Results for 'Pareto'

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  1. Spurious Unanimity and the Pareto Principle.Philippe Mongin - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (3):511-532.
    The Pareto principle states that if the members of society express the same preference judgment between two options, this judgment is compelling for society. A building block of normative economics and social choice theory, and often borrowed by contemporary political philosophy, the principle has rarely been subjected to philosophical criticism. The paper objects to it on the ground that it indifferently applies to those cases in which the individuals agree on both their expressed preferences and their reasons for entertaining (...)
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  2. The Pareto Argument for Inequality*: G. A. COHEN.G. A. Cohen - 1995 - Social Philosophy and Policy 12 (1):160-185.
    Some ways of defending inequality against the charge that it is unjust require premises that egalitarians find easy to dismiss—statements, for example, about the contrasting deserts and/or entitlements of unequally placed people. But a defense of inequality suggested by John Rawls and elaborated by Brian Barry has often proved irresistible even to people of egalitarian outlook. The persuasive power of this defense of inequality has helped to drive authentic egalitarianism, of an old-fashioned, uncompromising kind, out of contemporary political philosophy. The (...)
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  3. The Pareto Argument for Inequality Revisited.A. R. J. Fisher & Edward F. McClennen - manuscript
    One of the more obscure arguments for Rawls’ difference principle dubbed ‘the Pareto argument for inequality’ has been criticised by G. A. Cohen (1995, 2008) as being inconsistent. In this paper, we examine and clarify the Pareto argument in detail and argue (1) that justification for the Pareto principles derives from rational selfinterest and thus the Pareto principles ought to be understood as conditions of individual rationality, (2) that the Pareto argument is not inconsistent, contra (...)
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  4.  42
    Pareto Principles, Positive Responsiveness, and Majority Decisions.Susumu Cato - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (4):503-518.
    This article investigates the relationship among the weak Pareto principle, the strong Pareto principle, and positive responsiveness in the context of voting. First, it is shown that under a mild domain condition, if an anonymous and neutral collective choice rule (CCR) is complete and transitive, then the weak Pareto principle and the strong Pareto principle are equivalent. Next, it is shown that under another mild domain condition, if a neutral CCR is transitive, then the strong (...) principle and positive responsiveness are equivalent. By applying these results, we obtain a new characterization of the method of majority decision. (shrink)
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  5. The Ex Ante Pareto Principle.Anna Mahtani - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy 114 (6):303-323.
    The concept of ‘pareto superiority’ plays a central role in ethics, economics, and law. Pareto superiority is sometimes taken as a relation between outcomes, and sometimes as a relation between actions—even where the outcomes of the actions are uncertain. Whether one action is classed as pareto superior to another depends on the prospects under the actions for each person concerned. I argue that a person’s prospects can depend on how that person is designated. Without any constraints on (...)
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  6.  47
    The Pareto Argument and Inequality.Patrick Shaw - 1999 - Philosophical Quarterly 49 (196):353-368.
    The Pareto argument for inequality holds that any change from a position of equality to one of inequality is justified so long as everyone benefits from the change. G.A. Cohen criticizes this argument (which he attributes to Rawls) on the ground that changes can normally be found which preserve both equality and Pareto‐efficiency. However, this does not resolve the basic conflict between the two desiderata. Strong egalitarians hold that Pareto changes are not for the better if they (...)
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  7.  47
    A Pareto Principle for Possible People.Christoph Fehige - 1998 - In Christoph Fehige & Ulla Wessels (eds.), Preferences. De Gruyter. pp. 509--43.
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  8.  29
    The Pareto Rule and Strategic Voting.Ian MacIntyre - 1991 - Theory and Decision 31 (1):1-19.
  9. Pareto’s Sociological Maximum of Utility of the Community and the Theory of the Elites.Paolo Silvestri & Francesco Forte - 2013 - In Jurgen Backhaus (ed.), Essentials of Fiscal Sociology. Conceptions of an Encyclopedia. Peter Lang. pp. 231-265.
    The paper deals with three interrelated Pareto’s contributions to fiscal sociology of relevant contemporary importance, i. e., the maximum of utility of the community as a sociological process (Pareto II criterion of maximum welfare), the non logical actions consisting of derivations based on residuals and the theory of the elites. Pareto II welfare criterion of sociological maximization of individual utilities is compared with Pareto I welfare criterion, commonly known as Pareto criterion, introducing the process of (...)
     
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  10.  17
    Pareto and Political Theory.Joseph V. Femia - 2006 - Routledge.
    Pareto and Political Theory offers a much-needed reappraisal of Vilfredo Pareto's often ignored or misunderstood contribution to the theory and philosophy of politics. Joseph V. Femia disputes the depiction of Pareto as a proto-fascist and locates him in a clear tradition of 'sceptical liberalism', which eschews metaphysical abstractions and adopts a 'realist' approach to practical politics.
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  11.  33
    ‘Q-Pareto-Scalar’ Two-Stage Extremization Model and its Reducibility to One-Stage Model.Fuad Aleskerov & Yetkin Çinar - 2008 - Theory and Decision 65 (4):325-338.
    A two-stage sequential choice model is studied, the first stage being defined by q-Pareto multicriterial choice rule, and the second stage being defined by scalar extremization model. In this model, at the first stage the q-Pareto rule choses alternatives which are not only undominated in terms of Pareto comparison, but also includes into choice the alternatives which are dominated by no more than q alternatives. Since the choice set of the first-stage usually contains too many elements, obtained (...)
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  12.  2
    Pareto Optimization for Subset Selection with Dynamic Cost Constraints.Vahid Roostapour, Aneta Neumann, Frank Neumann & Tobias Friedrich - 2022 - Artificial Intelligence 302:103597.
  13.  9
    Manual of Political Economy: A Variorum Translation and Critical Edition.Vilfredo Pareto - 2014 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Vilfredo Pareto's Manual of Political Economy is a 'classic' study in the history of economic thought. It is not only one of the leading works in the Lausanne tradition of economics, which centres on the theory of general equilibrium, it is one of the most important books in the history of neoclassical economics. This 'critical edition' of Pareto's Manual of Political Economy is a very significant work for two main reasons. First, it is the only variorum translation of (...)
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  14. Pareto Et le Pouvoir.Julien Freund - 1974 - Res Publica 16 (1):19-31.
    Pareto isn't interested in the nature of politics but in the political society and in its equilibrium. The method he finally adopted, after some hesitations, is the one he tested in his economical and sociological research work. Analysing the changing of the elites, he stresses the importance of the minority that is in power. However the decline of an oligarchy is always concomitant with the coming up of another one. As far as Pareto's personal political stand is concerned (...)
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  15. Pareto Unanimity and Consensus.Isaac Levi - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (9):481-492.
  16.  57
    Legal Necessity, Pareto Efficiency & Justified Killing in Autonomous Vehicle Collisions.Geoff Keeling - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (2):413-427.
    Suppose a driverless car encounters a scenario where harm to at least one person is unavoidable and a choice about how to distribute harms between different persons is required. How should the driverless car be programmed to behave in this situation? I call this the moral design problem. Santoni de Sio defends a legal-philosophical approach to this problem, which aims to bring us to a consensus on the moral design problem despite our disagreements about which moral principles provide the correct (...)
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  17.  50
    Pareto Efficiency in Multiple Referendum.Tuğçe Çuhadaroğlu & Jean Lainé - 2012 - Theory and Decision 72 (4):525-536.
    We consider situations of multiple referendum: finitely many yes-or-no issues have to be socially assessed from a set of approval ballots, where voters approve as many issues as they want. Each approval ballot is extended to a complete preorder over the set of outcomes by means of a preference extension. We characterize, under a mild richness condition, the largest domain of top-consistent and separable preference extensions for which issue-wise majority voting is Pareto efficient, i.e., always yields out a (...)-optimal outcome. Top-consistency means that voters’ ballots are their unique most preferred outcome. It appears that the size of this domain becomes negligible relative to the size of the full domain as the number of issues increases. (shrink)
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  18.  8
    Pareto Unanimity and Consensus.Isaac Levi - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (9):481-492.
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  19. Pareto Optimality, External Benefits and Public Goods: A Subjectivist Approach.Barry P. Brownstein - 1980 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 4 (1):93-106.
  20.  47
    Is Pareto Optimality a Criterion of Justice?Ann E. Cudd - 1996 - Social Theory and Practice 22 (1):1-34.
  21. Decide As You Would With Full Information! An Argument Against Ex Ante Pareto.Marc Fleurbaey & Alex Voorhoeve - 2013 - In Ole Norheim, Samia Hurst, Nir Eyal & Dan Wikler (eds.), Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Policy-makers must sometimes choose between an alternative which has somewhat lower expected value for each person, but which will substantially improve the outcomes of the worst off, or an alternative which has somewhat higher expected value for each person, but which will leave those who end up worst off substantially less well off. The popular ex ante Pareto principle requires the choice of the alternative with higher expected utility for each. We argue that ex ante Pareto ought to (...)
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  22.  18
    Mind and Society.Vilfredo Pareto - unknown
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  23.  88
    Pareto Utility.Masako Ikefuji, Roger J. A. Laeven, Jan R. Magnus & Chris Muris - 2013 - Theory and Decision 75 (1):43-57.
    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility is a flexible yet simple and parsimonious two-parameter family. It exhibits decreasing absolute risk aversion and increasing but bounded relative risk aversion. It is applicable irrespective of the probability distribution relevant to (...)
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  24. Pareto Optimality in Policy Espousal.Leland B. Yeager - 1978 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 2 (3):199-216.
  25.  30
    Pareto Improvements by Pareto Strategic Voting Under Majority Voting with Risk Loving and Risk Avoiding Voters — A Note.I. D. A. Macintyre - 1995 - Theory and Decision 39 (2):207-211.
    Voters satisfy maximin or maximax in their choices between sets of alternatives and secure a Pareto improvement by all voting strategically under simple majority voting for particular sincere preferences. Thus the assumption that strategic voting is a bad thing is challenged and the idea that we should reject voting because of the possibility of misrepresentation dismissed.
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  26.  1
    On Pareto Optimality in Social Distance Games.Alkida Balliu, Michele Flammini, Giovanna Melideo & Dennis Olivetti - forthcoming - Artificial Intelligence:103768.
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  27. Pareto's Central Analytical Scheme.Talcott Parsons - 1936 - Journal of Social Philosophy and Jurisprudence 1 (3):244.
     
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  28.  21
    The Pareto Efficiency and Expected Costs of K-Majority Rules.Keith L. Dougherty & Julian Edward - 2004 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (2):161-189.
    Florida International University, USA edwardj{at}fiu.edu ' + u + '@ ' + d + ' '/ /- -> Several authors have analyzed the optimal k -majority rule based on a variety of criteria. Buchanan and Tullock argued that, in constitutional settings, the criterion should be that all changes meet the Pareto criterion; otherwise the status quo should be preferred. They then asserted that unanimity rule would be the preferred voting rule in this setting. In parliamentary settings, they claimed that (...)
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  29.  32
    Pareto's Theory of Social and Economic Cycles: A Formal Model and Simulation.Charles H. Powers & Robert A. Hanneman - 1983 - Sociological Theory 1:59-89.
    In his sociological works Pareto developed a theory of cyclical social change within the general equilibrium framework. Building on an earlier propositional formalization, we translate Pareto's theory into a series of simultaneous equations and simulate the equation system. The dynamic behavior of the simulation is consistent with Pareto's predictions and demonstrates the internal logic of the theory.
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  30. A Pareto-Optimal Solution-or, Another Modest Proposal for Health-Care Reform.Bj Crigger - 1994 - Hastings Center Report 24 (2):2-2.
     
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  31. Pareto, la théorie de l'équilibre, coll. « Philosophie ».Julien Freund - 1976 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 166 (1):38-39.
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  32. Pareto as a Psychologist.William Mcdougall - 1935 - Journal of Social Philosophy and Jurisprudence 1 (1):34.
     
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  33. The Pareto Efficiency and Expected Cost of K-Majority Rules: A Probabilistic Study of 'The Calculus of Consent'.Keith L. Dougherty & Julian Edward - forthcoming - Politics, Philosophy, and Economics.
     
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  34. Pareto's General Sociology: A Physiologist's Interpretation.Lawrence J. Henderson - 1935 - The Monist 45:316.
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  35. Vilfredo Pareto and the Sociology of Knowledge.Brigitte Berger - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
  36.  2
    Pareto on Idealization and the Method of Analysis-Synthesis.Francesco Guala - 1998 - Social Science Information 37 (1):23-44.
    Philosophers of science and philosophers of economics have recently “rediscovered” the problem of idealization. In this paper a taxonomy of different kinds of idealizing procedures is applied to Pareto's views on the status of economics among the social sciences. The paper aims to show that the evolution of Pareto's career as a social scientist can be seen in a new perspective, as a long and in the end unresolved struggle with the problem of analysis-synthesis.
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  37.  74
    Welfare, Justice, and Pareto Efficiency.Sven Ove Hansson - 2004 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (4):361-380.
    In economic analysis, it is usually assumed that each individuals well-being (mental welfare) depends on her or his own resources (material welfare). A typology is provided of the ways in which one persons well-being may depend on the material resources of other persons. When such dependencies are taken into account, standard Paretian analysis of welfare needs to be modified. Pareto efficiency on the level of material resources need not coincide with Pareto efficiency on the level of well-being. A (...)
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  38.  3
    Pareto Optimal Allocation Under Uncertain Preferences: Uncertainty Models, Algorithms, and Complexity.Haris Aziz, Péter Biró, Ronald de Haan & Baharak Rastegari - 2019 - Artificial Intelligence 276:57-78.
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  39. PARETO V. - "Manuale di economia politica". [REVIEW]F. Enriques - 1907 - Scientia 1 (1):353.
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  40. Pareto V. - "manuale Di Economia Politica". [REVIEW]F. Enriques - 1907 - Scientia, Rivista di Scienza 1 (1):353.
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  41.  14
    Pareto au Congrès International de Philosophie de Genève (1904).Giovanni Busino - 1963 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 45 (1):33-42.
  42.  30
    Report: Pareto Optimum in a Different Approach to Economics. [REVIEW]Bruno de Finetti - 1974 - Theory and Decision 5 (3):343-344.
  43.  14
    Vilfredo Pareto: Beyond Disciplinary Boundaries.Maria Luisa Maniscalco - 2015 - The European Legacy 20 (4):419-420.
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  44. Pareto e la crisi delle scienze.A. Pizzorno - 1973 - Rivista di Filosofia 64 (3):203.
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  45. Pareto e il diritto naturale.Norberto Bobbio - 1975 - Rivista di Filosofia 66:57-76.
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  46. Pareto e la teoria dell'argomentazione.Norberto Bobbio - 1961 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 58 (4=58):376-399.
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  47. Pareto e la critica delle ideologie.Norberto Bobbio - forthcoming - Rivista di Filosofia.
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  48. Vilfredo Pareto e la critica delie ideologie.Norberto Bobbio - 1957 - Rivista di Filosofia 48 (4):355-381.
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  49. Pareto's Contribution to Social Science.Charner Perry - 1935 - International Journal of Ethics 46 (1):96-107.
  50. Sumner, Pareto, and Educational Constants.Carl M. Tausig - 1969 - Educational Theory 19 (3):223-235.
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