The position adopted in this paper is inspired by Edgar Morin’s paradigm of complexity and his critique of scientific and philosophical forms of reductionism. This paper is based on research focusing on the diversity of conceptions of critique developed in academic discourses. It aims to challenge the fragmentation and the reduction framing the understanding of this notion in educational sciences. The reflection begins with the introduction of some of Morin’s assumptions concerning the paradigm of complexity. The next section (...) provides a definition of the idea of critique and explores some limits associated with contemporary references framing this notion. Theories of critique are at the core of several educational theories. Based on the literature identified in French-speaking and English-speaking critical traditions in education, several factors determining the way the idea of critique is reduced in education are highlighted. Stressing the tacit character of those variables challenges the limits of traditional conceptions of critique in contemporary education. The position adopted denounces therefore the fact that the current development of theories of critique in education does not provide a framework considering more systematically their conditions of emergence, their own limitations, as well as the antagonistic, complementary and contradictory relationships, which connect them to one another. Based on this position, this paper finally suggests that a distinction be made between “hypocritique” and “hypercritique” as a semantic artifact, stressing the importance of challenging existing theories of critique in education according to the level of complexity that one may attribute to them. (shrink)
This article argues that by the time of the Groupe des Dix’s dissolution in 1976, at least some of its members had departed significantly from the intellectual framework inherited from America’s Cybernetics Group. Focusing on two key publications of 1977, Edgar Morin’s La méthode, tome 1 : la nature de la nature and Michel Serres’s La naissance de la physique dans le texte de Lucrèce. Fleuves et turbulences, I show how the group’s two most philosophically oriented thinkers both (...) broke with the “paradigm of the artificial machine” characteristic of cybernetics, developing in its place a new understanding of Nature centred on the figure of the vortex and the concept of self-production. This renewed understanding of Nature in turn entails an attempt to re-think the foundations of the life, human and artificial sciences via an original articulation of physics, philosophy and poetics. Dans cet article, nous montrons qu’au moment de la dissolution du Groupe des Dix en 1976, certains de ses membres avaient partiellement rompu avec la pensée cybernétique – héritée du Cybernetics Group américain – qui informait ses débuts. Une analyse de deux textes importants datant de 1977, La méthode, tome 1 : la nature de la nature d’Edgar Morin et La naissance de la physique dans le texte de Lucrèce. Fleuves et turbulences de Michel Serres, montre comment les deux penseurs les plus philosophiques du groupe ont su surmonter ce que Morin appelle « le paradigme de la machine artificielle » propre à la cybernétique pour développer une compréhension de la nature centrée sur la figure du tourbillon et sur le concept d’autoproduction. Chez Morin, cette pensée renouvelée de la nature s’appuie sur la pensée présocratique de la physis, et chez Serres sur la pensée lucrétienne de la natura. Nous montrons également que l’on peut interpréter les démarches de Morin et de Serres comme une tentative de dépasser la métaphysique, laquelle, de Platon à Norbert Wiener, comprend la nature par analogie avec la technique et donc comme fondée par un acte de la volonté. La compréhension renouvelée de la nature qui émerge dans les textes de Morin et de Serres implique également un nouveau fondement des sciences du vivant, de l’homme et de l’artificiel, qui prendra forme grâce à une articulation originale de la physique, de la philosophie et de la poétique. (shrink)
In “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Garrett Hardin implicitly moved from bounded commons — a pasture or a tribe’s territory — to the case of boundless commons — the ocean, the atmosphere and planet Earth. He insisted on the need for imposing limits on the use of these resources, blurring the difference between communal property and open access regimes. The success of his paper is due in great measure to his neglect of economic, scientific, legal and anthropological literature. His main (...) lifelong focus was on limiting population growth. He could have avoided the conceptual confusion he created by turning to well-known political economists such as John Locke and Adam Smith or, for that matter, jurists, such as Blackstone. Instead, he simply envisioned indigenous lands as an unbounded wilderness placed at the disposal of frontiersmen. Though he eventually acknowledged the existence of managed commons, he had little interest in community rules pertaining to resource exploitation. For him, these were simply moral norms which inevitably became ineffective after a community reached a certain level of population. He also took economists to task for failing to include in their analysis the true environmental and social costs of public decisions. Still, the famous example of the indigenous people of Northeastern Quebec illustrates a shortcoming of his analysis: community members did not act in total isolation from each other. On the contrary, communal norms could prevent an overexploitation of resources or allow for the adoption of corrective measures. (shrink)
Une critique de la définition de l'affectivité chez Michel Henry met en évidence le rapport de réversibilité entre la métaphysique de Henry et celle de la philosophie de l'intentionnalité qu'il récuse en vue d'établir une nouvelle conception de l'esprit. Il est alors possible de reformuler le débat en faisant apparaître l'affectivité inhérente à l'action. Pour cela, il s'agit de faire appel à la liberté kantienne et à la perspective symbolique de Cassirer mais en revisant le statut accordé à la (...) sensibilité. Ainsi, la sensibilité se différencie selon son dynamisme propre, l'affectivité, et selon son rapport à la raison, à travers la perception qui identifie seulement de façon indirecte la sensibilité aux sens. Il s'agit d'un nouveau rapport entre le sensible et l'intelligible.The critic of Henry's definition of affectivity shows that the metaphysics of Henry is the mirror of the metaphysics carried by the philosophy of intentionality. By challenging the last one, Henry aims to establish a new conception of the spirit. I suggest that there is more to find about affectivity if we look at it in the context of action. The kantian liberty and the symbolic perspective of Cassirer are going in this way if we accept to change the status of the sensibility. In fact, it is possible to differentiate the sensibility : the affectivity enunciates the dynamism of the sensibility and, by his relation to the reason through the perception, shows only indirectly its identification to the sense. Then, we find a new relationship between the sensibility and the intelligibility. (shrink)
Criamos uma sociedade amparada na ideia de desenvolvimento e dominação da natureza. Vivemos sob as ameaças do poder nuclear, da degradação da biosfera, da extinção de múltiplas formas de vida e, talvez, do próprio planeta. Frente à devastação dos ecossistemas, assistimos nas últimas décadas o desabrochar da consciência ecológica, dos grupos ambientalistas e da economia sustentável; ainda assim ineficazes para lidar com a crise ecológica do presente. Superar a agonia planetária requer da humanidade um pensamento ecologizado. Podemos observar na obra (...) de Michel Serres os argumentos filosóficos adequados à formulação de uma ecopolítica global em contraponto à política de desenvolvimento, mesmo que sustentável. Em diálogo com o pensamento complexo de Edgar Morin, ecologizar implica ultrapassar as limitações redutoras e disjuntoras do paradigma de simplificação que coloniza o pensamento contemporâneo. O pensamento ecologizado se abre para as vias regeneradoras do conhecimento sobre o homem na relação consigo, com a sociedade, com a natureza e o cosmos. (shrink)
Jean-Luc Nancy is one of the leading contemporary thinkers in France today. Through an inventive reappropriation of the major figures in the continental tradition, Nancy has developed an original ontology that impacts the way we think about religion, politics, community, embodiment, and art. Drawing from a wide range of his writing, Marie-Eve Morin provides the first comprehensive and systematic account of Nancy’s thinking, all the way up to his most recent work on the deconstruction of Christianity. Without losing sight (...) of the heterogeneity of Nancy’s work, Morin presents a concise articulation of the organizing concepts, which structure Nancy’s body of work. The guiding thread is that of an essential rift at the heart of any “self” by which this self is exposed and relates to itself and other selves. Nancy’s ontology undercuts dichotomies between individual and community, interior and exterior, matter and spirit, thing and thought, not in the name of mere deconstruction, but in seeking to open a thinking of the “limit” or the “edge” as the locus of sense. While Nancy’s work has often been presented in relation to Heidegger or Derrida, Morin demonstrates the originality of Nancy’s work and argues that, despite the variety of its preoccupations and topics, it possesses its own rigorous internal logic. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of philosophy and related fields who seek a systematic and critical understanding of one of the most original contemporary thinkers. (shrink)
La contribution de Michel Troper à la théorie générale du droit et à la théorie constitutionnelle est aujourd'hui reconnue et célébrée un peu partout dans le monde. Un talent d'architecte se tient à l'origine de cette audience rarement égalée dans la sphère francophone : celui qu'il faut pour accommoder toutes les exigences, quel que soit l'ordre de valeur dans lequel on les trouve : originalité, rigueur, souci de la fonction, esthétisme, solidité, adaptation, intelligence, inquiétude, esprit critique, renoncement, réalisme... A (...) ces mérites, on ajoutera une curiosité insatiable, un goût prononcé pour l'échange et le débat, un refus distingué de l'académisme, un sens exigeant de l'amitié et une méfiance profônde pour les adjectifs... C'est cet édifice de qualités que les élèves, collègues et amis de Michel Troper sont heureux de célébrer en lui offrant ces Mélanges. (shrink)
Like the latter, it unites into one and the same function the possibility of giving things a sign, of representing one thing by another, and the possibility of causing a sign to shift in relation to what it designates. The four functions that define the ...
This book directly challenges the notion that the election of Barack Obama signals a new era of colorblindness. Michelle Alexander argues that "we have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it." By targeting black men through the War on Drugs and decimating communities of color, the U.S. criminal justice system functions as a contemporary system of racial control---relegating millions to a permanent second-class status---even as it formally adheres to the principle of colorblindness.
John Stuart Mill's crisis of 1826 has received a great deal of attention from scholars. This attention results from reflection on the importance of the crisis to Mill's mature thought. Did the crisis signal rejection or revision of Benthamism? Or did it have little or no effect on Mill's view of his intellectual inheritance? Ultimately, an interpretation of the cause and resolution of the crisis is integral to an understanding of the nature of Mill's moral and social philosophy. Scholars, in (...) their zeal to understand Mill's crisis, have suggested various reasons for both the onset of the crisis and the recovery. Yet Mill's own perception of his crisis has often been overlooked or rejected. (shrink)
When it was first published in France in 1961 as Folie et Déraison: Histoire de la Folie à l'âge Classique , few had heard of a thirty-four year old philosopher by the name of Michel Foucault. By the time an abridged English edition was published in 1967 as Madness and Civilization , Michel Foucault had shaken the intellectual world. This translation is the first English edition of the complete French texts of the first and second edition, including all (...) prefaces and appendices, some of them unavailable in the existing French edition. History of Madness begins in the Middle Ages with vivid descriptions of the exclusion and confinement of lepers. Why, Foucault asks, when the leper houses were emptied at the end of the Middle Ages, were they turned into places of confinement for the mad? Why, within the space of several months in 1656, was one out of every hundred people in Paris confined? Shifting brilliantly from Descartes and early Enlightenment thought to the founding of the Hôpital Général in Paris and the work of early psychiatrists Philippe Pinel and Samuel Tuke, Foucault focuses throughout, not only on scientific and medical analyses of madness, but also on the philosophical and cultural values attached to the mad. He also urges us to recognize the creative and liberating forces that madness represents, brilliantly drawing on examples from Goya, Nietzsche, Van Gogh and Artaud. The History of Madness is an inspiring and classic work that challenges us to understand madness, reason and power and the forces that shape them. (shrink)
Three years before his death, Michel Foucault delivered a series of lectures at the Catholic University of Louvain that until recently remained almost unknown. These lectures—which focus on the role of avowal, or confession, in the determination of truth and justice—provide the missing link between Foucault’s early work on madness, delinquency, and sexuality and his later explorations of subjectivity in Greek and Roman antiquity. Ranging broadly from Homer to the twentieth century, Foucault traces the early use of truth-telling in (...) ancient Greece and follows it through to practices of self-examination in monastic times. By the nineteenth century, the avowal of wrongdoing was no longer sufficient to satisfy the call for justice; there remained the question of who the \u201ccriminal\u201d was and what formative factors contributed to his wrong-doing. The call for psychiatric expertise marked the birth of the discipline of psychiatry in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as well as its widespread recognition as the foundation of criminology and modern criminal justice. Published here for the first time, the 1981 lectures have been superbly translated by Stephen W. Sawyer and expertly edited and extensively annotated by Fabienne Brion and Bernard E. Harcourt. They are accompanied by two contemporaneous interviews with Foucault in which he elaborates on a number of the key themes. An essential companion to Discipline and Punish, Wrong-Doing, Truth-Telling will take its place as one of the most significant works of Foucault to appear in decades, and will be necessary reading for all those interested in his thought.  . (shrink)