Results for 'David S. Steingard'

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  1.  63
    The Spiritually Whole-System Classroom: A Transformational Application of Spirituality.David S. Steingard - 2005 - World Futures 61 (3):228 – 246.
    This article presents theory and practical experiences related to classroom pedagogy focusing on spirituality and wholeness - the spiritually whole-system classroom. In it, spiritual principles help create a learning community founded on the experience of wholeness. The spiritually whole-system classroom allows participants the opportunity of "being connected with one's complete self, others, and the entire universe" in order to serve a meaningful, broader purpose. This type of transformation engages heads, hearts, spirits, and hands in the pursuit of a more enlightening (...)
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  2.  38
    How Teaching Business Ethics Makes a Difference: Findings From an Ethical Learning Model.Edward R. Balotsky & David S. Steingard - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 3:5-34.
    This paper introduces a four-stage ethical learning model that we posit will augment the evaluation of the effectiveness of business ethics education. Using the Ignatian (Jesuit, Catholic) methodologies of self-reflection and discernment, comments by 195 undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in an American university regarding the relationship between ethical attitudes and business conduct are examined before and after completing a business ethics course. Results suggest that ethics education can 1) raise students’ ethical awareness, and 2) shift ethical attitudes in either (...)
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  3.  14
    The Benefit Corporation.David Steingard & Jay Coen Gilbert - 2016 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 35 (1):5-15.
    Jay Coen Gilbert, co-founder of B Lab, discusses his vision for a “new economy” where business is a “force for good.” In this interview, Coen Gilbert provides an overview of how B Lab’s various initiatives—Certified B Corporations, the B Impact Assessment, B Analytics, GIIRS, and Benefit Corporations—function interdependently to accelerate a culture shift to redefine success in business. Coen Gilbert then focuses on the role of benefit corporations in this larger movement. The benefit corporation is a new legal form of (...)
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  4. Real Essentialism.David S. Oderberg - 2007 - New York: Routledge.
    _Real Essentialism_ presents a comprehensive defence of neo-Aristotelian essentialism. Do objects have essences? Must they be the kinds of things they are in spite of the changes they undergo? Can we know what things are really like – can we define and classify reality? Many, if not most, philosophers doubt this, influenced by centuries of empiricism, and by the anti-essentialism of Wittgenstein, Quine, Popper, and other thinkers. _Real Essentialism_ reinvigorates the tradition of realist, essentialist metaphysics, defending the reality and knowability (...)
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  5.  28
    David Bentley Hart's The Beauty of the Infinite: Critical Responses.David S. Cunningham - 2007 - New Blackfriars 88 (1017):581-584.
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  6.  40
    Hippocampus, Space, and Memory.David S. Olton, James T. Becker & Gail E. Handelmann - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):313-322.
    We examine two different descriptions of the behavioral functions of the hippocampal system. One emphasizes spatially organized behaviors, especially those using cognitive maps. The other emphasizes memory, particularly working memory, a short-term memory that requires iexible stimulus-response associations and is highly susceptible to interference. The predictive value of the spatial and memory descriptions were evaluated by testing rats with damage to the hippocampal system in a series of experiments, independently manipulating the spatial and memory characteristics of a behavioral task. No (...)
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  7. Essence and Properties.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    The distinction between the essence of an object and its properties has been obscured in contemporary discussion of essentialism. Locke held that the properties of an object are exclusively those features that ‘flow’ from its essence. Here he follows the Aristotelian theory, leaving aside Locke’s own scepticism about the knowability of essence. I defend the need to distinguish sharply between essence and properties, arguing that essence must be given by form and that properties flow from form. I give a precise (...)
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  8.  82
    The Explanation Game: A Formal Framework for Interpretable Machine Learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Synthese 198 (10):1–⁠32.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  9.  13
    The Ways of Confucianism: Investigations in Chinese Philosophy.David S. Nivison - 1996 - Open Court Publishing.
    "Nivison brings out the exciting variety within Confucian thought, as he interprets and elucidates key thinkers from over two thousand years, from Confucius himself, through Mencius and Xunzi, to such later Confucians as Wang Yangming, Dai Zhen, and Zhang Xuecheng."--Cover.
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  10.  81
    Clinical Applications of Machine Learning Algorithms: Beyond the Black Box.David S. Watson, Jenny Krutzinna, Ian N. Bruce, Christopher E. M. Griffiths, Iain B. McInnes, Michael R. Barnes & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - British Medical Journal 364:I886.
    Machine learning algorithms may radically improve our ability to diagnose and treat disease. For moral, legal, and scientific reasons, it is essential that doctors and patients be able to understand and explain the predictions of these models. Scalable, customisable, and ethical solutions can be achieved by working together with relevant stakeholders, including patients, data scientists, and policy makers.
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  11.  13
    The World of Thought in Ancient China.David S. Nivison - 1988 - Philosophy East and West 38 (4):411-419.
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  12.  21
    A Distributed Connectionist Production System.David S. Touretzky & Geoffrey E. Hinton - 1988 - Cognitive Science 12 (3):423-466.
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  13.  34
    Essays on Hegel's Philosophy of Subjective Spirit: Imaginative Transformation and Ethical Action in Literature.David S. Stern (ed.) - 2013 - State University of New York Press.
    The first English-language collection devoted to Hegel’s Philosophy of Subjective Spirit.
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  14.  78
    Reconsidering Virtue: Differences of Perspective in Virtue Ethics and the Positive Social Sciences.David S. Bright, Bradley A. Winn & Jason Kanov - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (4):1-16.
    This paper describes differences in two perspectives on the idea of virtue as a theoretical foundation for positive organizational ethics (POE). The virtue ethics perspective is grounded in the philosophical tradition, has classical roots, and focuses attention on virtue as a property of character. The positive social science perspective is a recent movement (e.g., positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship) that has implications for POE. The positive social science movement operationalizes virtue through an empirical lens that emphasizes virtuous behaviors. From (...)
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  15.  51
    Plato's Cretan City: A Historical Interpretation of the Laws. Glenn R. Morrow.David S. Scarrow - 1960 - Ethics 72 (3):216-217.
  16.  50
    Death, Unity and the Brain.David S. Oderberg - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (5):359-379.
    The Dead Donor Rule holds that removing organs from a living human being without their consent is wrongful killing. The rule still prevails in most countries, and I assume it without argument in order to pose the question: is it possible to have a metaphysically correct, clinically relevant analysis of human death that makes organ donation possible? I argue that the two dominant criteria of death, brain death and circulatory death, are both empirically and metaphysically inadequate as definitions of human (...)
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  17. Hylemorphic Dualism.David S. Oderberg - 2005 - Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (2):70-99.
    To the extent that dualism is even taken to be a serious option in contemporary discussions of personal identity and the philosophy of mind, it is almost exclusively either Cartesian dualism or property dualism that is considered. The more traditional dualism defended by Aristotelians and Thomists, what I call hylemorphic dualism, has only received scattered attention. In this essay I set out the main lines of the hylemorphic dualist position, with particular reference to personal identity. First I argue that overemphasis (...)
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  18. Finality Revived: Powers and Intentionality.David S. Oderberg - 2017 - Synthese 194 (7):2387-2425.
    Proponents of physical intentionality argue that the classic hallmarks of intentionality highlighted by Brentano are also found in purely physical powers. Critics worry that this idea is metaphysically obscure at best, and at worst leads to panpsychism or animism. I examine the debate in detail, finding both confusion and illumination in the physical intentionalist thesis. Analysing a number of the canonical features of intentionality, I show that they all point to one overarching phenomenon of which both the mental and the (...)
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  19. The Rhetoric and Reality of Anthropomorphism in Artificial Intelligence.David S. Watson - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (3):417-440.
    Artificial intelligence has historically been conceptualized in anthropomorphic terms. Some algorithms deploy biomimetic designs in a deliberate attempt to effect a sort of digital isomorphism of the human brain. Others leverage more general learning strategies that happen to coincide with popular theories of cognitive science and social epistemology. In this paper, I challenge the anthropomorphic credentials of the neural network algorithm, whose similarities to human cognition I argue are vastly overstated and narrowly construed. I submit that three alternative supervised learning (...)
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  20.  16
    Comparative Analysis of Episodic Memory.David S. Olton - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (2):250.
  21.  69
    Espousing Interactions and Fielding Reactions: Addressing Laypeople's Beliefs About Genetic Determinism.David S. Moore - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):331 – 348.
    Although biologists and philosophers of science generally agree that genes cannot determine the forms of biological and psychological traits, students, journalists, politicians, and other members of the general public nonetheless continue to embrace genetic determinism. This article identifies some of the concerns typically raised by individuals when they first encounter the systems perspective that biologists and philosophers of science now favor over genetic determinism, and uses arguments informed by that perspective to address those concerns. No definitive statements can yet be (...)
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  22. Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Disclosures: An Alternative Explanation for Increased Disclosure. [REVIEW]David S. Gelb & Joyce A. Strawser - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 33 (1):1 - 13.
    Researchers and practitioners have devoted considerable attention to firms'' policies regarding discretionary disclosures. Prior studies argue that firms increase demand for their debt and equity issues and, thus, lower their cost of capital, by providing more informative disclosures. However, empirical research has generally not been able to document significant benefits from increased disclosure.This paper proposes an alternative explanation – firms disclose because it is the socially responsible thing to do. We argue that companies have incentives to engage in stakeholder management (...)
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  23.  90
    Coincidence Under a Sortal.David S. Oderberg - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (2):145-171.
    The question whether two things can be in the same place at the same time is an ambiguous one. At least three distinct questions could be meant: Can two things simpliciter be in the same place at the same time? Can two things of the same kind be in the same place at the same time? Can two substances of the same kind be in the same place at the same time? The answers to these questions vary. In what follows, (...)
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  24. Further Clarity on Cooperation and Morality.David S. Oderberg - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (4):192-200.
    I explore the increasingly important issue of co-operation in immoral actions, particularly in connection with health care. Conscientious objection, especially as pertains to religious freedom in health care, has become a pressing issue in the light of the US Supreme Court judgment in Hobby Lobby. Section 2 outlines a theory of co-operation inspired by Catholic moral theologians such as those cited by the Court. The theory has independent plausibility and is at least worthy of serious consideration – in part because (...)
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  25.  14
    Literature in the Drama of Nature and Grace: Hans Urs von Balthasar's Paradigm for a Theology of Culture.David S. Yeago - 1996 - Renascence 48 (2):95-109.
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  26.  31
    David S. Oderberg and Jacqueline A. Laing, Human Lives: Critical Essays on Consequentialist Bioethics.Reviewed by David M. Adams - 2000 - Ethics 110 (2).
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  27.  4
    Philosophy's Second Revolution: Early and Recent Analytic Philosophy.David S. Clarke - 1997 - Open Court Publishing Company.
    Clarke proposes a conception of philosophy that provides an alternative to the reductions of materialism and the search for normative principles. Philosophy's proper role is to describe similarities and differences among differing levels of language, specifically the familiar level of discourse within an ordinary language shared by all and the specialized discourses of social institutions such as science, law, and the arts. By constructing a logical framework in which these comparisons and contrasts can be made, philosophy performs the indispensable role (...)
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  28.  8
    The Explanation Game: A Formal Framework for Interpretable Machine Learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Synthese 198 (10):9211-9242.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  29.  1
    BoltzCONS: Dynamic Symbol Structures in a Connectionist Network.David S. Touretzky - 1990 - Artificial Intelligence 46 (1-2):5-46.
  30.  48
    The Amplifying and Buffering Effects of Virtuousness in Downsized Organizations.David S. Bright, Kim S. Cameron & Arran Caza - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (3):249-269.
    Virtuousness refers to the pursuit of the highest aspirations in the human condition. It is characterized by human impact, moral goodness, and unconditional societal betterment. Several writers have recently argued that corporations, in addition to being concerned with ethics, should also emphasize an ethos of virtuousness in corporate action. Virtuousness emphasizes actions that go beyond the “do no harm” assumption embedded in most ethical codes of conduct. Instead, it emphasizes the highest and best of the human condition. This research empirically (...)
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  31.  76
    Being and Goodness.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    The old scholastic principle of the "convertibility" of being and goodness strikes nearly all moderns as either barely comprehensible or plain false. "Convertible" is a term of art meaning "interchangeable" in respect of predication, where the predicates can be exchanged salva veritate albeit not salva sensu: their referents are, as the maxim goes, really the same albeit conceptually different. The principle seems, at first blush, absurd. Did the scholastics literally mean that every being is good? Is that supposed to include (...)
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  32.  43
    The Metaphysics of Good and Evil.David S. Oderberg - 2020 - Routledge.
    The Metaphysics of Good and Evil is the first, full-length contemporary defence, from the perspective of analytic philosophy, of the Scholastic theory of good and evil - the theory of Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, and most medieval and Thomistic philosophers. Goodness is analysed as obedience to nature. Evil is analysed as the privation of goodness. Goodness, surprisingly, is found in the non-living world, but in the living world it takes on a special character. The book analyses various kinds of goodness, showing (...)
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  33.  34
    David S. Oderberg and Jacqueline A. Laing, Human Lives: Critical Essays on Consequentialist Bioethics:Human Lives: Critical Essays on Consequentialist Bioethics.David M. Adams - 2000 - Ethics 110 (2):434-436.
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  34.  15
    Coincidence Under a Sortal.David S. Oderberg - 1996 - Philosophical Review 105 (2):145-171.
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  35.  9
    Chinese Language, Thought, and Culture: Nivison and His Critics.David S. Nivison - 1996 - Open Court Publishing.
    This collection of essays by leading sinologists, historians, and philosophers both challenges and extends the work of David Nivison, whose contributions range across moral philosophy, religious thought, intellectual history, and Chinese language. Nivison himself replies to each essay.
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  36. The World is Not an Asymmetric Graph.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    mix of the concrete and the abstract (if we include universals, laws, propositions and the like), but whichever of these is the case, the world is not purely abstract, as a formal structure is. One might claim, however, that the world is a structure1 in the sense that it instantiates a structure and is nothing else. In other words, all there is to the..
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  37.  16
    Opting Out: Conscience and Cooperation in a Pluralistic Society.David S. Oderberg - unknown
    We live in a liberal, pluralistic, largely secular society where, in theory, there is fundamental protection for freedom of conscience generally and freedom of religion in particular. There is, however, both in statute and common law, increasing pressure on religious believers and conscientious objectors to act in ways that violate their sincere, deeply held beliefs. This is particularly so in health care, where conscientious objection is coming under extreme pressure. I argue that freedom of religion and conscience need to be (...)
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  38. Computers and Intractability. A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness.Michael R. Garey & David S. Johnson - 1983 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 48 (2):498-500.
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  39.  8
    Local Explanations via Necessity and Sufficiency: Unifying Theory and Practice.David S. Watson, Limor Gultchin, Ankur Taly & Luciano Floridi - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (1):185-218.
    Necessity and sufficiency are the building blocks of all successful explanations. Yet despite their importance, these notions have been conceptually underdeveloped and inconsistently applied in explainable artificial intelligence, a fast-growing research area that is so far lacking in firm theoretical foundations. In this article, an expanded version of a paper originally presented at the 37th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, we attempt to fill this gap. Building on work in logic, probability, and causality, we establish the central role of (...)
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  40. Moral Theory: A Non-Consequentialist Approach.David S. Oderberg - 2000 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Moral Theory_ sets out the basic system used to solve moral problems, the system that consequentialists deride as 'traditional morality'. The central concepts, principles and distinctions of traditional morality are explained and defended: rights; justice; the good; virtue; the intention/foresight distinction; the acts/omissions distinction; and, centrally, the fundamental value of human life.
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  41.  22
    Bradley's Influence Upon Modern Logic.David S. Scarrow - 1962 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 22 (3):380-382.
  42.  32
    Review of David Walsh, The Modern Philosophical Revolution: The Luminosity of Existence[REVIEW]David S. Pacini - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (9).
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  43.  63
    Reconsidering Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Cognitive Domain.David S. Moore - 1982 - Educational Theory 32 (1):29-34.
  44.  3
    The Explanation Game: A Formal Framework for Interpretable Machine Learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - In Josh Cowls & Jessica Morley (eds.), The 2020 Yearbook of the Digital Ethics Lab. Springer Verlag. pp. 109-143.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  45.  56
    The Immanence of Thought: Hegel’s Critique of Foundationalism.David S. Stern - 1990 - The Owl of Minerva 22 (1):19-33.
    From Kierkegaard’s famous polemic against Hegel’s system, and Marx’s rejection of the “mysticism” of reason, to Heidegger’s claim that Hegel completes the tradition of western metaphysics, and contemporary critics’ identification of Hegel as the authoritative spokesman — the “Master” — for the principles of unity and identity, a standard view has governed interpretations and evaluations of Hegel’s philosophy. Though familiarity with the positions just cited reveals considerable disparity, one does not need an especially discerning eye to recognize the common features (...)
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  46.  34
    Is Form Structure?David S. Oderberg - unknown
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  47.  9
    A Re-Examination of the Role of Hippocampus in Working Memory.David S. Olton, James T. Becker & Gail E. Handelmann - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):352-365.
  48.  54
    Cicero’s De Officiis.David S. Brown - 2002 - Teaching Philosophy 25 (2):151-159.
    The goal of this paper is to increase interest in Cicero’s “De Officiis” as both a textbook and resource for developing curricula at the secondary and post-secondary level. The paper begins by tracing the extensive influence that the work has had in ethics, political philosophy, literature, and education before proceeding to an explanation for why its influence has waned since the nineteenth century. Next, the paper contends that “De Officiis” addresses some of the most relevant and pressing questions in ethics. (...)
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  49. A Puzzle for Particulars?David S. Brown & Richard Brian Davis - 2008 - Axiomathes 18 (1):49-65.
    In this paper we examine a puzzle recently posed by Aaron Preston for the traditional realist assay of property (quality) instances. Consider Socrates (a red round spot) and red1—Socrates’ redness. For the traditional realist, both of these entities are concrete particulars. Further, both involve redness being `tied to’ the same bare individuator. But then it appears that red1 is duplicated in its ‘thicker’ particular (Socrates), so that it can’t be predicated of Socrates without redundancy. According to Preston, this suggests that (...)
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  50.  85
    Modal Properties, Moral Status, and Identity.David S. Oderberg - 1997 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (3):259-276.
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