Spinoza on the Conditions that Nominally Define the Human Condition.Daniel Schneider - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (5):753-773.
    ABSTRACTIn ‘Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person,’ Harry Frankfurt argues that a successful analysis of the concept ‘human’ must reveal something that distinguishes humans from non-human...
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  32. Teleology in Early Modern Philosophy and Science.Julia Jorati - 2019 - Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
    The vast majority of canonical early modern authors reject Aristotelian physics and metaphysics. Instead, many of them are mechanists, that is, they explain all natural change in the material world simply through the motions and collisions of inertial matter in motion. This typically means that they deny that there is immanent teleology in the natural world; sometimes, it even means eliminating purposiveness from natural philosophy altogether. Thus, some writers attempt to provide explanations of natural phenomena that do not rely on (...)
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  33. Absential Suspension: Malebranche and Locke on Human Freedom.Julie Walsh & Thomas M. Lennon - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (1):1-17.
    This paper treats a heretofore-unnoticed concept in the history of the philosophical discussion of human freedom, a kind of freedom that is not defined solely in terms of the causal power of the agent. Instead, the exercise of freedom essentially involves the non-occurrence of something. That being free involves the non-occurrence, that is, the absence, of an act may seem counterintuitive. With the exception of those specifically treated in this paper, philosophers tend to think of freedom as intimately involved with (...)
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  34. C. I. Lewis, Kant, and the reflective method of philosophy.Gabriele Gava - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (2):315-335.
    ABSTRACTIf it seems unquestionable that C. I. Lewis is a Kantian in important respects, it is more difficult to determine what, if anything, is original about his Kantianism. For it might be argued that Lewis’ Kantianism simply reflects an approach to the a priori which was very common in the first half of the twentieth century, namely, the effort to make the a priori relative. In this paper, I will argue that Lewis’ Kantianism does present original features. The latter can (...)
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  35. Aufklärung und Wissenschaft.Gregor Damschen & Helmut Mai - 2008 - Jahrbuch 2007 der Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina (Halle/Saale), Leopoldina 53:339-346.
    Enlightenment and Science. - Extensive conference report about a meeting organised by Rainer Enskat and Andreas Kleinert, which took place on 25 and 26 January 2007 in the rooms of the IZEA and the Leopoldina, the German National Academy of Sciences, in Halle (Saale), Germany. The topic of the conference was the question, which had become urgent since the 18th century, whether enlightenment through science is possible or necessary despite science.
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  36. Leibniz on Time and Duration.Geoffrey Gorham - 2017 - In Proceedings, 2016 International Leibniz Society Meeting, Hanover, GE.
  37. La découverte du domain mental. Descartes et la naturalisation de la conscience.Han Van Ruler - 2016 - Noctua 3 (2):239-294.
    Although Descartes’ characterization of the mind has sometimes been seen as too ‘moral’ and too ‘intellectualist’ to serve as a modern notion of consciousness, this article re-establishes the idea that Descartes’ way of doing metaphysics contributed to a novel delineation of the sphere of the mental. Earlier traditions in moral philosophy and religion certainly emphasized both a dualism of mind and body and a contrast between free intellectual activities and forcibly induced passions. Recent scholastic and neo-Stoic philosophical traditions, moreover, drew (...)
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  38. More than representation: Multiscalar assemblages and the Deleuzian challenge to archaeology.Oliver J. T. Harris - 2018 - History of the Human Sciences 31 (3):83-104.
    In this article I examine how Deleuzian-inspired assemblage theory allows us to offer a new challenge to the enlightenment categories of thought that have dominated archaeological thinking. The history of archaeological thought, whilst superficially a series of paradigm shifts, can be retold as arguments constructed within distinctions between ideas and materials, present and past, and culture and nature. At the heart of all of these has been the critical issue of representation, of how the gap between people and the world (...)
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  39. Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe.Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Waco, TX, USA: Baylor University Press. Edited by Lloyd Strickland.
    Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe offers a fascinating window into early modern efforts to prove God’s existence. Assembled here are twenty-two key texts, many translated into English for the first time, which illustrate the variety of arguments that philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries offered for God. These selections feature traditional proofs—such as various ontological, cosmological, and design arguments—but also introduce more exotic proofs, such as the argument from eternal truths, the argument from universal aseity, and the (...)
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  40. Note sul contributo di Jean-Luc Marion intorno al concetto di philosophia prima fra Descartes e la Scolastica.Igor Agostini - 2016 - Educação E Filosofia 30 (Especial):133-149.
  41. Pieter van Musschenbroek on laws of nature.Steffen Ducheyne & Pieter Present - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Science 50 (4):637-656.
    In this article, we discuss the development of the concept of a ‘law’ (of nature) in the work of the Dutch natural philosopher and experimenter Petrus van Musschenbroek (1692–1761). Since Van Musschenbroek is commonly described as one of the first ‘Newtonians’ on the Continent in the secondary literature, we focus more specifically on its relation to Newton’s views on this issue. Although he was certainly indebted to Newton for his thinking on laws (of nature), Van Musschenbroek’s views can be seen (...)
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  42. John Yolton e la Way of Ideas.Matteo Bonifacio - 2012/2013 - Dissertation, University of Turin
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  43. John Yolton e la Way of Ideas.Matteo Bonifacio - 2015 - Studi Filosofici:pp. 225-244.
    Abstract The paper focuses on the way of ideas, namely early modern theories of ideas. This expression, dating back to the 17th century, was popularized by John W. Yolton (1921–2005), who also suggested an alternative interpretation of this tradition, aiming to refute the standard interpretation of the way of ideas. Whilst according to the standard interpretation the perceiver cannot know the external world directly, in so far as ideas cover it like a veil, according to Yolton’s interpretation in the philosophy (...)
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  44. Jonathan Edwards's Monism.Antonia LoLordo - 2017 - Philosophers' Imprint 17.
    The 18th-century American philosopher Jonathan Edwards argues that nothing endures through time. I analyze his argument, paying particular attention to a central principle it relies on, namely that “nothing can exert itself, or operate, when and where it is not existing”. I also consider what I supposed to follow from the conclusion that nothing endures. Edwards is sometimes read as the first four-dimensionalist. I argue that this is wrong. Edwards does not conclude that things persist by having different temporal parts; (...)
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  45. The doctrine of the Fall in seventeenth-century reformed scholasticism: philosophy between faith and scepticism.Gellera Giovanni - 2017 - In Larkin Áine Hadromi-Allouche Zohar (ed.), Fall Narratives. Routledge. pp. 78-89.
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  46. The Natural and the Normative. [REVIEW]Lorne Falkenstein - 1993 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (2):476-480.
    Review of Gary Hatfield, The Natural and the Normative. Theories of Spatial Perception from Kant to Helmholtz. MIT Press, 1990.
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  47. The natural and the normative. Theories of spatial perception from Kant to Helmholtz. [REVIEW]André Stanguennec - 1994 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 184 (4):465-466.
    Review of Gary Hatfield, The Natural and the Normative: Theories of Spatial Perception from Kant to Helmholtz. MIT Press, 1990.
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  48. The Natural and the Normative: Theories of Spatial Perception from Kant to Helmholtz. [REVIEW]Christopher Longuet-Higgins - 1992 - Philosophical Quarterly 42 (168):395-396.
    Review of Gary Hatfield, The Natural and the Normative: Theories of Spatial Perception from Kant to Helmholtz. MIT Press, 1990.
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  49. Reply to Andrew Cunningham.Peter Dear - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (2):393-395.
  50. Empirismo y filosofía experimental Las límitaciones del relato estándar de la filosofía moderna a la luz de la historiografía francesa del siglo XIX (J.-M. Degérando).Manzo Silvia - 2016 - Revista Colombiana de Filosofía de la Ciencia 16 (32):11-35.
    In the last few decades, the historiographical categories rationalism and empiricism have been criticized for their limitations to explain the complex positions and the links held by the philosophers tradiotnally attached to them. This narrative was firstly conceived by Kantian German historians and began to become standard at the turn of the twentieh century. Nonetheless, nineteenth-century French historiography developed other narratives by which early modern philosophers were classified according to alternative criteria. In the first edition of Histoire comparée des systémes (...)
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