ABSTRACTResearch that dissociates different types of processes within a given task using a processing tree approach suggests that attitudes may be acquired through evaluative conditioning in the absence of explicit encoding of CS-US pairings in memory. This research distinguishes explicit memory for the CS-US pairings from CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory. It has been suggested that the latter effect may be due to an implicit misattribution process that is assumed to operate when US evocativeness is (...) low. In the present research, the latter assumption was supported neither by two high-powered experiments nor by complementary meta-analytic evidence, whereas evocativeness exerted an influence on explicit memory. This pattern of findings is inconsistent with the view that CS-liking acquired without encoding of CS-US pairs in explicit memory reflects an implicit misattribution process at learning. Hence, the underlying learning process is awaiting further empirical scrutiny. (shrink)
Deep learning and other black-box models are becoming more and more popular today. Despite their high performance, they may not be accepted ethically or legally because of their lack of explainability. This paper presents the increasing number of legal requirements on machine learning model interpretability and explainability in the context of private and public decision making. It then explains how those legal requirements can be implemented into machine-learning models and concludes with a call for more inter-disciplinary research on explainability.
The relevance of analytic metaphysics has come under criticism: Ladyman & Ross, for instance, have suggested do discontinue the field. French & McKenzie have argued in defense of analytic metaphysics that it develops tools that could turn out to be useful for philosophy of physics. In this article, we show first that this heuristic defense of metaphysics can be extended to the scientific field of applied ontology, which uses constructs from analytic metaphysics. Second, we elaborate on a parallel by French (...) & McKenzie between mathematics and metaphysics to show that the whole field of analytic metaphysics, being useful not only for philosophy but also for science, should continue to exist as a largely autonomous field. (shrink)
Este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa sobre a religiosidade em Mazagão Velho, expressa por meio das festas devocionais que ali ocorrem, buscando compreendê-las como um elemento histórico de coesão social. Para tanto, parte-se do estudo da mentalidade formada no Brasil colônia com sua ideologia de expansão da fé cristã. É nesse contexto que toma forma o catolicismo popular. A localidade escolhida como base para este estudo apresenta especificidades que a tornam um caso único. Ela traz a memória das antigas lutas entre (...) cristãos e mouros ainda no Marrocos, onde foi primeiramente fundada, sendo posteriormente transferida para o Brasil no século XVIII. Além disso, apresenta um rico processo de interação com os indígenas e africanos, caracterizando-a como uma sociedade multicultural. Essa história ainda é marcada pela degradação social ocorrida no final do século XVIII. Contudo, mesmo passando por diversos reveses, a comunidade subsistiu e mantém-se viva até os dias atuais. Como principal prática social, destacam-se as festas devocionais, que são eventos coletivos que congregam elementos, como as crenças e os rituais que expressam a vida em sociedade. Também fazem parte dessas festas as manifestações culturais surgidas a partir do encontro das culturas ali presentes. Para entender essa longa história, a ideia de coesão social foi essencial. Neste sentido, a pesquisa buscou mostrar que essa comunidade manteve sua existência graças à coesão social ali formada e sustentada pela religiosidade que se manifesta, de maneira mais efetiva, por meio das festas em devoção aos santos católicos em um ciclo que se renova a cada ano. Para tanto, o trabalho foi realizado por meio de uma abordagem interdisciplinar, com uma análise que compreende tanto uma perspectiva histórica quanto uma abordagem sociológica. Para isso, houve a observação de algumas festas in loco, a pesquisa documental e a pesquisa bibliográfica. Conclui-se que as festas devocionais são eventos sociais fortemente marcados pela tradição histórica do local. Ademais, a continuidade histórica dos acontecimentos mostra que, diante dos problemas passados pela localidade, a sociedade encontrou forças na união de seus moradores, nas tradições e na memória de seus antepassados, fortalecendo-se por meio da realização das festas devocionais. (shrink)
Local theories of consciousness state that one is conscious of a feature if it is adequately represented and processed in sensory brain areas, given some background conditions. We challenge the core prediction of local theories based on recently discovered long-lasting postdictive effects demonstrating that features can be represented for hundreds of milliseconds in perceptual areas without being consciously perceived. Unlike previous empirical data aimed against local theories, proponents of local theories cannot explain these effects away by conjecturing that subjects are (...) phenomenally conscious of features that they cannot report. Only a strong and counterintuitive version of this claim can account for long-lasting postdictive effects. Although possible, we argue that adopting this strong version of the “overflow hypothesis” would have the effect of nullifying the weight of the evidence taken to support local theories of consciousness in the first place. We also discuss several alternative explanations that proponents of local theories could offer. (shrink)
We classify actions of groups of finite Morley rank on abelian groups of Morley rank 2: there are essentially two, namely the natural actions of SL(V) and GL(V) with V a vector space of dimension 2. We also prove an identification theorem for the natural module of SL₂ in the finite Morley rank category.
This study assesses the impact had by institutional isomorphic pressures in the organisational fields of 185 businesses operating within the United Kingdom. The emphasis throughout is on how external institutions affect the socially and environmentally responsible aspects of an organization’s purchasing practice. Factor analyses and a linear regression model are employed to test the influence of these pressures. Initial findings suggest that what other industry participants are doing in this area is not as important in affecting the procurement practice of (...) the focal organisation as is the managers’ perception of how legitimacy is awarded by stakeholders and, indeed, if competitors with well-developed social and environmental supply chain management programs are perceived favourably in the industry. (shrink)
The conclusions of Barbey & Sloman (B&S) crucially depend on evidence for different representations of statistical information. Unfortunately, a muddled distinction made among these representations calls into question the authors' conclusions. We clarify some notions of statistical representations which are often confused in the literature. These clarifications, combined with new empirical evidence, do not support a dual-process model of judgment.
Ce texte a déjà paru sur Techno-science.net. Des chercheurs découvrent la formule mathématique du rythme et avancent que notre cerveau pourrait être câblé pour y répondre. Une nouvelle étude montre que tout compositeur, de Bach à Brubeck, répète des motifs rythmiques, de sorte que la partie reproduit le tout. Une équipe de recherche dirigée par les neuroscientifiques Daniel Levitin et Vinod Menon, respectivement des universités McGill et Stanford, a analysé les partitions de quelque 2 000 compositions (...) - Mathématiques – (...) Nouvel article. (shrink)
The following text seeks to identify the origins of what has come to be called the Sokal hoax. It appears that these origins remain problematic insofar as they cannot be thought without engaging into intrinsically duplicitous thinking. Thus, « originally », the gesture of the hoax is indeed « productive and conflictive, and no self-identity, no unity, and no inherent simplicity can possibly precede it », as « he » said, but « he » was disseminating, as we say. But (...) that is precisely the « strength » of the « form » of the Sokal hoax. With the delicate question of origins as its stumbling block—a stumbling block which may also be the question of irony—, the present text takes its cue from an passage from La Barbarie à visage humain and proposes to reveal the constructive consequences of the affair triggered by the hoax, while constantly paying tribute to its performance. Whether my argument will make it possible to distinguish the consequences from the origins remains moot : post hoc ergo propter hoc. One must remember that this is a sophism. (shrink)
L’homme qui médite est un animal dépravé.J.-J. Rouseau Seul l’homme peut être bête de bêtise.J. Derrida Me voici seul sur la terre, n’ayant plus de frere, de prochain, d’ami, de société que moi-même. Le plus sociable et le plus aimant des humains en a été proscrit par un accord unanime. Bien que notre siècle n’ait pas encore débrouillé les paradoxes nouant la solitude superlative du « plus sociable et aimant » des promeneurs resté solitaire, les longs extraits qui suivent voudraient, (...) en cette.. (shrink)
This article considers the use of the traditional phrase ‘faith in God and the last day’ in five shorter works of Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī. It looks into Ghazālī’s understanding of the ‘minimal faith’ specified by this phrase, and makes three main points. Ghazālī regards minimal faith as having a synthetic object, which may be called ‘a retributory God’ or simply ‘otherworldly retribution’. Minimal faith as understood by Ghazālī is useful to bring deficient Muslims back to observance. Ghazālī also regards minimal (...) faith as useful to make non-Muslims shift to Islam, but does not regard this faith as shared specifically by Jews and Christians. The rhetorical and polemical trend of Ghazālī, on the other hand, is presented in the course of the article. Ghazālī’s concern with persuading or discrediting, I eventually argue, might outweigh his involvement in ‘doctrine’. (shrink)
It was only progressively, by confronting their spiritual experience and the cultural conditions of their apostolate, that Ignatius and his companions were led to found a new order and then to recognize the importance of teaching in colleges. This article sets out the different stages of that progressive discovery. It recalls how Ignatius passed from his chivalrous desires to those of service of and in the Church, by attending to the interior experience of the Spiritual Exercises and to their being (...) set down in writing. The experience of liberty and an objectifying putting down in writing were two poles, characteristic of modernity, that formed the main bases for inventing Jesuit colleges. Moreover, they were also bases which supported the writing of the Constitutions of the Society. For the Jesuits of today they remain ever innovative points of reference for discernment. (shrink)