Results for 'Jason Low'

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  1.  53
    On the Long Road to Mentalism in Children’s Spontaneous False-Belief Understanding: Are We There Yet?Jason Low & Bo Wang - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):411-428.
    We review recent anticipatory looking and violation-of-expectancy studies suggesting that infants and young preschoolers have spontaneous (implicit) understanding of mind despite their known problems until later in life on elicited (explicit) tests of false-belief reasoning. Straightforwardly differentiating spontaneous and elicited expressions of complex mental state understanding in relation to an implicit-explicit knowledge framework may be challenging; early action predictions may be based on behavior rules that are complementary to the mentalistic attributions under consideration. We discuss that the way forward for (...)
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  2.  5
    Visibly Constraining an Agent Modulates Observers' Automatic False-Belief Tracking.Jason Low, Katheryn Edwards & Stephen A. Butterfill - forthcoming - Scientific Reports.
    Our motor system can generate representations which carry information about the goals of another agent's actions. However, it is not known whether motor representations play a deeper role in social understanding, and, in particular, whether they enable tracking others' beliefs. Here we show that, for adult observers, reliably manifesting an ability to track another's false belief critically depends on representing the agent's potential actions motorically. One signature of motor representations is that they can be disrupted by constraints on an observed (...)
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  3.  13
    Level 2 Perspective-Taking Distinguishes Automatic and Non-Automatic Belief-Tracking.Katheryn Edwards & Jason Low - 2019 - Cognition 193:104017.
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  4.  14
    Geographic Variation in Diagnostic Ability and Quality of Care Metrics: A Case Study of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Low Back Pain.Jason Shafrin, Jenny Griffith, Jin Joo Shim, Caroline Huber, Arijit Ganguli & Wade Aubry - 2017 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 54:004695801770787.
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  5.  3
    Social Emotional Learning Program Boosts Early Social and Behavioral Skills in Low-Income Urban Children.Brian Calhoun, Jason Williams, Mark Greenberg, Celene Domitrovich, Michael A. Russell & Diana H. Fishbein - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  6.  20
    Single Session Low Frequency Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Changes Neurometabolite Relationships in Healthy Humans.Nathaniel R. Bridges, Richard A. McKinley, Danielle Boeke, Matthew S. Sherwood, Jason G. Parker, Lindsey K. McIntire, Justin M. Nelson, Catherine Fletchall, Natasha Alexander, Amanda McConnell, Chuck Goodyear & Jeremy T. Nelson - 2018 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 12.
  7.  9
    Mindreading in the Balance : Adults' Mediolateral Leaning and Anticipatory Looking Foretell Others' Action Preparation in a False-Belief Interactive Task.Giovanni Zani, Stephen A. Butterfill & Jason Low - 2020 - Royal Society Open Science 7.
    Anticipatory looking on mindreading tasks can indicate our expectation of an agent's action. The challenge is that social situations are often more complex, involving instances where we need to track an agent's false belief to successfully identify the outcome to which an action is directed. If motor processes can guide how action goals are understood, it is conceivable— where that kind of goal ascription occurs in false-belief tasks— for motor representations to account for someone's belief-like state. Testing adults in a (...)
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  8.  30
    Compulsory Voting: For and Against.Jason Brennan & Lisa Hill - 2014 - Cambridge University Press.
    In many democracies, voter turnout is low and getting lower. If the people choose not to govern themselves, should they be forced to do so? For Jason Brennan, compulsory voting is unjust and a petty violation of citizens' liberty. The median non-voter is less informed and rational, as well as more biased, than the median voter. According to Lisa Hill, compulsory voting is a reasonable imposition on personal liberty. Hill points to the discernible benefits of compulsory voting and argues (...)
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  9. Polluting the Polls: When Citizens Should Not Vote.Jason Brennan - 2009 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (4):535-549.
    Just because one has the right to vote does not mean just any vote is right. Citizens should not vote badly. This duty to avoid voting badly is grounded in a general duty not to engage in collectively harmful activities when the personal cost of restraint is low. Good governance is a public good. Bad governance is a public bad. We should not be contributing to public bads when the benefit to ourselves is low. Many democratic theorists agree that we (...)
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  10. Reducing the Risk of Human Extinction.Jason G. Matheny - unknown
    In this century a number of events could extinguish humanity. The probability of these events may be very low, but the expected value of preventing them could be high, as it represents the value of all future human lives. We review the challenges to studying human extinction risks and, by way of example, estimate the cost effectiveness of preventing extinction-level asteroid impacts.
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  11. Emerging Executive Functioning and Motor Development in Infants at High and Low Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.Tanya St John, Annette M. Estes, Stephen R. Dager, Penelope Kostopoulos, Jason J. Wolff, Juhi Pandey, Jed T. Elison, Sarah J. Paterson, Robert T. Schultz, Kelly Botteron, Heather Hazlett & Joseph Piven - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  12.  44
    Estimating the Cost of Justice for Adjuncts: A Case Study in University Business Ethics.Jason Brennan & Phillip Magness - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 148 (1):155-168.
    American universities rely upon a large workforce of adjunct faculty—contract workers who receive low pay, no benefits, and no job security. Many news sources, magazines, and activists claim that adjuncts are exploited and should receive better pay and treatment. This paper never affirms nor denies that adjuncts are exploited. Instead, we show that any attempt to provide a significantly better deal faces unpleasant constraints and trade-offs. “Adjunct justice” would cost universities somewhere between an additional $15–50 billion per year. At most, (...)
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  13.  1
    Estimating Population Average Treatment Effects From Experiments with Noncompliance.Jason V. Poulos & Kellie N. Ottoboni - 2020 - Journal of Causal Inference 8 (1):108-130.
    Randomized control trials are the gold standard for estimating causal effects, but often use samples that are non-representative of the actual population of interest. We propose a reweighting method for estimating population average treatment effects in settings with noncompliance. Simulations show the proposed compliance-adjusted population estimator outperforms its unadjusted counterpart when compliance is relatively low and can be predicted by observed covariates. We apply the method to evaluate the effect of Medicaid coverage on health care use for a target population (...)
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  14.  26
    Emotional Processing and Heart Rate in Incarcerated Male Adolescents with Callous Unemotional Traits: The Role of Anxiety.Bruggemann Jason, Goulter Natalie, Hall Jason, Lenroot Rhoshel & Kimonis Eva - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    Callous unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., a lack of empathy/remorse and poverty of emotion) that co-occur with childhood antisocial behaviour are believed to be the developmental precursor to psychopathy in adulthood. An increasing volume of evidence supports two distinct variants of CU traits/psychopathy, known as primary and secondary. Primary variants are thought to show core deficits in emotional reactivity (e.g., attenuated autonomic activity), whereas secondary variants present with high levels of anxiety and this may be reflected in increased emotional sensitivity to (...)
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  15.  30
    Equitable Local Climate Action Planning: Sustainable & Affordable Housing.Andrew Pattison & Jason Kawall - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (1):17-20.
    Despite projected devastating impacts on human communities, the US still lacks comprehensive national policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This vacuum has provided the space for a surge of promising sustainability and climate action planning efforts at the state and local level. Meanwhile, according to the National Low Income Housing Coalition’s (2015) Out of Reach Report, ‘there is no state in the US where a minimum wage worker working full time can afford a one-bedroom apartment at the fair market (...)
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  16.  13
    What Underlies the Great Gatsby Curve? Psychological Micro-Foundations of the “Vicious Circle” of Poverty.Arthur Sakamoto, Jason Rarick, Hyeyoung Woo & Sharron X. Wang - 2014 - Mind and Society 13 (2):195-211.
    Societies with a higher level of income inequality tend to have lower levels of intergenerational income mobility. Known as the Great Gatsby Curve, this negative relationship in part derives from greater intergenerational economic heritance among the poor. Societies with higher rates of relative poverty will have a higher level of income inequality, but they will also tend to have lower intergenerational mobility due to the reduced capacity of low-income persons to become upwardly mobile. Reviewing relevant research in psychology, we describe (...)
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  17.  8
    Socioeconomic Status and Adverse Birth Outcomes: A Population-Based Canadian Sample.Emily E. Campbell, Jason Gilliland, Paula D. N. Dworatzek, Barbra De Vrijer, Debbie Penava & Jamie A. Seabrook - 2018 - Journal of Biosocial Science 50 (1):102-113.
    SummaryThis study assessed the strength of the association between socioeconomic status and low birth weight and preterm birth in Southwestern Ontario. Utilizing perinatal and neonatal databases at the London Health Science Centre, maternal postal codes were entered into a Geographic Information System to determine home neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods were defined by dissemination areas. Median household income for each DA was extracted from the latest Canadian Census and linked to each mother. All singleton infants born between February 2009 and February 2014 were (...)
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  18.  43
    The Effects of Religiosity on Ethical Judgments.Alan G. Walker, James W. Smither & Jason DeBode - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 106 (4):437-452.
    The relationship between religiosity and ethical behavior at work has remained elusive. In fact, inconsistent results in observed magnitudes and direction led Hood et al. (The psychology of religion: An empirical approach, 1996 ) to describe the relationship between religiosity and ethics as “something of a roller coaster ride.” Weaver and Agle (Acad Manage Rev 27(1):77–97, 2002 ) utilizing social structural versions of symbolic interactionism theory reasoned that we should not expect religion to affect ethical outcomes for all religious individuals; (...)
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  19.  1
    Formulating the Request for Survey Participation in Relation to the Interactional Environment.Douglas W. Maynard & Jason A. Nolen - 2013 - Discourse Studies 15 (2):205-227.
    In this article, we analyze the practices of requesting participation in telephone survey interviews. Recent conversation analytic work on requests has focused on the interactional functions of request formats and their relationship to abstractly defined institutional and ordinary contexts. We add to this line of inquiry by demonstrating that the design features of the requests in our collection are largely shaped by and responsive to specific details of the sequences of talk in which they are embedded. We identify two types (...)
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  20.  34
    Defining the Scope of Implied Consent in the Emergency Department.Raul B. Easton, Mark A. Graber, Jay Monnahan & Jason Hughes - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (12):35 – 38.
    Purpose: To determine the relative value that patients place on consent for procedures in the emergency department (ED) and to define a set of procedures that fall in the realm of implied consent. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample 134 of 174 patients who were seen in the ED of a Midwestern teaching hospital. The questionnaire asked how much time they believed was necessary to give consent for various procedures. Procedures ranged from simple (venipuncture) to complex (procedural (...)
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  21.  42
    Emotion in Imaginative Resistance.Dylan Campbell, William Kidder, Jason D’Cruz & Brendan Gaesser - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (7):895-937.
    Imaginative resistance refers to cases in which one’s otherwise flexible imaginative capacity is constrained by an unwillingness or inability to imaginatively engage with a given claim. In three studies, we explored which specific imaginative demands engender resistance when imagining morally deviant worlds and whether individual differences in emotion predict the degree of this resistance. In Study 1 (N = 176), participants resisted the notion that harmful actions could be morally acceptable in the world of a narrative regardless of the author’s (...)
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  22.  9
    The Impact of Contextual Priors and Anxiety on Performance Effectiveness and Processing Efficiency in Anticipation.David P. Broadbent, N. Viktor Gredin, Jason L. Rye, A. Mark Williams & Daniel T. Bishop - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 33 (3):589-596.
    ABSTRACTIt is proposed that experts are able to integrate prior contextual knowledge with emergent visual information to make complex predictive judgments about the world around them, often under heightened levels of uncertainty and extreme time constraints. However, limited knowledge exists about the impact of anxiety on the use of such contextual priors when forming our decisions. We provide a novel insight into the combined impact of contextual priors and anxiety on anticipation in soccer. Altogether, 12 expert soccer players were required (...)
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  23. Affective Startle Potentiation Differentiates Primary and Secondary Variants of Juvenile Psychopathy.Goulter Natalie, Kimonis Eva, Fanti Kostas & Hall Jason - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
    Background: Individuals with psychopathic traits demonstrate an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits, the emotional detachment dimension of psychopathy. We hypothesize that primary variants of psychopathy will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals marked with histories of childhood trauma/maltreatment exposure, known as secondary variants, will display heightened emotional reactivity. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined fear-potentiated startle between psychopathy (...)
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  24. Attempts to Prime Intellectual Virtues for Understanding of Science: Failures to Inspire Intellectual Effort.Joanna Huxster, Melissa Hopkins, Julia Bresticker, Jason Leddington & Matthew Slater - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (8):1141-1158.
    Strategies for effectively communicating scientific findings to the public are an important and growing area of study. Recognizing that some complex subjects require recipients of information to take a more active role in constructing an understanding, we sought to determine whether it was possible to increase subjects’ intellectual effort via “priming” methodologies. In particular, we asked whether subconsciously priming “intellectual virtues”, such as curiosity, perseverance, patience, and diligence might improve participants’ effort and performance on various cognitive tasks. In the first (...)
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  25. People Do Not Have a Duty to Avoid Voting Badly: Reply to Brennan.Marcus Arvan - 2010 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (1):1-6.
    Jason Brennan argues that people are morally obligated not to vote badly, where voting badly is voting “without sufficient reason” for harmful or unjust policies or candidates. His argument is: (1) One has an obligation not to engage in collectively harmful activities when refraining from such activities does not impose significant personal costs. (2) Voting badly is to engage in a collectively harmful activity, while abstaining imposes low personal costs. (3) Therefore, one should not vote badly. This paper shows (...)
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  26.  40
    Real Selves: Persons as a Substantial Kind: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 1991 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 29:87-107.
    Are persons substances or modes? Two currently dominant views may be characterized as giving the following rival answers to this question. According to the first view, persons are just biological substances. According to the second, persons are psychological modes of substances which, as far as human beings are concerned, happen to be biological substances, but which could in principle be non-biological. There is, however, also a third possible answer, and this is that persons are psychological substances. Such a view is (...)
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  27.  80
    Stanley and the Stakes Hypothesis.Michael J. Shaffer - 2017 - The Reasoner 11:73-74.
    The main examples of pragmatic encroachment presented by Jason Stanley involve the idea that knowledge ascription occurs more readily in cases where stakes are low rather than high. This is the stakes hypothesis. In this paper an example is presented showing that in some cases knowledge ascription is more readily appropriate where stakes are high rather than low.
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  28.  39
    Jason MC Price.Jason Mc Price - forthcoming - Journal of Thought.
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  29. Jason Frank, "Momentos constituyentes: paradojas y poder popular en los Estados Unidos de América posrevolucionarios" - Traducción de Facundo Bey.Facundo Bey & Jason Frank - 2012 - Revista Argentina de Ciencia Política EUDEBA 15:49-74.
    Los teóricos de la democracia dejaron de lado la pregunta de quién legalmente forma parte del "pueblo" autorizado, pregunta que atraviesa a todas las teoría de la democracia y continuamente vivifica la práctica democrática. Determinar quién constituye el pueblo es un dilema inabordable e incluso imposible de responder democráticamente; no es una pregunta que el pueblo mismo pueda decidir procedimentalmente porque la propia premisa subvierte las premisas de su resolución. Esta paradoja del mandato popular revela que el pueblo para ser (...)
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  30.  4
    Habermas. Editor, Jason L. Powell.Jason L. Powell (ed.) - 2012 - Nova Science Publishers.
    Biography of Habermas -- Critical theory -- Habermas and his works -- An assessment of the impact of Habermas -- Conclusion.
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  31. Knowledge and Practical Interests.Jason Stanley - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    Jason Stanley presents a startling and provocative claim about knowledge: that whether or not someone knows a proposition at a given time is in part determined by his or her practical interests, i.e. by how much is at stake for that person at that time. In defending this thesis, Stanley introduces readers to a number of strategies for resolving philosophical paradox, making the book essential not just for specialists in epistemology but for all philosophers interested in philosophical methodology. Since (...)
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  32. Low Epic I.Low Epic - 2013 - Critical Inquiry 39 (3).
     
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  33.  99
    Two Notions of Being: Entity and Essence: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 2008 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 62:23-48.
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  34.  6
    Nanotechnology: Risks, Ethics and Law. Edited by Geoffrey Hunt and Michael Mehta. London: Earthscan, 2006. 296 Pp.: Reviewed by Jason Grossman, Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics, Australian National University. [REVIEW]Jason Grossman - 2008 - NanoEthics 2 (1):99-100.
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  35.  39
    Knowledge and Practical Interests.Jason Stanley - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):180-187.
    Jason Stanley's "Knowledge and Practical Interests" is a brilliant book, combining insights about knowledge with a careful examination of how recent views in epistemology fit with the best of recent linguistic semantics. Although I am largely convinced by Stanley's objections to epistemic contextualism, I will try in what follows to formulate a version that might have some prospect of escaping his powerful critique.
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  36. The Inquiring Mind: On Intellectual Virtues and Virtue Epistemology.Jason Baehr - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    This book is the first systematic treatment of 'responsibilist' or character-based virtue epistemology, an approach to epistemology that focuses on intellectual ...
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  37. ""Comment on Lowe's" Mechanistic Approach"[with Rejoinder].James Parsons & Adolph Lowe - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
     
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  38.  18
    The Facts in Logical Space: A Tractarian Ontology.Jason Turner - 2016 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press UK.
    Philosophers have long been tempted by the idea that objects and properties are abstractions from the facts. But how is this abstraction supposed to go? If the objects and properties aren't 'already' there, how do the facts give rise to them? Jason Turner develops and defends a novel answer to this question: The facts are arranged in a quasi-geometric 'logical space', and objects and properties arise from different quasi-geometric structures in this space.
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  39. Is Incompatibilism Intuitive?Jason Turner, Eddy Nahmias, Stephen Morris & Thomas Nadelhoffer - 2006 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (1):28-53.
    Incompatibilists believe free will is impossible if determinism is true, and they often claim that this view is supported by ordinary intuitions. We challenge the claim that incompatibilism is intuitive to most laypersons and discuss the significance of this challenge to the free will debate. After explaining why incompatibilists should want their view to accord with pre theoretical intuitions. we suggest that determining whether incompatibilism is infact intuitive calls for empirical testing. We then present the results of our studies, which (...)
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  40.  38
    Personal Agency: E. J. Lowe.E. J. Lowe - 2003 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 53:211-227.
    Why does the problem of free will seem so intractable? I surmise that in large measure it does so because the free will debate, at least in its modern form, is conducted in terms of a mistaken approach to causality in general. At the heart of this approach is the assumption that all causation is fundamentally event causation. Of course, it is well-known that some philosophers of action want to invoke in addition an irreducible notion of agent causation, applicable only (...)
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  41.  19
    How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them.Jason Stanley - 2018 - New York USA: Random House.
    "As the child of refugees of World War II Europe and a renowned philosopher and scholar of propaganda, Jason Stanley has a deep understanding of how democratic societies can be vulnerable to fascism: Nations don't have to be fascist to suffer from fascist politics. In fact, fascism's roots have been present in the United States for more than a century. Alarmed by the pervasive rise of fascist tactics both at home and around the globe, Stanley focuses here on the (...)
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  42. Ontological Pluralism.Jason Turner - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy 107 (1):5-34.
    Ontological Pluralism is the view that there are different modes, ways, or kinds of being. In this paper, I characterize the view more fully (drawing on some recent work by Kris McDaniel) and then defend the view against a number of arguments. (All of the arguments I can think of against it, anyway.).
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  43.  11
    Embryology, Epigenesis and Evolution: Taking Development Seriously.Jason Scott Robert - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Historically, philosophers of biology have tended to sidestep the problem of development by focusing primarily on evolutionary biology and, more recently, on molecular biology and genetics. Quite often too, development has been misunderstood as simply, or even primarily, a matter of gene activation and regulation. Nowadays a growing number of philosophers of science are focusing their analyses on the complexities of development, and in Embryology, Epigenesis and Evolution Jason Scott Robert explores the nature of development against current trends in (...)
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  44. Comment on Lowe's" Structural Model"[with Rejoinder].Gerhard Colm & Adolph Lowe - forthcoming - Social Research: An International Quarterly.
     
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  45. Addenda to the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire – Seven Agentes in Rebus.Jason Fossella - 2012 - História 61 (2):254-255.
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  46.  3
    Embryology, Epigenesis and Evolution: Taking Development Seriously.Jason Scott Robert - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Historically, philosophers of biology have tended to sidestep the problem of development by focusing primarily on evolutionary biology and, more recently, on molecular biology and genetics. Quite often too, development has been misunderstood as simply, or even primarily, a matter of gene activation and regulation. Nowadays a growing number of philosophers of science are focusing their analyses on the complexities of development, and in Embryology, Epigenesis and Evolution Jason Scott Robert explores the nature of development against current trends in (...)
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  47.  23
    Miracles and Laws of Nature: E. J. LOWE.E. J. Lowe - 1987 - Religious Studies 23 (2):263-278.
    Hume's famous discussion of miracles in the Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is curious both on account of the arguments he does deploy and on account of the arguments he does not deploy, but might have been expected to. The first and second parts of this paper will be devoted to examining, respectively, these two objects of curiosity. The second part I regard as the more important, because I shall there try to show that the fact that Hume does not deploy (...)
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  48. Epistemic Landscapes, Optimal Search, and the Division of Cognitive Labor.Jason McKenzie Alexander, Johannes Himmelreich & Christopher Thompson - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):424-453,.
    This article examines two questions about scientists’ search for knowledge. First, which search strategies generate discoveries effectively? Second, is it advantageous to diversify search strategies? We argue pace Weisberg and Muldoon, “Epistemic Landscapes and the Division of Cognitive Labor”, that, on the first question, a search strategy that deliberately seeks novel research approaches need not be optimal. On the second question, we argue they have not shown epistemic reasons exist for the division of cognitive labor, identifying the errors that led (...)
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  49. Comparative Probabilities.Jason Konek - 2019 - In Richard Pettigrew & Jonathan Weisberg (eds.), The Open Handbook of Formal Epistemology. PhilPapers Foundation. pp. 267-348.
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  50.  16
    Aristotle and John Buridan on the Individuation of Causal Powers.Can Laurens Löwe - 2018 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 6 (1).
    This paper examines Aristotle’s account of the individuation of causal powers, which dominated much of scholastic thought about powers, and argues that John Buridan rejected it. It contends that Buridan criticizes Aristotle’s account on two counts. First, he attacks Aristotle’s view that we ought to individuate powers by appeal to their respective activities. Second, Buridan objects to Aristotle’s “single-track” account, which correlates one type of power with only one type of activity. Against this, it is argued, Buridan adopts a multi-track (...)
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