In this paper we address the problem of combining a logic with nonmonotonic modal logic. In particular we study the intuitionistic case. We start from a formal analysis of the notion of intuitionistic consistency via the sequent calculus. The epistemic operator M is interpreted as the consistency operator of intuitionistic logic by introducing intuitionistic stable sets. On the basis of a bimodal structure we also provide a semantics for intuitionistic stable sets.
The Autobiography of Giambattista Vico is significant both as a source of insight into the influences on the eighteenth-century philosopher's intellectual development and as one of the earliest and most sophisticated examples of philosophical autobiography. Referring to himself in the third person, Vico records the course of his life and the influence that various thinkers had on the development of concepts central to his mature work. Beyond its relevance to the development of the New Science, the Autobiography is also (...) of interest for the light it sheds on Italian culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.Still regarded by many as the best English-language translation of this classic work, the Cornell edition was widely lauded when first published in 1944. Wrote the Saturday Review of Literature: "Here was something new in the art of self-revelation. Vico wrote of his childhood, the psychological influences to which he was subjected, the social conditions under which he grew up and received an education and evolved his own way of thinking. It was so outstanding a piece of work that it was held up as a model, which it still is.". (shrink)
A translation that provides a complete picture of Vico as a forerunner of constructivist epistemology. It demonstrates that he was a critic of the enlightenment, a significant humanist and culture theorist who influenced Karl Marx and James Joyce.
Introduction : interpreting The new science -- Synopsis of universal law -- The true and the certain : from On the one principle and one end of universal law -- A new science is essayed : from On the constancy of the jurisprudent -- On Homer and his two poems : from the dissertations -- Vico's address to his readers from a lost manuscript on jurisprudence -- Vico's reply to the false book notice : the Vici vindiciae -- Vico's "ignota (...) latebat" : on the impresa and the dipintura -- Vico's addition to the tree of the poetic sciences and his use of the muses -- Vico's reprehension of the metaphysics of René Descartes, Benedict Spinoza, and John Locke -- Appendix : Vico's writings in English translation. (shrink)
Giambattista Vico’s ‘Nova Sciencia’ can be read as an early program of qualitative research in humanities. By discussing Vico’s theory of metaphor, Vanessa Albus presents Vico as a predecessor of modern neurolinguistics and semiotics. Moreover Vico anticipates in metaphorical terms the flexible rules of actual ‘grounded theory’ as ‘lead lesbian ruler’ or Peirce’s logical principle of ‘abduction’ as ‘salto.’ One may ask whether this is an ‘open agenda of modernity’ complementary to Toulmin’s hypothesis of a ‘hidden’ one represented by (...) Montaigne. (shrink)
We present a class of normal modal calculi PFD, whose syntax is endowed with operators M r, one for each r [0,1] : if a is sentence, M r is to he read the probability that a is true is strictly greater than r and to he evaluated as true or false in every world of a F-restricted probabilistic kripkean model. Every such a model is a kripkean model, enriched by a family of regular probability evaluations with range in a (...) fixed finite subset F of [0,1] : there is one such a function for every world w, P F, and this allows to evaluate M ra as true in the world w iff p F r.For every fixed F as before, suitable axioms and rules are displayed, so that the resulting system P FD is complete and compact with respect to the class of all the F-restricted probabilistic kripkean models. (shrink)
_A fresh translation of _The New Science_, with detailed footnotes that will help both the scholar and the new reader navigate Vico’s masterpiece_ _The New Science_ is the major work of Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico. First published in 1725 and revised in 1730 and 1744, it calls for a reinterpretation of human civilization by tracing the stages of historical development shared by all societies. Almost unknown during his lifetime, the work had a profound influence on later thinkers, from Montesquieu (...) and Marx to Joyce and Gadamer. This edition offers a fresh translation and detailed annotations which enable the reader to track Vico’s multiple allusions to other texts. The introduction situates the work firmly within a contemporary context and newly establishes Vico as a thinker of modernity. (shrink)
This volume contains essays that examine the optical works of Giambattista Della Porta, an Italian natural philosopher during the Scientific Revolution. Coverage also explores the science and technology of early modern optics. Della Porta's groundbreaking book, Magia Naturalis, includes a prototype of the camera. Yet, because of his obsession with magic, Della Porta's scientific achievements are often forgotten. As the contributors argue, his work inspired such great minds as Johanes Kepler and Francis Bacon. After reading this book, researchers, historians, (...) and students will have a better appreciation of this influential scientist. They will also gain a greater understanding of an important period in the history of optics. Readers will learn about Della Porta's experimental method, a process governed by the protocols, aims, and theoretical assumptions of natural magic. Coverage also discusses the material properties and limitations of optical technology in the early 17th century, based on a recently discovered Dutch spyglass. It also demonstrates how diagrams were instrumental in the discovery of the sine law of refraction. In addition, the book includes an in-depth analysis of previously untranslated Latin sources. This makes the material useful to historians of optics unfamiliar with the language. More than 70 illustrations complement the text. (shrink)
Hilbert’s axiomatic approach to the sciences was characterized by a dynamic methodology tied to scientific and mathematical fields under investigation. In particular, it is an analytic art for choosing axioms but, at the same time, it has to include dynamically synthetic procedures and meta-theoretical reflections. Axioms have to be useful, or capture something, or help as part of explanations. The Andréka-Németi group use several formal axiomatic theories together to re-capture, predict, recover or explain the phenomena of special relativity, general relativity (...) and classical kinematics. Their scientific methodology is close to Hilbert’s conceptions of how science should be done ideally. In this paper, we compare Formica’s reading of Hilbert’s axiomatic method to the method used by the Andréka-Németi group. (shrink)
The relatedness between a country or a firm and a product is a measure of the feasibility of that economic activity. As such, it is a driver for investments at a private and institutional level. Traditionally, relatedness is measured using networks derived by country-level co-occurrences of product pairs, that is counting how many countries export both. In this work, we compare networks and machine learning algorithms trained not only on country-level data, but also on firms, which is something not much (...) studied due to the low availability of firm-level data. We quantitatively compare the different measures of relatedness, by using them to forecast the exports at the country and firm level, assuming that more related products have a higher likelihood to be exported in the future. Our results show that relatedness is scale dependent: the best assessments are obtained by using machine learning on the same typology of data one wants to predict. Moreover, we found that while relatedness measures based on country data are not suitable for firms, firm-level data are very informative also for the development of countries. In this sense, models built on firm data provide a better assessment of relatedness. We also discuss the effect of using parameter optimization and community detection algorithms to identify clusters of related companies and products, finding that a partition into a higher number of blocks decreases the computational time while maintaining a prediction performance well above the network-based benchmarks. (shrink)
En este artículo se propone una lectura de las obras de Giambattista Vico y Eric Voegelin, cuyo objetivo es evidenciar importantes puntos de contacto entre ellas, en particular en lo que se refiere a su acercamiento al tema del fundacionalismo. Para ambos autores la trascendencia del significado últ..
The theories of language and society of Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) are examined in this textual analysis of the full range of his theoretical writings, with special emphasis on his little-known early works. Vico's fundamental importance in the history of European ideas lies in his strong anti-Cartesian, anti-French and anti-Enlightenment views. In an age in which intellectuals adopted a rational approach, Vico stressed the nonrational element in man - in particular, imagination - as well as social and civil relationships, none (...) of them reducible to the scientific theories so popular in his time. (shrink)
This handsome volume is an outgrowth of Giambattista Vico, An International Symposium, edited by Giorgio Tagliacozzo and Hayden White and published in 1969, in which Vichian influences were explored by distinguished scholars in diverse fields. The original volume was meant to be exploratory in nature, analyzing Vico’s sometimes obscure thought in terms of historical theory and contemporary humanistic relevance.
We show that modal logics characterized by a class of frames satisfying the insertion property are suitable for Reiter's default logic. We refine the canonical fix point construction defined by Marek, Schwarz and Truszczyński for Reiter's default logic and thus we addrress a new paradigm for nonmonotonic logic. In fact, differently from the construction defined by these authors. we show that suitable modal logics for such a construction must indeed contain K D4. When reflexivity is added to the modal logic (...) used for the fix point construction then we come to the Marek Schwarz and Truszczyński framework for Reiter's default logic. Our framework, in fact, is appropriate also to the family of modal logics in between S4 and S4f. If, instead, reflexivity is dropped, then we show that a new family of modal logics is gained, namely the modal logics in between KD4 and KD4Z. The upper bound can be extended to the modal logic KD4LZ whenever the propositional language taken into account is finite. (shrink)
Giambattista Vico fue un pensador audaz, original e importante. Vico es el padre de una nueva visión del papel del mito, de los rituales y del lenguaje. [...] Me gustaría decir por qué creo que merece la pena leer a Vico, y por qué hoy es de alguna manera mejor conocido de lo que lo fue en períodos previos. Su nombre, contrariamente al de aquellos otros grandes creadores, no está unido a un único descubrimiento que haga época, aunque hubiera (...) adelantado muchas ideas de gran audacia y originalidad. [...] Propuso una nueva visión de la naturaleza humana entendida en términos sociales, como algo que crece y se transforma. Nos hizo ser conscientes de la necesidad de utilizar la imaginación disciplinada por la investigación empírica con el fin de entender las instituciones de otras gentes que son en gran medida diferentes a nosotros, de "adentrarnos en sus mentes", como así dice [...].En muchos sentidos, a Vico cabe razonablemente considerarle como el padre de la historia cultural.Giambattista Vico was an audacius, original and important thinker. Vico is the father of new view of the role of myth, of ritual and of langauge. [...] I should say why I think Vico is worth reading at all, and why he is somewhat better known today than at some previous periods. His name, unlike those of other grear originators, is not attached to one single, epoch-making discovery, for he put forward many ideas of great boldness and originality. [...] He propounded a new view of human nature, conceived in social terms, as something which grows and transforms itself. He made us aware of the need to use imagination disciplined by empirical research in order to understand the institutions of people greately different from ourselves, to "enter the minds" of such beings, as he puts it. In many ways Vico can reasonabley be regarded as the father of cultural history. (shrink)
Vico n’accepte pas l’idée cartésienne d’une méthode universelle et géométrique; il lui reproche de sacrifier l’esprit d’invention à l’esprit critique et d’être impuissante dans tous les problèmes étrangers au nombre ; il place à tort le critère du vrai dans le sens individuel. A la méthode analytique, Vico substitue la méthode synthétique qui compose l’objet à connaître. Pourtant, dans la Scienza nuova, Vico paraît se rapprocher de l’esprit cartésien ; car il suppose que les principes qui gouvernent les sociétés se (...) retrouvent dans l’homme, sujet connaissant. (shrink)
El pensador napolitano Giambattista Vico (16681744) de reconocida autoridad en el campo de la investigación histórica es considerado, también, el inaugurador de la Filosofía de la Historia en una época en la cual aún no existía una denominación específica para designar ese tipo de estudio. No o..
It may be an exaggeration to claim the twentieth century as Vico's, but the present volume attests that Vico's thought "is alive and doing well." Thirty-nine scholars from Italy, England, France, Germany, the United States, and Australia submitted original essays for the occasion, and the editor furnished not only an essay, but also a preface and an epilogue. The essays are divided into four groups: Comparative Historical Studies; Vico's Influence on Western Thought and Letters; Vico and Contemporary Social and Humanist (...) Thinking; Vico and Modern Philosophy, Pedagogy, and Aesthetics. With a few notable exceptions, the main effort is to show the pervasive influence of Vichian concepts in the modern world. If this does not always come off, there remains the striking parallelism of Vico's thinking with modern streams in such varied fields of the social sciences as philosophy of history, linguistics, epistemology, phenomenology, existentialism, Gestalt psychology, sociology, cultural, philosophical, and structural anthropology, and, of course, the anti-Cartesian stance of much of contemporary philosophy. Space does not permit the listing of the individual contributors and the titles of their essays. Suffice it say that they constitute a useful beginning for the interpretation of modern thought in terms of Vichian origins and for the reinterpretation of Vico's thought in terms of contemporary extensions of basically similar views. The volume also contains a four-and-a-half page bibliography of works on Vico in English. Regrettably, there is no listing of translations into English of Vico's own works. Even more regrettable is the omission of works on Vico in any other language--a sad capitulation to the provincialism and chauvinism which sometimes passes as American scholarship.--H. B. (shrink)
In spite of the many efforts made to clarify von Neumann’s methodology of science, one crucial point seems to have been disregarded in recent literature: his closeness to Hilbert’s spirit. In this paper I shall claim that the scientific methodology adopted by von Neumann in his later foundational reflections originates in the attempt to revaluate Hilbert’s axiomatics in the light of Gödel’s incompleteness theorems. Indeed, axiomatics continues to be pursued by the Hungarian mathematician in the spirit of Hilbert’s school. I (...) shall argue this point by examining four basic ideas embraced by von Neumann in his foundational considerations: a) the conservative attitude to assume in mathematics; b) the role that mathematics and the axiomatic approach have to play in all that is science; c) the notion of success as an alternative methodological criterion to follow in scientific research; d) the empirical and, at the same time, abstract nature of mathematical thought. Once these four basic ideas have been accepted, Hilbert’s spirit in von Neumann’s methodology of science will become clear. (shrink)