Results for 'Gerhard Sprenger'

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  1. Jahre Rechtsphilosophie.Gerhard Sprenger - 2009 - In Annette Brockmöller & Eric Hilgendorf (eds.), Rechtsphilosophie Im 20. Jahrhundert: 100 Jahre Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie. Nomos.
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    Praktische Vernunft Und Theorien Der Gerechtigkeit: Xv. Weltkongress Der Internationalen Vereinigung Für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie, Göttingen, 18. Bis 24. August 1991. [REVIEW]Werner Maihofer & Gerhard Sprenger (eds.) - 1900 - F. Steiner.
    Vihjanen: Institutional Mercy u S. Harwood: Is Mercy Unjust? u K. Tuori: Critical Positivism and the Problem of the Legitimacy of Law u K. Sevon: The Practical ...
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    Technisches Nichtwissen: Jahrbuch Technikphilosophie.Alexander Friedrich, Petra Gehring, Christoph Hubig, Andreas Kaminski & Alfred Nordmann (eds.) - 2016 - Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft Mbh & Co. Kg.
    Das Nichtwissen ist in aller Munde. Von Nichtwissenskulturen in der zweiten oder reflexiven Moderne ist die Rede, von Agnotologie als neuem Forschungszweig, von wicked problems und ihren clumsy solutions. Wo Nichtwissen sich durch Komplexitäts­steigerung unwiderruflich im zu Wissenden einnistet, fordert es als Grenze, Schranke und Kehrseite des Wissens die sogenannte Wissensgesellschaft heraus. Vor allem Risiko­poten­ziale und Gefahren kommen hier in den Blick, von denen wir gerade genug wissen, um Wissensansprüche zu formulieren, die sich womöglich nie einlösen lassen. Das klassisch erkenntnistheoretische (...)
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  4. The Collected Papers of Gerhard Gentzen.Gerhard Gentzen - 1969 - Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co..
  5.  18
    Bayesian Philosophy of Science: Variations on a Theme by the Reverend Thomas Bayes.Jan Sprenger & Stephan Hartmann - 2019 - Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Jan Sprenger and Stephan Hartmann offer a fresh approach to central topics in philosophy of science, including causation, explanation, evidence, and scientific models. Their Bayesian approach uses the concept of degrees of belief to explain and to elucidate manifold aspects of scientific reasoning.
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  6.  3
    Gestalttheorie von Sport, Klartraum und Bewusstsein. Ausgewählte Arbeiten, herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Gerhard Stemberger.Paul Tholey & Gerhard Stemberger (eds.) - 2018 - Vienna, Austria: Krammer Verlag.
  7. Hennemann, Gerhard, Das Verhältnis der Quantenmechanik zur klass. Physik. [REVIEW]Gerhard Stammler - 1948 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 3:306.
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  8. Gerhard Leibholz.Gerhard Leibholz - 2004 - In Gisela Riescher (ed.), Politische Theorie der Gegenwart in Einzeldarstellungen. Von Adorno Bis Young. Alfred Kröner Verlag. pp. 343--283.
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  9. Beiträge Zur Einheit von Bildung Und Sprache Im Geistigen Sein. Festschrift Zum 80. Geburtstag von Ernst Otto. Hrsg. Von Gerhard Haselbach Und Günter Hartmann. [REVIEW]Gerhard Haselbach, Ernst Otto & G. Jnter Hartmann - 1957 - W. De Gruyter.
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  10.  22
    Die Schriften von Gerhard Lehmann.Gerhard Lehmann - 1965 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 19 (2):348-356.
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  11.  25
    Morality and Determinism: Gerhard D. Wassermann.Gerhard D. Wassermann - 1988 - Philosophy 63 (244):211-230.
    This paper is intended as a contribution to a recent vigorous debate in The Times , between the distinguished journalist Bernard Levin, the eminent Oxford economist Wilfred Beckerman and the Archbishop of York, John Habgood, among others. The debate concerns morality, ‘free will’ and determinism. As a former German Jew, who lost close relatives at Auschwitz and who suffered personally severely in my youth under daily virulent Nazi persecution , I obviously cannot remain strictly detached and neutral. Yet, I shall (...)
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  12.  31
    Cognitive Success: A Consequentialist Account of Rationality in Cognition.Gerhard Schurz & Ralph Hertwig - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (1):7-36.
  13.  5
    Twelve Great Papers: Comments and Replies. Response to a Special Issue on Logical Perspectives on Science and Cognition—The Philosophy of Gerhard Schurz.Gerhard Schurz - 2020 - Synthese 197 (4):1661-1695.
    This is a response to the papers in the special issue Logical Perspectives on Science and Cognition—The Philosophy of Gerhard Schurz.
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  14. The Logic of Explanatory Power.Jonah N. Schupbach & Jan Sprenger - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (1):105-127.
    This article introduces and defends a probabilistic measure of the explanatory power that a particular explanans has over its explanandum. To this end, we propose several intuitive, formal conditions of adequacy for an account of explanatory power. Then, we show that these conditions are uniquely satisfied by one particular probabilistic function. We proceed to strengthen the case for this measure of explanatory power by proving several theorems, all of which show that this measure neatly corresponds to our explanatory intuitions. Finally, (...)
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  15.  17
    Nachruf auf Hariolf Oberer : von Gerhard Seel.Gerhard Seel - 2018 - Kant Studien 109 (1):1-8.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 109 Heft: 1 Seiten: 1-8.
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  16. Sprache Und Erkenntnis Festschrift F. Gerhard Frey Zum 60. Geburtstag.Gerhard Frey & Bernulf Kanitscheider - 1976
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  17.  53
    Ist die Moral objektiv? Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Thesen von Gerhard Ernst.Gerhard Ernst - 2010 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 64 (1):84-90.
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  18. Theodor W. Adorno: An Introduction.Gerhard Schweppenhäuser (ed.) - 2009 - Duke University Press.
    Theodor W. Adorno was one of the twentieth century’s most important thinkers. In light of two pivotal developments—the rise of fascism, which culminated in the Holocaust, and the standardization of popular culture as a commodity indispensable to contemporary capitalism—Adorno sought to evaluate and synthesize the essential insights of Western philosophy by revisiting the ethical and sociological arguments of his predecessors: Kant, Nietzsche, Hegel, and Marx. This book, first published in Germany in 1996, provides a succinct introduction to Adorno’s challenging and (...)
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  19.  49
    Words, Texts, and Concepts Cruising the Mediterranean Sea: Studies on the Sources, Contents and Influences of Islamic Civilization and Arabic Philosophy and Science: Dedicated to Gerhard Endress on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday.Gerhard Endress, Rüdiger Arnzen & J. Thielmann (eds.) - 2004 - Peeters.
    This statement by the late Franz Rosenthal is, in a sense, the uniting theme of the present volume's 35 articles by renowned scholars of Islamic Studies, Middle ...
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  20. The No Alternatives Argument.Richard Dawid, Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (1):213-234.
    Scientific theories are hard to find, and once scientists have found a theory, H, they often believe that there are not many distinct alternatives to H. But is this belief justified? What should scientists believe about the number of alternatives to H, and how should they change these beliefs in the light of new evidence? These are some of the questions that we will address in this article. We also ask under which conditions failure to find an alternative to H (...)
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  21. Der Mensch als Mit-Mensch. Aufsätze zur Gestalttheorie in Forschung, Anwendung und Dialog - herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Gerhard Stemberger.Giuseppe Galli & Gerhard Stemberger - 2017 - Wien, Österreich: Verlag Wolfgang Krammer.
    Giuseppe Gallis konsequentes Streben nach einer angemessenen Berücksichtigung beider Pole, des Subjektpols ebenso wie des Objektpols, sowohl in der Forschung als auch in allen Bereichen des menschlichen Lebens kommt im vorliegenden Sammelband in allen Arbeiten zum Tragen. Galli eröffnet damit auch neue Felder f8r die gestalttheoretische Forschungs- und Anwendungspraxis. Er erschließt Themen, die nicht zuletzt auch f8r die medizinischen, philosophischen, psychologischen und psychotherapeutischen Aufgabenstellungen zentral sind. Er plädiert nicht nur allgemein für einen dialogischen Ansatz in der zwischenmenschlichen Begegnung, er führt (...)
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  22. Outline of a Theory of Scientific Understanding.Gerhard Schurz & Karel Lambert - 1994 - Synthese 101 (1):65-120.
    The basic theory of scientific understanding presented in Sections 1–2 exploits three main ideas.First, that to understand a phenomenonP (for a given agent) is to be able to fitP into the cognitive background corpusC (of the agent).Second, that to fitP intoC is to connectP with parts ofC (via arguments in a very broad sense) such that the unification ofC increases.Third, that the cognitive changes involved in unification can be treated as sequences of shifts of phenomena inC. How the theory fits (...)
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  23.  31
    Scientific Self-Correction: The Bayesian Way.Felipe Romero & Jan Sprenger - 2020 - Synthese (Suppl 23):1-21.
    The enduring replication crisis in many scientific disciplines casts doubt on the ability of science to estimate effect sizes accurately, and in a wider sense, to self-correct its findings and to produce reliable knowledge. We investigate the merits of a particular countermeasure—replacing null hypothesis significance testing with Bayesian inference—in the context of the meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes. In particular, we elaborate on the advantages of this Bayesian reform proposal under conditions of publication bias and other methodological imperfections that are (...)
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  24. Bayesian Epistemology.Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger - 2010 - In Duncan Pritchard & Sven Bernecker (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Epistemology. London: Routledge. pp. 609-620.
    Bayesian epistemology addresses epistemological problems with the help of the mathematical theory of probability. It turns out that the probability calculus is especially suited to represent degrees of belief (credences) and to deal with questions of belief change, confirmation, evidence, justification, and coherence. Compared to the informal discussions in traditional epistemology, Bayesian epis- temology allows for a more precise and fine-grained analysis which takes the gradual aspects of these central epistemological notions into account. Bayesian epistemology therefore complements traditional epistemology; it (...)
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  25.  88
    Causality and Unification: How Causality Unifies Statistical Regularities.Gerhard Schurz - 2015 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (1):73-95.
    Two key ideas of scientific explanation−explanation as causal information and explanation as unification-have frequently been set into mutual opposition. This paper proposes a “dialectical solution” to this conflict, by arguing that causal explanations are preferable to non-causal ones, because they lead to a higherdegree of unification at the level of explaining statistical regularities. The core axioms of the theory of causal nets are justified because they offer the best if not the only unifying explanation of two statistical phenomena: screening off (...)
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  26.  7
    Scientific Self-Correction: The Bayesian Way.Felipe Romero & Jan Sprenger - 2020 - Synthese 198 (S23):5803-5823.
    The enduring replication crisis in many scientific disciplines casts doubt on the ability of science to estimate effect sizes accurately, and in a wider sense, to self-correct its findings and to produce reliable knowledge. We investigate the merits of a particular countermeasure—replacing null hypothesis significance testing with Bayesian inference—in the context of the meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes. In particular, we elaborate on the advantages of this Bayesian reform proposal under conditions of publication bias and other methodological imperfections that are (...)
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  27.  24
    Causality and Unification: How Causality Unifies Statistical Regularities.Gerhard Schurz - 2015 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 30 (1):73.
    Two key ideas of scientific explanation - explanations as causal information and explanation as unification - have frequently been set into mutual opposition. This paper proposes a "dialectical solution" to this conflict, by arguing that causal explanations are preferable to non-causal explanations because they lead to a higher degree of unification at the level of the explanation of statistical regularities. The core axioms of the theory of causal nets are justified because they give the best if not the only unifying (...)
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  28. Conditional Degree of Belief and Bayesian Inference.Jan Sprenger - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (2):319-335.
    Why are conditional degrees of belief in an observation E, given a statistical hypothesis H, aligned with the objective probabilities expressed by H? After showing that standard replies are not satisfactory, I develop a suppositional analysis of conditional degree of belief, transferring Ramsey’s classical proposal to statistical inference. The analysis saves the alignment, explains the role of chance-credence coordination, and rebuts the charge of arbitrary assessment of evidence in Bayesian inference. Finally, I explore the implications of this analysis for Bayesian (...)
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  29.  10
    Social Ontology and Collective Intentionality: Critical Essays on the Philosophy of Raimo Tuomela with His Responses.Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This volume features a critical evaluation of the recent work of the philosopher, Prof. Raimo Tuomela and it also offers it offers new approaches to the collectivism-versus-individualism debate. It specifically looks at Tuomela's book Social Ontology and its accounts of collective intentionality and related topics. The book contains eight essays written by expert contributors that present different perspectives on Tuomela’s investigation into the philosophy of sociality, social ontology, theory of action, and decision and game theory. In addition, Tuomela himself gives (...)
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  30. Resolving Disagreement Through Mutual Respect.Carlo Martini, Jan Sprenger & Mark Colyvan - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (4):881-898.
    This paper explores the scope and limits of rational consensus through mutual respect, with the primary focus on the best known formal model of consensus: the Lehrer–Wagner model. We consider various arguments against the rationality of the Lehrer–Wagner model as a model of consensus about factual matters. We conclude that models such as this face problems in achieving rational consensus on disagreements about unknown factual matters, but that they hold considerable promise as models of how to rationally resolve non-factual disagreements.
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  31. Judgment Aggregation and the Problem of Tracking the Truth.Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger - 2012 - Synthese 187 (1):209-221.
    The aggregation of consistent individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective judgment on those propositions has recently drawn much attention. Seemingly reasonable aggregation procedures, such as propositionwise majority voting, cannot ensure an equally consistent collective conclusion. The literature on judgment aggregation refers to that problem as the discursive dilemma. In this paper, we motivate that many groups do not only want to reach a factually right conclusion, but also want to correctly evaluate the reasons for that conclusion. In (...)
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  32. Politik der Integration: Symbole, Repräsentation, Institution: Festschrift für Gerhard Göhler Zum 65. Geburtstag.Hubertus Buchstein, Rainer Schmalz-Bruns & Gerhard Göhler (eds.) - 2006 - Nomos.
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  33.  13
    From Conventionalism to Social Authenticity: Heidegger’s Anyone and Contemporary Social Theory.Gerhard Thonhauser & Hans Schmid (eds.) - 2017 - Springer Verlag.
    This edited volume offers a new approach to understanding social conventions by way of Martin Heidegger. It connects the philosopher's conceptions of the anyone, everydayness, and authenticity with an analysis and critique of social normativity. Heidegger’s account of the anyone is ambiguous. Some see it as a good description of human sociality, others think of it as an important critique of modern mass society. This volume seeks to understand this ambiguity as reflecting the tension between the constitutive function of conventions (...)
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  34. The Objectivity of Subjective Bayesianism.Jan Sprenger - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (3):539-558.
    Subjective Bayesianism is a major school of uncertain reasoning and statistical inference. It is often criticized for a lack of objectivity: it opens the door to the influence of values and biases, evidence judgments can vary substantially between scientists, it is not suited for informing policy decisions. My paper rebuts these concerns by connecting the debates on scientific objectivity and statistical method. First, I show that the above concerns arise equally for standard frequentist inference with null hypothesis significance tests. Second, (...)
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  35.  2
    Ein Rätselhaftes Zeichen: Zum Verhältnis von Martin Heidegger Und Søren Kierkegaard.Gerhard Thonhauser (ed.) - 2016 - De Gruyter.
    die vorliegende Arbeit bietet die erste historisch-philologisch fundierte und philosophisch-systematisch orientierte Gesamtdarstellung von Martin Heideggers Rezeption von Søren Kierkegaard. Sie kontextualisiert diese innerhalb der Tendenzen der deutschsprachigen Rezeptions- und Übersetzungsgeschichte Kierkegaards von ihren Anfängen bis ins erste Drittel des 20. Jahrhunderts und bringt dadurch die Besonderheiten von Heideggers Kierkegaard-Rezeption zur Abhebung. Unter Einbeziehung sämtlicher mittlerweile zur Verfügung stehenden Quellen wird Heideggers Verhältnis zu Kierkegaard in den Wandlungen seines Denkwegs verfolgt. Es zeigt sich dabei, dass Heideggers Verhältnis zu Kierkegaard kein einheitliches (...)
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  36. Contextualism in Philosophy: Knowledge, Meaning, and Truth.Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.) - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    In epistemology and in philosophy of language there is fierce debate about the role of context in knowledge, understanding, and meaning. Many contemporary epistemologists take seriously the thesis that epistemic vocabulary is context-sensitive. This thesis is of course a semantic claim, so it has brought epistemologists into contact with work on context in semantics by philosophers of language. This volume brings together the debates, in a set of twelve specially written essays representing the latest work by leading figures in the (...)
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  37.  91
    Foundations of a Probabilistic Theory of Causal Strength.Jan Sprenger - 2018 - Philosophical Review 127 (3):371-398.
    This paper develops axiomatic foundations for a probabilistic-interventionist theory of causal strength. Transferring methods from Bayesian confirmation theory, I proceed in three steps: I develop a framework for defining and comparing measures of causal strength; I argue that no single measure can satisfy all natural constraints; I prove two representation theorems for popular measures of causal strength: Pearl's causal effect measure and Eells' difference measure. In other words, I demonstrate these two measures can be derived from a set of plausible (...)
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  38. Causal Modeling Semantics for Counterfactuals with Disjunctive Antecedents.Giuliano Rosella & Jan Sprenger - manuscript
    This paper applies Causal Modeling Semantics (CMS, e.g., Galles and Pearl 1998; Pearl 2000; Halpern 2000) to the evaluation of the probability of counterfactuals with disjunctive antecedents. Standard CMS is limited to evaluating (the probability of) counterfactuals whose antecedent is a conjunction of atomic formulas. We extend this framework to disjunctive antecedents, and more generally, to any Boolean combinations of atomic formulas. Our main idea is to assign a probability to a counterfactual ( A ∨ B ) > C at (...)
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  39.  80
    A Novel Solution to the Problem of Old Evidence.Jan Sprenger - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):383-401.
    One of the most troubling and persistent challenges for Bayesian Confirmation Theory is the Problem of Old Evidence. The problem arises for anyone who models scientific reasoning by means of Bayesian Conditionalization. This article addresses the problem as follows: First, I clarify the nature and varieties of the POE and analyze various solution proposals in the literature. Second, I present a novel solution that combines previous attempts while making weaker and more plausible assumptions. Third and last, I summarize my findings (...)
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  40.  4
    Wahrscheinlichkeit.Gerhard Schurz - 2015 - De Gruyter.
    While the experimental sciences address statistical probability, philosophy looks at probability in a subjective sense as gradations of rational belief. Schurz develops a dualistic approach to combine these two notions. Drawing on Kant, he asserts that a subjective probability theory without statistical probability is blind, but statistical probability without subjective probability theory is empty.
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  41. Three Arguments for Absolute Outcome Measures.Jan Sprenger & Jacob Stegenga - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):840-852.
    Data from medical research are typically summarized with various types of outcome measures. We present three arguments in favor of absolute over relative outcome measures. The first argument is from cognitive bias: relative measures promote the reference class fallacy and the overestimation of treatment effectiveness. The second argument is decision-theoretic: absolute measures are superior to relative measures for making a decision between interventions. The third argument is causal: interpreted as measures of causal strength, absolute measures satisfy a set of desirable (...)
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  42.  26
    Consequences Of Kainic Acid-Induced Piriform Cortex Lesions And Therapeutic Potential Of Piriform Cortex Deep Brain Stimulation In The Intrahippocampal Kainic Acid Model.Sprengers Mathieu, Raedt Robrecht, Siugzdaite Roma, Van Nieuwenhuyse Bregt, Descamps Benedicte, Dauwe Ine, Delbeke Jean, Wadman Wytse, Boon Paul & Vonck Kristl - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  43.  99
    The Probabilistic No Miracles Argument.Jan Sprenger - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (2):173-189.
    This paper develops a probabilistic reconstruction of the No Miracles Argument in the debate between scientific realists and anti-realists. The goal of the paper is to clarify and to sharpen the NMA by means of a probabilistic formalization. In particular, we demonstrate that the persuasive force of the NMA depends on the particular disciplinary context where it is applied, and the stability of theories in that discipline. Assessments and critiques of "the" NMA, without reference to a particular context, are misleading (...)
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  44.  31
    Introduction: Objectivity in Science.Jan Sprenger, Raoul Gervais & Matteo Colombo - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4641-4642.
  45.  27
    De Finettian Logics of Indicative Conditionals Part I: Trivalent Semantics and Validity.Paul Égré, Lorenzo Rossi & Jan Sprenger - 2021 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 50 (2):187-213.
    This paper explores trivalent truth conditions for indicative conditionals, examining the “defective” truth table proposed by de Finetti and Reichenbach. On their approach, a conditional takes the value of its consequent whenever its antecedent is true, and the value Indeterminate otherwise. Here we deal with the problem of selecting an adequate notion of validity for this conditional. We show that all standard validity schemes based on de Finetti’s table come with some problems, and highlight two ways out of the predicament: (...)
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  46. Statistical Significance Testing in Economics.William Peden & Jan Sprenger - 2021 - In Conrad Heilmann & Julian Reiss (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Economics.
    The origins of testing scientific models with statistical techniques go back to 18th century mathematics. However, the modern theory of statistical testing was primarily developed through the work of Sir R.A. Fisher, Jerzy Neyman, and Egon Pearson in the inter-war period. Some of Fisher's papers on testing were published in economics journals (Fisher, 1923, 1935) and exerted a notable influence on the discipline. The development of econometrics and the rise of quantitative economic models in the mid-20th century made statistical significance (...)
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  47.  76
    Evidence and Experimental Design in Sequential Trials.Jan Sprenger - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):637-649.
    To what extent does the design of statistical experiments, in particular sequential trials, affect their interpretation? Should postexperimental decisions depend on the observed data alone, or should they account for the used stopping rule? Bayesians and frequentists are apparently deadlocked in their controversy over these questions. To resolve the deadlock, I suggest a three‐part strategy that combines conceptual, methodological, and decision‐theoretic arguments. This approach maintains the pre‐experimental relevance of experimental design and stopping rules but vindicates their evidential, postexperimental irrelevance. †To (...)
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  48. Hypothetico-Deductive Confirmation.Jan Sprenger - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (7):497-508.
    Hypothetico-deductive (H-D) confirmation builds on the idea that confirming evidence consists of successful predictions that deductively follow from the hypothesis under test. This article reviews scope, history and recent development of the venerable H-D account: First, we motivate the approach and clarify its relationship to Bayesian confirmation theory. Second, we explain and discuss the tacking paradoxes which exploit the fact that H-D confirmation gives no account of evidential relevance. Third, we review several recent proposals that aim at a sounder and (...)
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  49.  69
    Two Impossibility Results for Measures of Corroboration.Jan Sprenger - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (1):139--159.
    According to influential accounts of scientific method, such as critical rationalism, scientific knowledge grows by repeatedly testing our best hypotheses. But despite the popularity of hypothesis tests in statistical inference and science in general, their philosophical foundations remain shaky. In particular, the interpretation of non-significant results—those that do not reject the tested hypothesis—poses a major philosophical challenge. To what extent do they corroborate the tested hypothesis, or provide a reason to accept it? Popper sought for measures of corroboration that could (...)
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  50.  18
    Microdecisions and Autonomy in Self-Driving Cars: Virtual Probabilities.Florian Sprenger - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (2):619-634.
    To operate in an unpredictable environment, a vehicle with advanced driving assistance systems, such as a robot or a drone, not only needs to register its surroundings but also to combine data from different sensors into a world model, for which it employs filter algorithms. Such world models, as this article argues with reference to the SLAM problem in robotics, consist of nothing other than probabilities about states and events arising in the environment. The model, thus, contains a virtuality of (...)
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