In Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Daniel Mahoney presents a philosophical perspective on the political condition of modern man through an exegesis and analysis of Solzhenitsyn's work. Mahoney demonstrates the tremendous, yet often unappreciated, impact of Sozhenitsyn's writing on twentieth century thinking through an examination of the writer's profoundly important critique of communist totalitarianism in a judicious and original mix of western and Russian, Christian and classical wisdom.
The most important figure among Russia's radical Marxists was A.A. Bogdanov (the pseudonym of Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Malinovskii). Not only was he the prime exponent of a proletarian cultural revolution; it was Bogdanov's ideas which provided justification for concern for the environment. And his ideas are not only important to environmentalists because they were associated with this conservation movement; more significantly they are of continuing relevance because they confront the root causes of environmental destruction in the present, and offer what (...) is perhaps the only way to overcome these causes. (shrink)
The significance and potential of systems theory and complexity theory are best appreciated through an understanding of their origins. Arguably, their originator was the Russian philosopher and revolutionary, Aleksandr Bogdanov. Bogdanov anticipated later developments of systems theory and complexity theory in his efforts to lay the foundations for a new, post-capitalist culture and science. This science would overcome the division between the natural and the human sciences and enable workers to organize themselves and their productive activity. It would be (...) central to the culture of a society in which class and gender divisions have been transcended. At the same time it would free people from the deformed thinking of class societies, enabling them to appreciate both the limitations and the significance of their environments and other forms of life. In this paper it is argued that whatever Bogdanov's limitations, such a science is still required if we are to create a society free of class divisions, and that it is in this light that developments in systems theory and complexity theory should be judged. (shrink)
With the failure of the Soviet Union, Aleksandr Bogdanov has come under increasing scrutiny as the anti-authoritarian, left-wing opponent of Lenin among the Bolsheviks and the main inspiration behind the Proletk'ult movement, the movement which attempted to create a new, proletarian culture (Sochor, 1988). Bogdanov's efforts to create a new, universal science of organization, a precursor to systems theory and cybernetics, has also attracted considerable attention (Gorelik, 1980; Bello, 1985; Biggart et.al. 1998). And he has been recognized as an (...) early environmentalist and as a feminist (Graham, 1984; Gare, 1994; Gare, 1996, pp.249-52). But few people have paid much attention to Bogdanov as an historian, sociologist and philosopher of science. Yet Bogdanov developed highly original ideas on science, offering unique resolutions to the oppositions between instrumentalism and realism and between internalist and externalist accounts of scientific development, and following from these, proposed a radical transformation of science as the foundation for an equally radical transformation of society. (shrink)
People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be “a way to take care of things without all the paperwork.” Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical (...) behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. (shrink)
Recently, we have faced the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 in the world, which has attracted the attention of all people. Stress has become a word familiar to all people. The stressors of life are relatively clear and some of them cannot be eliminated by humans. One of the stressors in the life of humans is the COVID-19 pandemic. Doctors believe that the virus is controllable but its prevalence is quicker and deadlier than other viruses. In addition, the virus (...) puts the elderly and those with underlying diseases at extreme risk. Therefore, more care is seriously required to protect members of society. However, this psychological imbalance caused by the virus is associated with stress and anxiety. Lack of proper management of this stress will be associated with emotional impacts, physiological impacts, cognitive impacts and behavioural impact.Contribution: Given the importance of this topic, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between religious beliefs and coping with COVID-19-related stress amongst Muslim students in three cities of Russia – Ingushetia, Chechnya and the Republic of Dagestan – in 2020. Data were collected using questionnaires, the validity and reliability of which were previously confirmed. According to the results, religious beliefs had an impact on stress coping by p = 0.657. In other words, students’ ability to cope with stress improved by 0.657 units, with each unit of enhancement in their religious beliefs. (shrink)
The offshore part of the Timan-Pechora petroleum basin is one of the most promising areas to search for new petroleum accumulations. The commercial potential of the Carboniferous-Lower Permian play has already been proven by exploratory drilling in the Dolginskoye uplift, whereas the Prirazlomnoye field has been in production since 2013. However, significant petroleum resources in this area may be confined to the Ordovician-Lower Devonian play. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the potential of the Lower Devonian reservoirs within (...) the Pechora Sea shelf based on new geologic and geophysical data. We identified multiple prospects within the Dolginsko-Papaninskaya structural zone and estimated its resources. The potential of the Lower Devonian within the study area is comparable with that of the Carboniferous-Lower Permian play. Based on the new 3D seismic data performed in three offshore license blocks, we identified several unconformities, where the Timanian-Sargaevian regional seal onlaps carbonate rocks of the Ovinparmian horizon. We hypothesize that due to the Middle Devonian structural deformations, the Lower Devonian carbonate deposits have been exposed to subaerial erosion and surface and subsurface karst. Diagenetic alterations of the Ovinparmian sediments are favorable for the development of high-porosity reservoirs. In our study, we consider some sedimentation, diagenesis, and catagenesis models of the Ovinparmian carbonates. Furthermore, we designed an exploration program with a view to further study the Lower Devonian reservoirs. (shrink)
The purpose of the study is to identify the actual problems in the field of digital transformation of higher education, studied by modern scientists – teachers, psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, economists. A theoretical and methodological review of the authors' positions and interpretations of the problems under study related to the process of digitalization of education in a digital society is presented. The advantages and risks of the digital transformation of higher education are assessed. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that (...) the author has analyzed the latest Russian scientific sources in the humanities and pedagogy from the standpoint of an interdisciplinary approach. As a result, key areas of research of digitalization processes in education were identified, aimed at updating the content, forms and methods of professional training in higher education in the context of digital realities. (shrink)
In the course of his collaboration with GAKhN, whose task was to create a systemic 'scientific' theory of art, Losev undertook a systematic interpretation of German classical aesthetics as the historical presupposition for his own Christian, Platonist doctrine of art conceived as a dialectical universe comprising totalizing connections at all levels. This interpretation was concealed in a masterful way within the ' Commentaries' to Dialektika khudozestvennoj formy. Independently of the significant results achieved by this revival of the classical tradition, Losev (...) 's mythologized theory of art called forth a critical reaction on the part of his GAKhN colleagues and brought to light some of the broader theoretical attitudes present among GAKhN 's collaborators. (shrink)
In the course of his collaboration with GAKhN, whose task was to create a systemic ‘scientific’ theory of art, Losev undertook a systematic interpretation of German classical aesthetics as the historical presupposition for his own Christian, Platonist doctrine of art conceived as a dialectical universe comprising totalizing connections at all levels. This interpretation was concealed in a masterful way within the ‘Commentaries’ to Dialektika khudožestvennoj formy. Independently of the significant results achieved by this revival of the classical tradition, Losev’s mythologized (...) theory of art called forth a critical reaction on the part of his GAKhN colleagues and brought to light some of the broader theoretical attitudes present among GAKhN’s collaborators. (shrink)
Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science are devoted to symposia, con gresses, colloquia, monographs and collected papers on the philosophical foundations of the sciences. It is now our pleasure to include A. A. Zi nov'ev's treatise on complex logic among these volumes. Zinov'ev is one of the most creative of modern Soviet logicians, and at the same time an innovative worker on the methodological foundations of science. More over, Zinov'ev, although still a developing scholar, has exerted a sub stantial (...) and stimulating influence upon his colleagues and students in Moscow and within other philosophical and logical circles of the Soviet Union. Hence it may be helpful, in bringing this present work to an English-reading audience, to review briefly some contemporary Soviet investigations into scientific methodology. During the 1950's, a vigorous new research program in logic was under taken, and the initial published work -characteristic of most Soviet pub lications in the logic and methodology of the sciences - was a collection of essays, Logical Investigations (Moscow, 1959). Among the authors, in addition to Zinov'ev himself, were the philosophers A. Kol'man and P. V. Tavanec, and the mathematicians and linguists, S. A. Janovskaja, A. S. Esenin-Vol'pin, S. K. Saumjan, G. N. Povarov. (shrink)
The purpose of this publication is to analyze the economic, social and cultural phenomena that first appeared in the "era of revolutions" that occurred in the XIX - early XX centuries. It seems that the modern European trend towards tolerance, which is the basis of current social and cultural changes, including in our country, has certain intellectual grounds. The subject of the study was the ideosphere of the XIX вЂ“ early XX century, including philosophical, economic, psychological concepts that gave rise (...) to modern trends in these areas. The result of this study was the determination of the reasons that caused the change of the ideological paradigm in Europe. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the intellectual foundations of the formation of tolerance as an actual socio-cultural phenomenon are analyzed. The article consistently proves that among the first such grounds it is possible to determine the emergence of machine production and, as a result, the appearance of a mass person with a culture corresponding to him, performing a compensatory and entertaining function. The most important cultural foundation is mainly the intellectual "background" created by the teachings of F. Nietzsche, K. Marx, Z. Freud. A significant role in the formation of a new morality was played by the ideas of Anglo-American pragmatism, which included the denial of religion and its values, giving it a utilitarian character. During the subsequent historical period and at the present time, these views have become the basis for the creation of the so-called "individual faith", in which religion ceases to be the guide of human life, but only serves the needs of the individual. The desacralization of religion leads to the study of different aspects of sexuality, which opens up the possibility for modern "games" with gender. The concept of "natural law" should also be attributed to the intellectual factors of the formation of modern European tolerance. (shrink)
The author shows how mathematics in ancient and early medieval Europe was constrained by deeply rooted metaphysical conceptions and how these constraints have been overcome since the late medieval period. As examples, he focuses on changing conceptions of chance, motion, and infinity.